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Four hypotheses regarding the impact of discourse context on cross-language lexical activation were tested. Highly-proficient, Spanish–English bilinguals read all-English paragraphs containing non-identical and identical cognates or noncognate controls while their eye-movements were tracked. There were four paragraph conditions based on a full crossing of semantic bias from the topic sentence and sentence containing the critical word. In analyses in which cognate status was treated categorically there was an interaction between global bias and cognates status such that the observed inhibitory effects of cognate status were attenuated in global-neutral contexts. Follow-up analyses on the non-identical cognates in which orthographic overlap was treated continuously revealed a U-shaped function between orthographic overlap and processing time, which was more pronounced in global-neutral contexts. The overall pattern of findings is consistent with a combined operation of resonant-based and feature-restriction mechanisms of context effects.
A research initiative was launched during the initial COVID-19 outbreak by three New York metropolitan area institutions. Collaborators recruited community members and patients from previous research studies to examine COVID-19 experiences and mental health symptoms through self-report surveys. The current report descriptively presents findings from the initial survey characterized by both community and clinical cohorts, and discusses challenges encountered with rapid implementation. The clinical cohort exhibited higher rates of symptoms of mental health difficulties (depression, anxiety, and PTSD) as compared to the community cohort. COVID-19 positivity rates were similar among both groups and lower than the national average. While both groups reported low rates of job loss, community members reported higher rates of financial difficulty resulting from the pandemic. Findings indicate the need for further collaborative research on the mental health impact of COVID-19.
Stem cells give rise to the entirety of cells within an organ. Maintaining stem cell identity and coordinately regulating stem cell divisions is crucial for proper development. In plants, mobile proteins, such as WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5) and SHORTROOT (SHR), regulate divisions in the root stem cell niche. However, how these proteins coordinately function to establish systemic behaviour is not well understood. We propose a non-cell autonomous role for WOX5 in the cortex endodermis initial (CEI) and identify a regulator, ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN3)/GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR 1, that coordinates CEI divisions. Here, we show with a multi-scale hybrid model integrating ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and agent-based modeling that quiescent center (QC) and CEI divisions have different dynamics. Specifically, by combining continuous models to describe regulatory networks and agent-based rules, we model systemic behaviour, which led us to predict cell-type-specific expression dynamics of SHR, SCARECROW, WOX5, AN3 and CYCLIND6;1, and experimentally validate CEI cell divisions. Conclusively, our results show an interdependency between CEI and QC divisions.
In the early years of the twentieth century, Life magazine had only approximately one hundred thousand subscribers, yet its illustrated images (like the Gibson Girl) significantly influenced fashion trends and social behaviors nationally. Its outsized influence can be explained by examining the magazine’s business practices, particularly the novel ways in which it treated and conceptualized its images as intellectual property. While other magazines relied on their circulation and advertising revenue to attain profitability, Life used its page space to sell not only ads, but also its own creative components—principally illustrations—to manufacturers of consumer goods, advertisers, and consumers themselves. In so doing, Life’s publishers relied on a developing legal conception of intellectual property and copyright, one that was not always amenable to their designs. By looking at a quasi-litigious disagreement in which a candy manufacturing company attempted to copy one of the magazine’s images, this article explores the mechanisms behind the commodification and distribution of mass-circulated images.
Systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure is important in patients with single ventricle heart disease. Predictors of an elevated systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure prior to bidirectional Glenn operation have been incompletely identified.
All patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn operation operation at our centre between January 2007 and March 2017 were retrospectively identified and patient variables were extracted. For patients who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of this study, post-Fontan patient variables were also extracted.
One-hundred patients were included with a median age at pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation of 4.5 months. In total, 71 (71%) patients had a systemic right ventricle. At the pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation, the mean systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher amongst those with systemic right ventricle compared to left ventricle (9.1 mmHg ± 2.1 versus 7.7 ± 2.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). On univariate analysis, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01), history of recoarctation (p = 0.03), history of Norwood operation (p = 0.04), and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01) and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). Amongst those who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of study (n = 49), those with a higher pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure were more likely to have experienced death, transplantation, or listed for transplantation (p = 0.02) and more likely to have had heart failure symptoms (p = 0.04) at a mean time from Fontan of 5.2 years ± 1.3.
In patients undergoing bidirectional Glenn operation operation, the volume-loaded, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation state may expose diastolic dysfunction that has prognostic value.
Cervids living in high latitudes have evolved to thrive in ecosystems that experience dramatic seasonal changes. Understanding these seasonal adaptations is important for reconstructing cervid life histories, ecosystem dynamics, and responses in the distant and not-so-distant past to changing seasonality caused by climate change. Cervid antlers provide a rare opportunity for insight into faunal seasonal ecology, as they are grown and shed each year. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen measured directly from antlers have the potential to provide seasonal dietary data for individuals. If the isotopic signals in bone and antler are controlled by the same metabolic processes, then the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of collagen (δ13CColl and δ15NColl) from incrementally grown antler tissue provide time-constrained dietary signals from the spring and summer growth season. Bone, by comparison, provides an average signal over several years. The amino acid (glutamate and phenylalanine) δ15N in antlers from modern captive caribou showed similar trophic discrimination factors to earlier results for other collagenous tissues (bone, tooth dentin, and cementum). Hence, growth rate was not the primary control on the stable isotope composition of antler collagen. We applied this knowledge to assess seasonal shifts in Quaternary fossils of three Cervidae species: elk (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces), and caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Paired antler–bone δ13CColl and δ15NColl from the same individual were used to identify differences between summer and annual diet and ecology. Intra-antler isotopic variability from serially sampled antlers was used to examine seasonal dietary shifts and specialization.
The occurrence of nonlocal objects, raw materials, and ideas in the southwestern United States (U.S. SW) has long been recognized as evidence of interaction between prehispanic peoples of this region and those of greater Mesoamerica. Although many archaeologists have analyzed the directionality and potential means by which these objects and concepts moved across the landscape, few have assessed the degree to which Mesoamerican practices and traditional assemblages remained intact as the artifacts and ideas moved farther from their places of origin. The current study analyzes the distribution and deposition of blue-green stone mosaics, a craft technology that was well established in Mesoamerica by the Late Preclassic period (300 BC–AD 250) and spread to the U.S. SW by the start of the Hohokam Pioneer period (AD 475). We assess the spatial distribution, contextual deposition, and morphology of mosaics at sites within Hohokam Canal System 2, located in the Phoenix Basin of Arizona. We use these data to infer mosaics’ social value and function within Hohokam social structure. Analyses suggest that, although the technology of mosaic making may have originated in Mesoamerica, the contexts and ways in which mosaics were used in the Hohokam regional system were decidedly Hohokam.
The practice of public and patient engagement (PPE) in health technology assessment (HTA) has spread worldwide, yet gaps in knowledge remain. We carried out an institutional ethnography of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) public and patient involvement in HTA.
The research took place over 15 months and included observational work in the institutional settings, text review, and interviews with individuals working for or involved with the agency.
We found that despite demonstrated commitment to PPE, organizational history, governance structure, and practices were impediments to a unified approach to PPE. Unclear role descriptions for committee members and differences in philosophy and priority given to PPE across the organization presented challenges to effective participation. The high degree of value given to evidence-based principles at times conflicted with meaningful integration of patient input. A lack of clear goals and processes, roles, and differential treatment of evidence in PPE served to minimize the importance of patient experiences and to displace their validity. An acknowledgment of conflicts between multiple epistemic traditions at work within HTA activities may strengthen organizational approaches to PPE.
HTA organizations can learn from this study by reflecting on the challenges described and the recommendations offered to address them. We suggest solidifying CADTH's commitment to PPE with clear agency-wide roles and direction, values, and outcomes, a comprehensive framework, and policy and procedures. An acknowledgment of diverse epistemic traditions, as well as leadership and expertise in PPE, will strengthen CADTH's PPE activities and sustain its leadership position in the HTA field.
The coexistence of predatory informal rules alongside formal democratic institutions is a defining, if pernicious, feature of Latin America’s political landscape. How do such rules remain so resilient in the face of bureaucratic reforms? This article explicates the mechanisms underlying the persistence of such rules and challenges conventional explanations through process-tracing analysis in one arena: Guatemala’s customs administration. During Guatemala’s period of armed conflict and military rule, military intelligence officers introduced a powerful customs fraud scheme that endured for more than 20 years, despite state reforms. Its survival is best attributed to the ability of the distributional coalition underwriting the predatory rules to capture new political and economic spaces facilitated by political party and market reforms. This illustrates that distributional approaches to institutional change must attend to how those with a stake in the status quo may continue to uphold perverse institutional arrangements on the margins of state power.
We characterized 57 isolates from a 2-phase clonal outbreak of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase–producing Eschericha coli, involving 9 Israeli hospitals; all but 1 isolate belonged to sequence-type (ST) 410. Most isolates in the second phase harbored blaKPC-2 in addition to blaNDM-5. Genetic sequencing revealed most dual-carbapenemase–producing isolates to be monophyletically derived from a common ancestor.
The Motivation Assessment for Team Readiness, Integration, and Collaboration (MATRICx) is a psychometric instrument that measures individual motivation for collaboration. It was validated using Rasch Analysis to create an indicator hierarchy on two dimensions: cooperation and collaboration. Six domains provide the basis for the tool to identify team member readiness for collaboration and a means by which to understand motivational strengths in a team based on degree of past self-reported experience. This brief report provides an overview of the development of the tool, how science teams may use it, and how to interpret results to advance team member readiness for greater collaboration. The paper also draws attention to ongoing work in progress to develop learning interventions to accompany the MATRICx instrument.
The onset of magnetic reconnection in space, astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is reviewed discussing results from theory, numerical simulations and observations. After a brief introduction on magnetic reconnection and approach to the question of onset, we first discuss recent theoretical models and numerical simulations, followed by observations of reconnection and its effects in space and astrophysical plasmas from satellites and ground-based detectors, as well as measurements of reconnection in laboratory plasma experiments. Mechanisms allowing reconnection spanning from collisional resistivity to kinetic effects as well as partial ionization are described, providing a description valid over a wide range of plasma parameters, and therefore applicable in principle to many different astrophysical and laboratory environments. Finally, we summarize the implications of reconnection onset physics for plasma dynamics throughout the Universe and illustrate how capturing the dynamics correctly is important to understanding particle acceleration. The goal of this review is to give a view on the present status of this topic and future interesting investigations, offering a unified approach.
In the USA, community-based food pantries provide free groceries to people struggling with food insecurity. Many pantries obtain food from regional food banks using an online shopping platform. A food bank introduced a visible nutrition rank (i.e. green, yellow or red) onto its platform. The hypothesis was that pantry orders would increase for the healthiest options (green) and decrease for the least healthy options (red).
Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis of a natural experiment. Monthly data included nutrition ranks of available inventory and itemised records of all products ordered during the 15-month baseline period and 14-month intervention.
A New England food bank.
The twenty-five largest food pantries in the network based on pounds of food ordered.
Descriptive analyses of 63 922 pantry ordering records before and after the visible ranks identified an increase in the proportion of green items ordered (39·3–45·4 %) and a decrease in the proportion of red items ordered (10·5–5·1 %). ITS analyses controlling for monthly changes in inventory available and pantry variables indicated that average monthly orders of green items increased by 1286 pounds (P < 0·001) and red orders decreased by 631 pounds (P = 0·045). Among the largest changes were increases in orders of fresh produce, brown rice, low-fat dairy and low-fat meats and decreases in orders of sugary juice drinks, canned fruit with added sugar, higher fat dairy and higher fat meats.
This promising practice can support system-wide efforts to promote healthier foods within the food banking network.
One’s personal social network constitutes a contextual framing factor for late-life cognitive function. This study examined the association between network type at baseline and changes in three cognitive measures: immediate recall, delayed recall, and fluency, two years hence, among Europeans aged 50 and older.
Data were taken from Waves four and five of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe of adults aged 50 and above (N = 50,071).
The latent class analysis was applied to a set of criterion variables. The procedure yielded five distinct network types: multi-tie (6%), family-rich (23%), close-family (49%), family-poor (12%), and friend-enhanced (10%). The network types were then regressed on the cognition measures at follow-up, controlling for the respective baseline cognition scores, as well as for age, gender, education, self-rated health, mobility difficulty, and country.
Respondents in family-poor network types had poorer cognition scores at follow-up, compared to those in the modal close-family network, while those in multi-tie networks had consistently better scores. The family-rich network and the friend-enhanced network also had a somewhat better cognitive function.
Having varied sources of network ties, e.g. friendship ties and/or several types of family relationships, is beneficial to the cognitive health of older adults over time. Networks based mainly on ties with relatives other than spouse and children, on the other hand, have poorer cognitive outcomes. Older people in this latter group face an increased risk for cognitive decline and should receive assistance in enhancing their interpersonal environments.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.