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Delimiting the Aravalli mountain range in the east, the Great Boundary Fault (GBF) occurs as a crustal-scale tectonic lineament in the NW Indian Shield. The structural and tectonic characteristics of the GBF are, as yet, not well-understood. We attempt to fill this gap by using a combination of satellite image processing, high-resolution outcrop mapping and structural analysis around Chittaurgarh. The study area exposes the core and damage zone of the GBF. Three successive phases of folding, F1, F2 and F3, are associated with deformation in the GBF. The large-scale structural characteristics of the GBF core are: (i) a non-coaxial refolding of F1 folds by F2 folds; and (ii) the parallelism between the GBF and F2 axial traces. In addition, numerous metre-scale ductile shear zones cut through the rocks in the GBF core. The damage zone is characterized by the large-scale F1 folds and the mesoscopic-scale strike-slip faults, thrusts and brittle-ductile shear zones. Several lines of evidence, such as the inconsistent overprinting relationship between the strike-slip faults and thrusts, the occurrence of en échelon folds and the palaeostress directions suggest that the GBF is a dextral transpression fault zone. Structural geometry and kinematic indicators imply a wrench- and contraction-dominated deformation in the core and damage zone, respectively. We infer that the GBF is a strain-partitioned dextral transpression zone.
Solidifying ternary systems can exhibit complex natural convection phenomena, particularly due to the presence of two porous zones (cotectic and primary mush), and the rejection of two differently dense solutes. The primary objectives of this study are to investigate the following: (i) the natural convection patterns in various compositional regimes of a typical ternary system, and (ii) the role of the combined existence of the microstructure (facets and dendrites) in the porous zone on natural convection, with a motivation to enhance the current understanding of the microstructure–convection relationships. A ternary mixture is chosen such that different compositions of the three primary solidifying components lead to the formation of distinct ice, dendritic and faceted solid structures that cover the complete span of microstructure–convection relationships. The observations of flow in different compositional regimes show convection occurring in the form of plumes, random mixing and double-diffusive layering, as well as combinations of these, which are governed by the type of coexisting microstructures. The study reveals the occurrence of Rayleigh–Taylor instability with varying amounts of the heavier component. The bulk liquid composition showed a tendency to cross the cotectic line, and thus also change the nature of primary solidifying structure from faceted to dendritic in cases where facets and dendrites were present in cotectic mush, and facets in primary mush. These insights are believed to elucidate the complex mechanisms of ternary solidification, as well as provide important real-time data for direct numerical simulations.
While the relationship between socioeconomic status and child health has been studied extensively in developed countries, evidence is limited for developing countries. This study makes an important contribution by examining the relationship between child health and household socioeconomic status in Vietnam, using household expenditure as an alternative measure. This also allows us to explore the mechanisms via which income affects child health, in which household consumption arguably plays a crucial role. We employ different measures of health that allow us to examine both long-run and short-run effects, and two alternative instrumental variables, the unemployment rate and rainfall deviation, to address the potential endogeneity of household expenditure. We find evidence of a strong positive impact of household expenditure on child health and the findings are consistent across age groups. Specifically, a 10% increase in expenditure will result in a weight gain of 213–541 g in a “typical” child. We also explore the effect of a range of exogenous adverse economic shocks on children's health.
Addressing the impact of heat stress during flowering and grain filling is critical to sustaining wheat productivity to meet a steadily increasing demand from a rapidly growing world population. Crop wild progenitor species of wheat possess a wealth of genetic diversity for several biotic and abiotic stresses, and morphological traits and can serve as valuable donors. The transfer of useful variation from the diploid progenitor, Aegilops tauschii, to hexaploid wheat can be done through the generation of synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW). The present study targeted the identification of potential primary SHWs to introduce new genetic variability for heat stress tolerance. Selected SHWs were screened for different yield-associated traits along with three advanced breeding lines and durum parents as checks for assessing terminal heat stress tolerance under timely and late sown conditions for two consecutive seasons. Heat tolerance index based on the number of productive tillers and thousand grain weight indicated that three synthetics, syn9809 (64.32, 78.80), syn14128 (50.30, 78.28) and syn14135 (58.16, 76.03), were able to endure terminal heat stress better than other SHWs as well as checks. One of these synthetics, syn14128, recorded a minimum reduction in thousand kernel weight (21%), chlorophyll content (2.56%), grain width (1.07%) despite minimum grain-filling duration (36.15 d) and has been selected as a potential candidate for introducing the terminal heat stress tolerance in wheat breeding programmes. Breeding efforts using these candidate donors will help develop lines with a higher potential to express the desired heat stress-tolerant phenotype under field conditions.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
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Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.