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River networks are critically important ecosystems. This interdisciplinary book provides an integrated ecohydrological framework blending laboratory, field, and theoretical evidence that changes our understanding of river networks as ecological corridors. It describes how the physical structure of the river environment impacts biodiversity, species invasions, population dynamics, and the spread of waterborne disease. State-of-the-art research on the ecological roles of the structure of river networks is summarized, including important studies on the spread and control of waterborne diseases, biodiversity loss due to water resource management, and invasions by non-native species. Practical implications of this research are illustrated with numerous examples throughout. This is an invaluable go-to reference for graduate students and researchers interested in river ecology and hydrology, and the links between the two. Describing new related research on spatially-explicit modeling of the spread of waterborne disease, this book will also be of great interest to epidemiologists and public health managers.
Germplasm lines with resistance to the sugarbeet root maggot (SBRM) have been developed and released to the public, providing a means to generate hybrids with resistance against the most devastating insect pest of sugarbeet in North America. Effective use of this germplasm, however, requires knowledge of relative strengths of SBRM resistance between lines and knowledge of the diversity and genetic relationships between germplasm. Therefore, field studies comparing SBRM resistance of four released SBRM-resistant germplasm lines (F1015, F1016, F1024 and F1043), a SBRM-resistant parent (PI 179180) and an unreleased SBRM-resistant population (F1055) were performed, and genetic analysis of the diversity and relationships between SBRM-resistant germplasm and their available parents was conducted using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Under natural SBRM infestations, resistant germplasm exhibited significantly less SBRM damage than a susceptible control, with similar, high levels of resistance in F1016, F1024, F1043, F1055 and PI 179180 and lower resistance in F1015. SSR analysis revealed genetic similarities between F1016, F1024 and F1055, while F1015 and F1043 were genetically distinct from these lines. Among resistant genotypes, F1015 and F1043 exhibited greatest and least within-line genetic diversity, indicating greater and lesser inbreeding for F1043 and F1015, respectively. Similarities in damage ratings and genetics for F1016, F1024 and F1055 indicate that these lines are likely to be equally effective at introducing SBRM resistance into elite populations and in combining ability. In contrast, F1043, with its unique parentage and genetic dissimilarity from other resistant lines, provides a genetically distinct, but similarly effective, source of SBRM resistance.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive types of cancer which currently does not have a cure. Its invasive nature and heterogeneity makes its complete surgical removal impossible. Hence, a targeted treatment is critically needed to effectively eradicate this cancer. In this work, the authors report the synthesis of hollow TiO2 nanospheres (HTiO2NS) and their functionalization with folic acid (FA) and zinc (II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (ZnPc) to achieve cell selectivity and light absorption in the visible range. In vitro cytotoxicity of the functionalized HTiO2NS against M059K cell line (Human GBM cancer cells) was tested. In vitro generation of reactive oxygen species by HTiO2NS–FA–ZnPc nanostructures under UV irradiation was detected by fluorescence probing. To identify HTiO2NS–FA–ZnPc cell localization, the nanoparticles were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate dye and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Results illustrate that HTiO2NS–FA–ZnPc nanostructures have the potential to be used for targeted photodynamic therapy for the treatment of GBM cancer.
Parasites inflict many costs on their hosts. Understanding host–parasite relationship eco-evolutionary dynamics needs appreciation of how parasites affect individual fitness, survival and reproductive potential, and how they combine to influence population demography, dynamics and viability; also, how these processes drive microevolutionary processes that define natural and sexual selection. We synthesise work on the relationship between the red grouse and its main parasite, a gastrointestinal nematode. At individual level, we show how parasites impose a physiological cost, measured by immunosuppression and increased oxidative stress, and how their impact varies depending on contexts. We describe how parasite infection constrains expression of sexually selected traits and summarise how relationships between parasite, host and environment shape host population demography and dynamics. Genetic analyses in red grouse suggest nematode burden is moderately heritable, underpinned by a potentially large array of genes involved in the immune system, energy balance and broader homeostatic processes. There is no clear association between allele frequencies among populations and differences in nematode burdens. Possibly, beneficial alleles for parasite resistance cannot spread through the population due to the strong diversifying e?ects of gene ?ow and genetic drift.
Alterations of the gut microbiome have been associated with obesity and metabolic disorders. The gut microbiota can be influenced by the intake of dietary fibres with prebiotic properties, such as inulin-type fructans. This study tested the hypothesis that obese individuals subjected for 12 weeks to a inulin-enriched versus inulin-poor diet have differential faecal fermentation patterns. The fermentation of cellulose and inulin hydrolysates, of six different inulin-rich and inulin-poor vegetables of both groups was analysed in vitro on faecal inocula. The results showed that the microbiota from obese patients who received fructan-rich diet for three weeks produce more gas and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) compared to the microbiota taken of the same individuals before the treatment. Obese individuals fed with a low-fructan diet produce less gas and less SCFA compared to the treated group. This study highlighted profound changes in microbiota fermentation capacity obtained by prebiotic intervention in obese individuals, which favors the production of specific bioactive metabolites.
The molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and indium tin oxide (ITO) interface were studied by atom probe tomography (APT). Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction measurements were performed as complementary characterization. Results confirm that nanowires plated shape with the 〈110〉-orientation are aligned perpendicular to the ITO film with principal reflections at (002), (100), (101), (201), and Raman spectroscopy vibrational modes at E12g at 378 cm−1 and A1g at 407 cm−1 correspond to 2H-MoS2. APT reveals MoS+2, MoS+3 as predominant evaporated molecular ions on the sample, indicating no significant diffusion/segregation of Mo or S species within the ITO layer.
Although common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are consumed worldwide, studies on the metabolic fate of phenolic compounds from common beans are still very scarce. The present work aimed to study the bioavailability of phenolic compounds in human plasma and urine, after acute consumption of a single meal of cooked common beans. Blood and urine of seven volunteers were collected before (0 h) and at different time points (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h, for plasma and 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-24 h for urine) after beans’ intake. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used for quantification. After beans’ intake (405 ± 3 g), containing 457 mg of phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalents), there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the plasma concentration of 6 metabolites, and in the urinary excretion of 11 metabolites. After 1 h post-consumption, metabolites, such as kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, showed a significant increase in plasma concentration, suggesting kaempferol’s glucuronidation in the upper gastrointestinal tract. More than 50% of the total amount of metabolites, such as 4-methylcatechol-O-sulfate and dihydrocaffeic acid-3-O-sulfate, were excreted after 8 h post-consumption, indicating colonic bacterial metabolism of the phenolic compounds. Throughout PLS-DA models the classification of biological samples, collected from the different volunteers, clearly showed clusters of metabolites, which contributed to extend the list of compounds related to cooked common beans’ human intake at different time points and showed the human inter-individual variability in plasma concentration, as well as, in the amount of urinary excreted metabolites, after cooked common beans’ intake.
The authors have shown recently that the neurite extension by neuronal PC12 cells is greatly impacted by aerogel topography. Indeed, the average neurite length of PC-12 cells grown on aerogels is greater than that in cells cultured on control substrates. Here, the authors report on the first experimental study focused on the design and development of a plasmonic photo-patterning technique for collagen-coated mesoporous aerogel biomaterials. Herein, the authors have produced specific patterns on silica aerogels by performing precise plasmonic photo-patterning on liquid crystal-coated aerogels. The authors report the methodology employed to create a collagen–liquid crystal gel mixture imprinted with precise plasmonic photo-patterns. PC12 cells plated on these patterns did attach and survive and followed the spatial cues of the pattern to align themselves in a similar pattern.
Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a major pest in Neotropical rice agroecosystems. In autumn–winter, this pest takes refuge in rice stubble and in native vegetation, which allows it to re-colonize the crop during the rice growing season. However, it is still unknown whether this vegetation is a pest sink or is actually a natural trap that contributes to pest population biocontrol. Here we present information on the insect's alternative host plants, a preliminary outline of the relationship between plant phylogeny and insect abundance, and the impact that winter natural enemies have in pest population. Also, we include a proposed methodology for pest density analysis in winter hosts. Our results show significant differences in the abundance/density that T. limbativentris reaches in the 12 host plant species present in our study areas, with a plant-use pattern significantly related to the phylogenetic clade of Poales. Stink bug winter populations mainly comprised diapause adults, and 40% of insect digestive tracts had content. Survival of T. limbativentris was 56.92% in winter hosts. About mortality, 10% was due to undetermined causes and 33.08% due to entomopathogenic fungi, showing a natural regulation of the pest population. Our results suggest that native vegetation impacts winter survival of T. limbativentris. Although these plants offer shelter, they offer a greater contribution to Integrated Pest Management: the natural regulation of winter pest populations through entomopathogenic attack. Further studies on T. limbativentris population dynamics and the preservation of native areas near rice fields will be required for the development of best control practices.
Within developmental psychology, pointing gestures have received a great deal of attention, while ostensive gestures have been overlooked in terms of their emergence and intentionality. In a longitudinal and micro-genetic study with six children at 9, 11, and 13 months of age, we codified gesture production of children within second-by-second data frames. We identified 480 instances of gestures and categorised whether they were of ostensive, ostensive–indexical, or indexical nature. We specified the communicative function of each gesture by analysing the object involved and their circumstances of production. Data analysis include frequencies, binomial tests, proportion comparisons, and repeated measures ANOVA. We identified a phatic function in other-directed gestures, as well as exploratory and private functions in self-directed gestures. This has important implications for child development since ostensive gestures are easier to produce and to understand than pointing. The consideration of objects would be essential for defining the communicative function of gestures.
Different nanostructures such as: CuOH nanorods, CuO nanosheets and Cu2O nanograins were obtained by anodization approach at room temperature during times from 10 to 40 minutes. By scanning electron microscopy technique, it was found that Cu2O nanograins were formed at 10 minutes, CuO nanosheets vertically oriented on nanograins were observed at 20 and 30 minutes, and from 20 minutes CuOH nanorods with low vertical orientation on nanosheets were formed, coexisting the three types of nanostructures at the same system. In samples without thermal treatment were observed that Raman spectra of nanograins have a typical signal at 218 cm-1 associated to Cu2O, Raman spectra of nanosheets have signals at 287 and 630 cm-1 associated to CuO and Raman spectra of nanorods, it was observed that Raman spectrum is dominated by an intense signal associated to CuOH located around 488cm-1. In addition, after 3 hours of thermal treatment at 300 °C, the morphology was conserved, and the hydrogen-related compound decreased. Raman spectra of nanorods only presented a signal at 287 cm-1 associated to CuO whereas in nanosheets three peaks at 150, 218, 304 cm-1 associated to the Cu2O were observed.
To assess the accuracy of government inspection records, relative to ground observation, for identifying businesses offering foods/drinks.
Agreement between city and state inspection records v. ground observations at two levels: businesses and street segments. Agreement could be ‘strict’ (by business name, e.g. ‘Rizzo’s’) or ‘lenient’ (by business type, e.g. ‘pizzeria’); using sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for businesses and using sensitivity, PPV, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV) for street segments.
The Bronx and the Upper East Side (UES), New York City, USA.
All food/drink-offering businesses on sampled street segments (n 154 in the Bronx, n 51 in the UES).
By ‘strict’ criteria, sensitivity and PPV of government records for food/drink-offering businesses were 0·37 and 0·57 in the Bronx; 0·58 and 0·60 in the UES. ‘Lenient’ values were 0·40 and 0·62 in the Bronx; 0·60 and 0·62 in the UES. Sensitivity, PPV, specificity and NPV of government records for street segments having food/drink-offering businesses were 0·66, 0·73, 0·84 and 0·79 in the Bronx; 0·79, 0·92, 0·67, and 0·40 in the UES. In both areas, agreement varied by business category: restaurants; ‘food stores’; and government-recognized other storefront businesses (‘gov. OSB’, i.e. dollar stores, gas stations, pharmacies). Additional business categories – ‘other OSB’ (barbers, laundromats, newsstands, etc.) and street vendors – were absent from government records; together, they represented 28·4 % of all food/drink-offering businesses in the Bronx, 22·2 % in the UES (‘other OSB’ and street vendors were sources of both healthful and less-healthful foods/drinks in both areas).
Government records frequently miss or misrepresent businesses offering foods/drinks, suggesting caveats for food-environment assessments using such records.
The present research was aimed to study the degradation of 2-Chlorophenol through the use of bismuth molybdate (γ-Bi2MoO6) structures supported on graphene oxide (GO) which is intended to control the recombination of charge carriers. γ-Bi2MoO6/GO systems were doped with nitrogen via chemical reaction, to reduce their energy gap, improving their photocatalytic activity. Structural and physicochemical characterization of the resulting catalysts were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-Vis. The obtained compounds show good photo catalytic performance when using visible energy to degrade 2-Chlorophenol, obtaining 80% of degradation in 65 min.
Plantain and chicory are interesting forage species since they present good nutritional quality and are more resistant to drought than many temperate grasses. The fatty acid (FA) profile in milk and meat is related to a growing concern for the consumption of healthy foods, that is, with a lower content of saturated FA, higher polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and a favourable n-6 : n-3 FAs ratio. Our objective was to evaluate the FA content in ewe’s milk and lamb’s meat fed a plantain–chicory mixture (PCH) or a grass-based permanent sward (GBS) dominated by perennial ryegrass. Eighteen Austral ewes in mid-lactation were allocated to PCH and GBS treatments. Milk samples were obtained during September (spring). Thirty weaned lambs were finished on both treatments from November to December (7 weeks), slaughtered and their meat sampled. Fat from milk and meat samples was extracted and stored until analysed by gas chromatography. Milk fat from GBS was higher than from PCH (P < 0.05) in C18:0 (11 385 v. 5874 mg/100 g FA), 9c-18:1 (15 750 v. 8565 mg/100 g FA), 11 t-18:1 (4576 v. 2703 mg/100 g FA) and 9c,11 t-18:2 (1405 v. 921 mg/100 g FA) and lower in 18:2n-6 (827 v. 1529 mg/100 g FA) and 18:3n-3 (943 v. 1318 mg/100 g FA) FA. Total mono-unsaturated FA was higher in GBS than PCH (P < 0.05). Meat fat from PCH swards presented a higher (P < 0.05) content than GBS for 18:2n-6 (46.8 v. 28.2 mg/100 g FA), linolenic (24.6 v. 14.2 mg/100 g FA), polyunsaturated FA (119.7 v. 73.4 mg/100 g FA), n-6 (65.9 v. 40.8 mg/100 g FA) and n-3 (53.8 v. 32.5 mg/100 g FA), respectively. No effect of treatment (P > 0.05) was detected for 9c-18:1 (283.9 v. 205.8 mg/100 g FA), 11 t-18:1 (26.2 v. 19.3 mg/100 g FA) and 9c,11 t-18:2 (10.1 v. 7.6 mg/100 g FA), for PCH and GBS. These results suggest that grazing a PCH mixture results in a higher concentration of PUFA in ewes’ milk and in lambs’ fat, as compared to a GBS sward.
This paper examines how monuments with ‘local’ idiosyncrasies are key in processes of place-making and how, through persistence, such places can engage in supra-local and even ‘global’ dynamics. Departing from a detailed revision of its context, materiality and iconography, we show how a remarkable Iberian ‘warrior’ stela brings together the geo-strategic potential of a unique site, located literally between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic worlds, the century-long dialogue between shared and local identities and the power of connectivity of inexorable global processes. Previous approaches to Iberian late prehistoric stelae have had problems in developing bottom-up, theoretically informed and empirically sound approaches to their simultaneously local and supra-local character. The remarkable site of Almargen provides the opportunity to explore this issue. Located in Lands of Antequera (Málaga), a region with a strong tradition of landscape-making through monuments going back to the Late Neolithic, the Almargen ‘warrior’ stela serves us to explore the notion of ‘glocalization’, which embodies persistent local engagements with material culture, sites and landscapes on the one hand, and their connections with wider regional and even ‘global’ worlds on the other.
Ethnic inequalities in health outcomes are often explained by socioeconomic status and concentrated poverty. However, ethnic disparities in psychotic experiences are not completely attenuated by these factors.
We investigated whether disparities are better explained by interactions between individual risk factors and place-based clustering of disadvantage, termed a syndemic.
We performed a cross-sectional survey of 3750 UK men, aged 18–34 years, oversampling Black and minority ethnic (BME) men nationally, together with men residing in London Borough of Hackney. Participants completed questionnaires covering psychiatric symptoms, substance misuse, crime and violence, and risky sexual health behaviours. We included five psychotic experiences and a categorical measure of psychosis based on the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire.
At national level, more Black men reported psychotic experiences but disparities disappeared following statistical adjustment for social position. However, large disparities for psychotic experiences in Hackney were not attenuated by adjustment for social factors in Black men (adjusted odds ratio, 3.24; 95% CI 2.14–4.91; P < 0.002), but were for South Asian men. A syndemic model of joint effects, adducing a four-component latent variable (psychotic experiences and anxiety, substance dependence, high-risk sexual behaviour and violence and criminality) showed synergy between components and explained persistent disparities in psychotic experiences. A further interaction confirmed area-level effects (Black ethnicity × Hackney residence, 0.834; P < 0.001).
Syndemic effects result in higher rates of non-affective psychosis among BME persons in certain inner-urban settings. Further research should investigate how syndemics raise levels of psychotic experiences and related health conditions in Black men in specific places with multiple deprivations.
Declaration of interest
K.B. is Editor in Chief of the British Journal of Psychiatry but played no part in the review and decision process.
Un trabajo de rescate arqueológico en la cuenca alta del Río Loa (norte de Chile) resultó en el hallazgo de una inhumación prehispánica de un infante asociado a variados atavíos y ofrendas, junto a los restos óseos parciales de una adolescente. Ambos individuos fueron sometidos a análisis de isótopos estables para establecer paleodieta (δ13C y δ15N) y movilidad (δ18O y 87Sr/86Sr). Además, se efectuaron dataciones radiocarbónicas pareadas de los restos bioantropológicos y culturales con el fin establecer la cronología de la inhumación y, a la vez, evaluar la existencia de un posible efecto reservorio marino. Los resultados isotópicos sugieren consumo de dieta principalmente terrestre y un origen local para los individuos, aunque con una ingesta moderada de recursos marinos. Los fechados radiocarbónicos presentan una inesperada diferencia entre las edades de las ofrendas y los restos humanos, indicando la existencia de un importante efecto reservorio. Dichos resultados dan nuevas luces sobre el consumo de alimentos marinos durante el Formativo temprano en la región, a la vez que permiten ejemplificar los alcances de efectuar dataciones pareadas de restos humanos y culturales.
In cases of mass-casualty incidents (MCIs), triage represents a fundamental tool for the management of and assistance to the wounded, which helps discriminate not only the priority of attention, but also the priority of referral to the most suitable center.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of different prehospital triage systems based on physiological parameters (Shock Index [SI], Glasgow-Age-Pressure Score [GAP], Revised Trauma Score [RTS], and National Early Warning Score 2 [NEWS2]) to predict early mortality (within 48 hours) from the index event for use in MCIs.
This was a longitudinal prospective observational multi-center study on patients who were attended by Advanced Life Support (ALS) units and transferred to the emergency department (ED) of their reference hospital. Collected were: demographic, physiological, and clinical variables; main diagnosis; and data on early mortality. The main outcome variable was mortality from any cause within 48 hours.
From April 1, 2018 through February 28, 2019, a total of 1,288 patients were included in this study. Of these, 262 (20.3%) participants required assistance for trauma and injuries by external agents. Early mortality within the first 48 hours due to any cause affected 69 patients (5.4%). The system with the best predictive capacity was the NEWS2 with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.891 (95% CI, 0.84-0.94); a sensitivity of 79.7% (95% CI, 68.8-87.5); and a specificity of 84.5% (95% CI, 82.4-86.4) for a cut-off point of nine points, with a positive likelihood ratio of 5.14 (95% CI, 4.31-6.14) and a negative predictive value of 98.7% (95% CI, 97.8-99.2).
Prehospital scores of the NEWS2 are easy to obtain and represent a reliable test, which make it an ideal system to help in the initial assessment of high-risk patients, and to determine their level of triage effectively and efficiently. The Prehospital Emergency Medical System (PhEMS) should evaluate the inclusion of the NEWS2 as a triage system, which is especially useful for the second triage (evacuation priority).
The chapter presents the setting in which the FA was born and in which it developed over the years. The combination of the exhaustion of the ISI model, increasing political polarization and the height of the Cold War dramatically determined the political dynamics of the late 1960s and 1970s and engendered a context of increasing authoritarianism and political violence. The fight against increasingly repressive governments was a significant incentive for the new party. Public opposition to the neoliberal agenda of the different governments that succeeded the authoritarian regime (1971–1985) also contributed to the FA’s increasingly successful electoral. In 2005, the FA gained office and won three consecutive national elections with an absolute majority in parliament. It was one of the most successful parties of the so-called “left turn.” During its time in government, the party enacted structural reforms in various policy areas. In terms of socioeconomic reforms, the FA approved a tax reform, a health-care reform, and was one of the two parties of the “left turn” that enacted deep labor market reforms. The FA also pursued a distinctive progressive agenda in the region that led to the legalization of abortion, same-sex marriage, and the liberalization of cannabis use.
There have been other mass-organic parties in Latin America. This chapter discusses the FA case in comparative perspective. The literature has emphasized the role of exogenous factors or the ability of party leaders to strategically “adapt” to explain the transformation of formerly mass-organic parties. The case of the FA, which confronted similar exogenous challenges, calls attention to the relevance of organizational structure in determining party activists’ level of engagement. Organizational design is crucial for fostering and reproducing activism. The chapter reviews the case of the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) in Brazil, a former mass-organic leftist party that turned into a professional–electoral party. The PT is the case that most closely resembles the FA in its emphasis on grassroots activism. The comparison with the PT, as a negative case, increases the theory’s analytical leverage. Second, the chapter discusses the case of the FA as a strange electoral alliance or coalition. It compares the case of the FA with other leftist coalitions in Latin America, with a special focus on the experiences of leftist coalitions in Chile, showing that the FA developed a distinctive, shared organizational structure that is not observable in other, similar electoral alliances.