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This anthology is the first sustained examination of American involvement in World War II through an environmental lens. World War II was a total and global war that involved the extraction, processing, and use of vast quantities of natural resources. The wartime military-industrial complex, the 'Arsenal of Democracy,' experienced tremendous economic growth and technological development, employing resources at a higher intensity than ever before. The war years witnessed transformations in American agriculture; the proliferation of militarized landscapes; the popularization of chemical and pharmaceutical products; a rapid increase in energy consumption and the development of nuclear energy; a remaking of the nation's transportation networks; a shift in population toward the Sunbelt and the West Coast; a vast expansion in the federal government, in conjunction with industrial firms; and the emergence of environmentalism. World War II represented a quantitative and qualitative leap in resource use, with lasting implications for American government, science, society, health, and ecology.
Pain may be asked as part of a viva topic or candidates may be lucky or unlucky enough to have a full 5-minute viva devoted to the topic. It is an important part of orthopaedic practice which is often neglected, but more important now with the push towards day-case surgery and even day-case arthroplasty. Pain is well known to appear as questions in the Part I MCQ/SBA exam.
This viva can be awkward, as bits and pieces such as pain assessment can appear fluffy to orthopods and in real life is best left to the anaesthetists.
Cognitive changes that accompany the gradual degradation of neural systems are countervailed by a set of attention-related processes that serve to reorganize and maintain function with advancing age. This chapter focuses on the potential role of the right hemisphere fronto-parietal network in maintenance of adequate sustained attention to the environment by older adults, as well as self-monitoring of changes in their cognition and behavior over time. Modulation of norepinephrine activity in the locus coeruleus, via its impact on this right lateralized network, may be of particular importance in increasing the capacity of older people to preserve cognitive functioning as a multitude of biological changes take place in their brains. We review studies demonstrating that noninvasive electrical brain stimulation to the right prefrontal cortex improves both sustained attention and error awareness, suggesting that this key interconnected hub region in the right hemisphere holds the potential to be exploited and upregulated in older adults to ameliorate deficits.
This article examines the retirement savings behaviour of twenty-five 30-40 years olds automatically enrolled into a workplace pension scheme. Using qualitative interviews, the paper explores the interaction between savings motivation and willingness to adhere to, or deviate from, the pension scheme defaults. Integrating insights from different savings paradigms, including sociological approaches and behavioural economics, the paper highlights how social motives drove willingness to accept enrolment defaults. Participants’ reactions to the contribution defaults were motivated by a complex combination of factors including anchoring effects, the salience of ageing, and emotional responses such as pride, uncertainty and loss aversion. The author’s main premise is that greater attention needs to be given to the interaction between subjective feelings about saving for retirement and pension scheme design.
The Pleistocene development of the Vasilikos River exemplifies the interaction of focused, tectonically induced surface uplift and climate-influenced changes. The resulting sediments are well exposed in Vasilikos Quarry and in the main river catchment further east. An important erosional surface incises the highest-level (oldest) fluvial conglomerates, down into Late Pliocene – Early Pleistocene open-marine mudrocks (Nicosia Formation), allowing integration with the circum-Cyprus sedimentary–geomorphic development (F1–F4 stages). To determine where the quarry deposits lie in relation to the Vasilikos river catchment, the fluvial deposits were mapped and valley profiles were constructed, revealing four main episodes, each associated with incision and distinctive fluvial deposition. Source lithology strongly influenced channel morphology, infill and adjacent slope-sediment (colluvium) composition. Palaeosols, particularly red-brown terra rossa, developed on abandoned fluvial terraces and adjacent hillslopes, especially overlying F3 surfaces. The combined evidence allows close correlation of the Vasilikos river and quarry deposits. Relatively coarse (chalky conglomerate/breccia) and fine-grained colluvium (calcareous silt – Cyprus harvara) developed especially on lower hillslopes following incision (mainly above F2 and F3 surfaces). Based on regional comparisons, overall sediment aggregation ended during the Early Pleistocene. The F1–F2 surfaces and deposits are inferred to be Middle Pleistocene, the F3 ones later Middle Pleistocene and the F4 ones near the Middle–Late Pleistocene boundary. Geomorphology and deposition were tectonically forced during strong, focused Early–Middle Pleistocene surface uplift. Coarse clastic ruff-off and palaeosol development (terra rossa) and related sediment aggradation are inferred to have increased during warm, humid periods. Late Pleistocene geomorphology and deposition were more influenced by climatic change, with semi-perennial streamflow, rapid sediment aggradation and palaeosol (terra rossa) development during warm, humid periods (interglacials). Cooler (glacial) periods enhanced fluvial-incision, sediment-bypassing and hillslope colluvial processes (e.g. frost shattering, downslope creep and mass flow) when sediment transport (bypassing) exceeded sediment supply. Neotectonic faulting affected the catchment but did not greatly affect geomorphology or sediment supply. Although climate / climate change (and eustatic sea-level change) had an important influence, tectonics is interpreted as the fundamental driver of geomorphological development and fluvial sedimentation, with implications for other areas, regionally to globally.
Conservation researchers are increasingly drawing on a wide range of philosophies, methods and values to examine conservation problems. Here we adopt methods from social psychology to develop a questionnaire with the dual purpose of illuminating diversity within conservation research communities and providing a tool for use in cross-disciplinary dialogue workshops. The questionnaire probes the preferences that different researchers have with regards to conservation science. It elicits insight into their motivations for carrying out research, the scales at which they tackle problems, the subjects they focus on, their beliefs about the connections between nature and society, their sense of reality as absolute or socially constituted, and their propensity for collaboration. Testing the questionnaire with a group of 204 conservation scientists at a student conference on conservation science, we illustrate the latent and multidimensional diversity in the research preferences held by conservation scientists. We suggest that creating opportunities to further explore these differences and similarities using facilitated dialogue could enrich the mutual understanding of the diverse research community in the conservation field.
Despite the global significance of the Leach’s Storm-petrel Hydrobates leucorhous colony on Baccalieu Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, the estimate of 3.36 million breeding pairs reported for 1984 by Sklepkovych and Montevecchi stands as the single published population estimate for the world’s largest colony. This study increases knowledge of this population by analysing data from additional independent surveys conducted in 1984 and 1985, and by updating the population status with a survey conducted in 2013. Population estimates were derived by extrapolating occupied burrow densities to the estimated occupied area of four main habitat types (heath, forest, grass and fern), which in turn were based on proportions of habitats observed in plots (1984 and 1985) or by using a Geographic Information System approach (2013). Based on these surveys, the Leach’s Storm-petrel breeding population size on Baccalieu Island was estimated at 5.12 ± 0.73 (SE) and 4.60 ± 0.42 (SE) million pairs in 1984 and 1985 respectively, representing estimates 37–51% greater than the original 1984 survey. While discrepancies among these estimates were largely driven by the way occupied areas were estimated, our study confirms that Baccalieu Island hosts the largest Leach’s Storm-petrel colony in the world. Results from the 2013 survey estimate the current breeding Leach’s Storm-petrel population at 1.95 ± 0.14 (SE) million pairs, representing a 42% decline over 29 years (-1.4% per year), relative to the original published estimate of 3.36 ± 0.12 (SE) million pairs. The most prominent change has occurred in the density of storm-petrel burrows found in forest habitat which dropped by 70% despite forest remaining the second most abundant habitat available to nesting storm-petrels on Baccalieu Island. The cause of this decline remains unknown and is likely multi-faceted. Future research focusing on demographic studies is required to understand what is driving the population decline of this internationally important colony.
Socially silenced topics such as racism can be of important social significance. Yet this significance can drive a topic underground, making it resilient and resistant to exposure and difficult for fieldworkers to observe as a phenomenon. While numerous ethnographic studies have demonstrated the importance of studying silenced phenomena, we still know little about how to conduct ethnographic research in silenced environments. Based on our experiences conducting ethnographic research (including participant observation, interviews and focus groups), along with the published reflections of others, in this chapter we discuss the broader significance and purpose of race-related silences and the various manifestations of racialized social silence, and then propose strategies for addressing them. We focus specifically on government and institutional silence, interpersonal silence, and interview or focus group silence. In doing so we hope to provide ethnographers with a toolkit for unearthing the deeper meanings associated with social silences. Although we focus on race in the Americas, our discussion and suggestions are intended to inform researchers encountering various forms of social silence across different contexts.
Strategic management is a system of continual disequilibrium, with firms in a continual struggle for competitive advantage and relative fitness. Models that are dynamic in nature are required if we are to really understand the complex notion of sustainable competitive advantage. New tools are required to tackle challenges of how firms should compete in environments characterized by both exogeneous shocks and intense endogenous competition. Agent-based modelling of firms' strategies offers an alternative analytical approach, where individual firm or component parts of a firm are modelled, each with their own strategy. Where traditional models can assume homogeneity of actors, agent-based models simulate each firm individually. This allows experimentation of strategic moves, which is particularly important where reactions to strategic moves are non-trivial. This Element introduces agent-based models and their use within management, reviews the influential NK suite of models, and offers an agenda for the development of agent-based models in strategic management.
Prototypes are a common feature of many product design and development endeavours. An ever widening range of prototyping options are available to designers and engineers. May particular options be superior to others, or more appropriate for particular endeavours? This paper reviews current literature on the nature of what constitutes a prototype and the benefits they offer to the discipline. They principally facilitate communication, aid learning, help gain and provide feedback, inform decision making and generally provide superior design outcomes. In order to determine if any particular manner of prototype is preferable for achieving these benefits a comparative study of some of the contemporary prototyping methods is subsequently conducted: A 3D printed prototype (physical prototype), a CAD prototype (represented using a computer monitor), an augmented reality prototype (represented using a tablet device) and a virtual reality prototype (represented using a stereo projector and polarised glasses). The results indicate that while all provide benefits, overall the physical prototype performs best and the augmented reality prototype performs most poorly.
We show how to reconstruct a finite directed graph E from its Toeplitz algebra, its gauge action, and the canonical finite-dimensional abelian subalgebra generated by the vertex projections. We also show that if E has no sinks, then we can recover E from its Toeplitz algebra and the generalized gauge action that has, for each vertex, an independent copy of the circle acting on the generators corresponding to edges emanating from that vertex. We show by example that it is not possible to recover E from its Toeplitz algebra and gauge action alone.
Complex challenges may arise when patients present to emergency services with an advance decision to refuse life-saving treatment following suicidal behaviour.
To investigate the use of advance decisions to refuse treatment in the context of suicidal behaviour from the perspective of clinicians and people with lived experience of self-harm and/or psychiatric services.
Forty-one participants aged 18 or over from hospital services (emergency departments, liaison psychiatry and ambulance services) and groups of individuals with experience of psychiatric services and/or self-harm were recruited to six focus groups in a multisite study in England. Data were collected in 2016 using a structured topic guide and included a fictional vignette. They were analysed using thematic framework analysis.
Advance decisions to refuse treatment for suicidal behaviour were contentious across groups. Three main themes emerged from the data: (a) they may enhance patient autonomy and aid clarity in acute emergencies, but also create legal and ethical uncertainty over treatment following self-harm; (b) they are anxiety provoking for clinicians; and (c) in practice, there are challenges in validation (for example, validating the patient’s mental capacity at the time of writing), time constraints and significant legal/ethical complexities.
The potential for patients to refuse life-saving treatment following suicidal behaviour in a legal document was challenging and anxiety provoking for participants. Clinicians should act with caution given the potential for recovery and fluctuations in suicidal ideation. Currently, advance decisions to refuse treatment have questionable use in the context of suicidal behaviour given the challenges in validation. Discussion and further patient research are needed in this area.
Declaration of interest
D.G., K.H. and N.K. are members of the Department of Health's (England) National Suicide Prevention Advisory Group. N.K. chaired the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline development group for the longer-term management of self-harm and the NICE Topic Expert Group (which developed the quality standards for self-harm services). He is currently chair of the updated NICE guideline for Depression. K.H. and D.G. are NIHR Senior Investigators. K.H. is also supported by the Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust and N.K. by the Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust.
Negative interactions between people and large carnivores are common and will probably increase as the human population and livestock production continue to expand. Livestock predation by wild carnivores can significantly affect the livelihoods of farmers, resulting in retaliatory killings and subsequent conflicts between local communities and conservationists. A better understanding of livestock predation patterns could help guide measures to improve both human relationships and coexistence with carnivores. Environmental variables can influence the intensity of livestock predation, are relatively easy to monitor, and could potentially provide a useful predictive framework for targeting mitigation. We chose lion predation of livestock as a model to test whether variations in environmental conditions trigger changes in predation. Analysing 6 years of incident reports for Pandamatenga village in Botswana, an area of high human–lion conflict, we used generalized linear models to show that significantly more attacks coincided with lower moonlight levels and temperatures, and attack severity increased significantly with extreme minimum temperatures. Furthermore, we found a delayed effect of rainfall: lower rainfall was followed by a significantly increased severity of attacks in the following month. Our results suggest that preventative measures, such as introducing deterrents or changing livestock management, could be implemented adaptively based on environmental conditions. This could be a starting point for investigating similar effects in other large carnivores, to reduce livestock attacks and work towards wider human–wildlife coexistence.
Post-irradiation plastic strain spreading in ferritic grains is investigated by means of three-dimensional dislocation dynamics simulations, whereby dislocation-mediated plasticity mechanisms are analyzed in the presence of various disperse defect populations, for different grain size and orientation cases. Each simulated irradiation condition is then characterized by a specific “defect-induced apparent straining temperature shift” (ΔDIAT) magnitude, reflecting the statistical evolutions of dislocation mobility. It is found that the calculated ΔDIAT level closely matches the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift (ΔDBTT) associated with a given defect dispersion, characterized by the (average) defect size D and defect number density N. The noted ΔDIAT/ΔDBTT correlation can be explained based on plastic strain spreading arguments and applicable to many different ferritic alloy compositions, at least within the range of simulation conditions examined herein. This systematic study represents one essential step toward the development of a fully predictive, dose-dependent fracture model, adapted to polycrystalline ferritic materials.