To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The mysterious world of fungi is once again unearthed in this expansive second edition. This textbook provides readers with an all-embracing view of the kingdom Fungi, ranging in scope from ecology and evolution, diversity and taxonomy, cell biology and biochemistry, to genetics and genomics, biotechnology and bioinformatics. Adopting a unique systems biology approach - and using explanatory figures and colour illustrations - the authors emphasise the diverse interactions between fungi and other organisms. They outline how recent advances in molecular techniques and computational biology have fundamentally changed our understanding of fungal biology, and have updated chapters and references throughout the book in light of this. This is a fascinating and accessible guide, which will appeal to a broad readership - from aspiring mycologists at undergraduate and graduate level to those studying related disciplines. Online resources are hosted on a complementary website.
It has been an enduring concern of institutional economics and critical realism to understand how individuals are able to exercise agency in the context of social structures, and to maintain appropriate connections, separations and balances between these two levels of causal power. This paper explores the contribution of Alasdair MacIntyre's neo-Aristotelian philosophy to the topic. Empirical data are provided from the career narratives of senior Scottish bankers recalled in the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2007/8. The method of the study is interpretive, using themes drawn from MacIntyre's writings. These bankers faced moral choices as tensions developed between their own professional standards and the new corporate goals of the banks. We discuss MacIntyre's understanding of individual moral agency as a narrative quest in the context of different types of institution with different and often conflicting ideas about what constitutes good or right action. Habituation and deliberation are important in enabling action, but fully developed moral agency also depends on individuals being able to make choices in the space opened up by tensions within and between institutions.
Percutaneous tunneled drainage catheter (PTDC) placement is a palliative alternative to serial paracenteses in patients with end-stage cancer and refractory ascites. The impact of PTDC on quality of life (QoL) and long-term outcomes has not been prospectively described. The objective was to evaluate changes in QoL after PTDC.
Eligible adult patients with end-stage cancer undergoing PTDC placement for refractory ascites completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and McGill Quality of Life instruments before PTDC placement and at 2 to 7 days and 2 to 4 weeks after PTDC. Catheter function, complications, and laboratory values were assessed. Analysis of QoL data was evaluated with a stratified Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Fifty patients enrolled. Survey completion ranged from 65% to 100% (median 88%) across timepoints. All patients had a Tenckhoff catheter, with 98% technical success. Median survival after PTDC was 38 days (95% confidence interval = 32, 57 days). European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scores showed improvement in global QoL (p = 0.03) at 1 week postprocedure (PP). Significant symptom improvement was reported for fatigue, nausea/vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, and appetite at 1 week PP and was sustained at 3 weeks PP for dyspnea (p < 0.01), insomnia (p < 0.01), and appetite loss (p = 0.03). McGill Quality of Life demonstrated overall QoL improvement at 1 (p = 0.03) and 3 weeks (p = 0.04) PP. Decline in sodium and albumin values pre- and post-PTDC slowed significantly (albumin slope –0.43 to –0.26, p = 0.055; sodium slope –2.50 to 1.31, p = 0.04). Creatinine values increased at an accelerated pace post-PTDC (0.040 to 0.21, p < 0.01). Thirty-eight catheter-related complications occurred in 24 of 45 patients (53%).
Significance of results
QoL and symptoms improved after PTDC placement for refractory ascites in patients with end-stage malignancy. Decline in sodium and albumin values slowed postplacement. This study supports the use of a PTDC for palliation of refractory ascites in cancer patients.
Previous radial distribution work which we have found reported in the literature has invariably been based on film technique. Our work is entirely based on X-ray spectrometer intensity measurements, Radial distribution (RD) patterns for silica gel and η-aluinina are presented and the correlation with accepted structures for these materials demonstrated. The advantages of spectrometer over film technique are discussed. The entire calculation problem has been programed for the IBM 650 computer, A difference technique which appears very sensitive to small structure changes is described and demonstrated for silica-alumina cracking catalysts. A procedure for identifying systematic errors in the RD pattern is presented.
Historically, the development of XRF spectrometers has followed 2 main paths which are characterized by the means of spectral resolution they use. Those employing diffraction crystals and Braggs law to disperse the X-ray wavelengths are known as wavelength dispersive (WDX), whilst those usinq only the energy resolution of the detector, as enerqy dispersive (EDX). In the past these two have not normally been directly compared, because the WDX systems have always been the more expensive.
This three-volume publication presents an up-to-date overview on the human colonisation of Northern Europe across the Pleistocene–Holocene transition in Scandinavia, the Eastern Baltic and Great Britain. Volume 1, Ecology of early settlement in Northern Europe, is a collection of 17 articles focusing on subsistence strategies and technologies, ecology and resource availability and demography in relation to different ecological niches. It is structured according to three geographic regions, the Skagerrak-Kattegat, the Baltic Region and the North Sea/Norwegian Sea, while its temporal focus is Late Glacial and Postglacial archaeology, c. 11000–5000 cal BC. These regions are particularly interesting given the long research history, which goes back as far as the nineteenth century (see Gron & Rowley-Conwy 2018), and the numerous environmental changes that have taken place throughout the Holocene: the presence of ice until c. 7500 cal BC, isostatic rebound alongside sea-level rise and the formation of the Baltic Sea, all of which have contributed to the preservation of outstanding archaeology.
According to an influential argument in business ethics and economics, firms are normatively required to maximize their contributions to social welfare, and the way to do this is to maximize their profits. Against Michael Jensen's version of the argument, I argue that even if firms are required to maximize their social welfare contributions, they are not necessarily required to maximize their profits. I also consider and reply to Waheed Hussain's ‘personal sphere’ critique of Jensen. My distinct challenge to Jensen seems to me fatal to any view according to which firms are normatively required to maximize their profits.
The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) publish recommendations for cancer prevention. The present study aimed to estimate the association between adherence to these cancer-specific prevention recommendations and subsequent development of cancer in a prospective cohort.
A composite adherence score was constructed based on questionnaire data to reflect overall adherence to WCRF/AICR lifestyle-related recommendations on body fatness, physical activity, diet and alcoholic drinks. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the association (hazard ratio; 95 % CI) between the adherence score and risk of developing cancer.
Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, a prospective cohort study.
Men and women (n 25 100, mean age at enrolment 50·5 years) recruited between 2001 and 2009 with no previous cancer diagnosis were included in analyses.
Cancer cases (n 2066) were identified during a mean follow-up of 11·7 years. Participants who were most adherent to the selected WCRF/AICR recommendations (composite score: 4–6) were 13 % (0·87; 0·78, 0·98) less likely to develop cancer compared with those who were least adherent (composite score: 0–2). Each additional recommendation met corresponded to a 5 % (0·95; 0·91, 0·99) reduction in risk of developing cancer. When stratified by sex, the associations remained significant for women, but not for men.
Adherence to lifestyle-related cancer prevention recommendations was associated with reduced risk of developing cancer over the follow-up term in this Canadian cohort.
Recent studies have shown that faunal assemblages from Mesolithic sites in inland Northern Europe contain more fish remains than previously thought, but the archaeological and archaeozoological record does not reveal the dietary importance of aquatic species to hunter-gatherer-fishers, even at a societal level. For example, the function of bone points, as hunting weapons or fishing equipment, has long been debated. Moreover, traditional methods provide no indication of variable subsistence practices within a population. For these reasons, paleodietary studies using stable isotope analyses of human remains have become routine. We present radiocarbon (14C) and stable isotope data from nine prehistoric human bones from the Early Mesolithic-Early Neolithic site of Friesack 4, and isotopic data for local terrestrial mammals (elk, red deer, roe deer, wild boar, aurochs, beaver) and freshwater fish (European eel, European perch). The reference data allow individual paleodiets to be reconstructed. Using paleodiet estimates of fish consumption, and modern values for local freshwater reservoir effects, we also calibrate human 14C ages taking into account dietary reservoir effects. Although the number of individuals is small, it is possible to infer a decline in the dietary importance of fish from the Preboreal to the Boreal Mesolithic, and an increase in aquatic resource consumption in the Early Neolithic.
The nature of migration–forest linkages in migrant-sending regions is underreported and poorly understood. In rural Latin America and elsewhere, out-migration, together with agricultural crises and the deterritorialization of rural livelihood, are transforming forests and the communities that manage them. Drawing on research in indigenous communities of Oaxaca (Mexico), we identify the parameters of a new landscape of forest use and conservation, finding that: migration challenges community practices for self-governance of forest resources; declines in agriculture create new spaces for forest recovery and use; and forest conservation policies create economic opportunities around both extractive and non-extractive forest use.
The discovery in 1941 (Auerbach and Robson, first published in 1946) that mustard gas (β-β′-dichloro-diethyl-sulphide), (ClCH2.CH2)2S, is comparable to X-rays in its capacity to produce mutations and chromosome rearrangements naturally raised the question as to what special properties of mustard gas enable it to act in this manner. There are indications (Auerbach and Robson, 1947) that the mutagenic effects of mustard gas are due to a direct action on the chromosomes, and not to an indirect one via the cytoplasm. This suggests that a selective and specific chemical reaction occurs between mustard gas and the genie material. It appeared possible that a systematic survey of substances chemically related to mustard gas might reveal a chemical group or structural arrangement responsible for the mutagenic action. This in its turn might also throw some light on the other component of the reaction, the gene or chromosome, and on the process of mutation itself.
The substances, to be tested were, with one exception, chosen on account of their chemical and pharmacological similarity to mustard gas. They were:
(1) N-methyl di-(2-chloroethyl) amine, CH3.N(CH2.CH2Cl)2, one of the so-called nitrogen mustards. This is a liquid with strong vesicant action. It decomposes fairly rapidly in water. Its hydrochloride is a solid, soluble in water and forming a stable solution. This solution proved useful in certain tests in which it was convenient to apply a mutagenic substance in aqueous solution.
There is a long history of migration among low-income families in sub-Saharan Africa, in which (usually young, often male) members leave home to seek their fortune in what are perceived to be more favourable locations. While the physical and virtual mobility practices of such stretched families are often complex and contingent, maintaining contact with distantly located close kin is frequently of crucial importance for the maintenance of emotional (and possibly material) well-being, both for those who have left home and for those who remain. This article explores the ways in which these connections are being reshaped by increasing access to mobile phones in three sub-Saharan countries – Ghana, Malawi and South Africa – drawing on interdisciplinary, mixed-methods research from twenty-four sites, ranging from poor urban neighbourhoods to remote rural hamlets. Stories collected from both ends of stretched families present a world in which the connectivities now offered by the mobile phone bring a different kind of closeness and knowing, as instant sociality introduces a potential substitute for letters, cassettes and face-to-face visits, while the rapid resource mobilization opportunities identified by those still at home impose increasing pressures on migrant kin.
The claim that God is perfectly beautiful has played a key role within the history of a number of religious traditions. However, this view has received surprisingly little attention from philosophers of religion in recent decades. In this article I aim to remedy this neglect by addressing some key philosophical issues surrounding the doctrine of divine beauty. I begin by considering how best to explicate the claim that God is perfectly beautiful before moving on to ask what consequences accepting this claim will have for our broader theorizing in philosophy.
Taking as foundation an article by Professor A. Teeuw from 1986, this chapter aims to look at the questions of literary history, translation and transformation, as they apply to the theme of the Rāmāyaṇa, ranging from the Old Javanese Rāmāyaṇa in Java and Bali to the Serat Rama and Rama Keling in Java. The chapter takes socio-cultural setting into consideration, and concludes that much more basic philological work is needed before any satisfactory results can be produced.
Keywords: Old Javanese; Rāmāyaṇa; literary history; translation and transformation; structural analysis; transmission; manuscripts.
Beyond the narrow circle of specialists, even among scholars of Southeast Asia, the very existence of a literature in a language called Old Javanese may come as a surprise, and so one should not automatically expect to find an appreciation of its special qualities. Yet it is undoubtedly part of the heritage of the people of Java and Bali who created it, and hence more generally of all Indonesians, constituting an element of their national culture.
At the same time, however, it has often been non-Indonesians who have taken an interest in Old Javanese, beginning with Dutch scholars in the colonial period, and continuing with others in various countries in the post-independence era. Such international attention suggests that the products of Old Javanese literature are by no means the exclusive possession of any one group, but are capable of taking their place among the treasures of world literature, which can be enjoyed by readers of any background. This is then the present writer's point of view.
The scholars who first came to the academic study of Old Javanese (as distinct from the traditional indigenous study) approached it from their understanding of the cultural history of the region, with its obvious links to Indian civilization — after all, the script used for writing and many of the themes could be traced to Indian origins. A knowledge of Sanskrit is understandably useful for reading Old Javanese. However, the spirit and the inspiration of many of these literary works, prose and poetry, is also plainly indigenous, so that we should not make the mistake of denying the Old Javanese authors due credit for their remarkable achievements.