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The burgeoning field of behavioral economics has produced a new set of justifications for paternalism. This book challenges behavioral paternalism on multiple levels, from the abstract and conceptual to the pragmatic and applied. Behavioral paternalism relies on a needlessly restrictive definition of rational behavior. It neglects nonstandard preferences, experimentation, and self-discovery. It relies on behavioral research that is often incomplete and unreliable. It demands a level of knowledge from policymakers that they cannot reasonably obtain. It assumes a political process largely immune to the effects of ignorance, irrationality, and the influence of special interests and moralists. Overall, behavioral paternalism underestimates the capacity of people to solve their own problems, while overestimating the ability of experts and policymakers to design beneficial interventions. The authors argue instead for a more inclusive theory of rationality in economic policymaking.
Un noto passo di Strabone (3.2.6),1 che potrebbe riferirsi al periodo in cui Posidonio (una delle sue fonti) si trovò nella valle del Baetis e a Gades, all’inizio del I sec. a.C., restituisce l’immagine di un’economia della Turdetania, la regione che dal 27 a.C. costituì parte della provincia della Baetica, già molto fiorente, in grado di alimentare esportazioni di generi alimentari — soprattutto grano, vino ed olio di ottima qualità (oὺ πoλὺ μóvov, ὰλλὰ καìκὰλλιστov), ma anche prodotti derivati dalla lavorazione del pesce . di notevole entità e varietà. Nel testo di Strabone questi flussi verso il mercato di Roma e dell’Italia centromeridionale sono materializzati dalle navi di grandi dimensioni in entrata nei porti di Dicearchia (Pozzuoli) e Ostia.
The present study evaluated the effects of low salinity on the early larval development of Oreochromis niloticus, specifically histological damage to white muscle, morphology of the yolk-sac surface and trunk area, and molecular expression of apoptosis and cell proliferation biomarkers. Newly hatched larvae were submitted to four salinity treatments for a period of 48 or 72 h, in duplicate: (S0) freshwater, (S2) 2 g l−1, (S4) 4 g l−1, and (S6) 6 g l−1NaCl. Larval development was examined using histology, electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and morphometry. At the yolk-sac surface, larvae of S4 and S6 displayed alterations to the apical opening of chloride cells that may be related to osmotic expenditure caused by the increased salinity. Caspase-3 expression did not differ significantly among treatments, however significantly lower proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression (P < 0.05) suggested minor cell proliferation in larvae of S4 and S6 compared with S0 and S2. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in both trunk area and percentage of normal white muscle fibres (WF) in larvae of S4 and S6. Vacuolated areas and myofibrils concentrated at the cell periphery and found in the white muscle from larvae exposed to saline environments suggested disturbance to muscle development. Oedema and mononuclear infiltrate were also observed in the white muscle of S4 and S6 larvae. Together these results indicated that treatments with 4 and 6 g l−1 NaCl may cause osmoregulation expenditure, morphological alterations to the yolk-sac surface and histological damage to skeletal muscle that negatively affected the early larval development of O. niloticus.
Optimizing interfaces between photosynthetic natural photoconverters, like photosynthetic bacterial Reaction Centers (RCs) and electrode surfaces represents a challenge in the progress of bio-optoelectronic devices. The features of the surfaces may result detrimental for the tertiary and quaternary structures of the RC, even resulting in the denaturation of the enzyme. Functional surfaces possessing both confinement capability and conductive features able to preserve the conformation of the biomolecule and its bioelectronic behaviours are highly needed. In this work, the RC is adsorbed on diatomaceous silica and plasma treated hydrophobic silicon based materials. Both the materials are demonstrated to be able to preserve and enhance the RC photoconverting activity. In particular, we evaluate the functioning of isolated bacterial RC interacting with flat pSi electrode through two nanotextured interfaces designed to address the RC: a thin conductive silicon film nanotextured in pillars via plasma treatment, and a cast film of nanostructured dielectric biosilica obtained from diatomaceous earth. The characterization of these interfaces, together with the RC photocurrent production measurements, pave the way to new generation RC based bio-devices for photocurrent investigation.
To evaluate the Orange County Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevention collaborative’s effect on rates of CDI in acute-care hospitals (ACHs) in Orange County, California.
Controlled interrupted time series.
We convened a CDI prevention collaborative with healthcare facilities in Orange County to reduce CDI incidence in the region. Collaborative participants received onsite infection control and antimicrobial stewardship assessments, interactive learning and discussion sessions, and an interfacility transfer communication improvement initiative during June 2015–June 2016. We used segmented regression to evaluate changes in monthly hospital-onset (HO) and community-onset (CO) CDI rates for ACHs. The baseline period comprised 17 months (January 2014–June 2015) and the follow-up period comprised 28 months (September 2015–December 2017). All 25 Orange County ACHs were included in the CO-CDI model to account for direct and indirect effects of the collaborative. For comparison, we assessed HO-CDI and CO-CDI rates among 27 ACHs in 3 San Francisco Bay Area counties.
HO-CDI rates in the 15 participating Orange County ACHs decreased 4% per month (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95–0.97; P < .0001) during the follow-up period compared with the baseline period and 3% (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95–0.99; P = .002) per month compared to the San Francisco Bay Area nonparticipant ACHs. Orange County CO-CDI rates declined 2% per month (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96–1.00; P = .03) between the baseline and follow-up periods. This decline was not statistically different from the San Francisco Bay Area ACHs (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95–1.00; P = .09).
Our analysis of ACHs in Orange County provides evidence that coordinated, regional multifacility initiatives can reduce CDI incidence.
Through the last millennium, Patagonia has been affected by changing climate conditions and successive volcanic eruptions. Lake Tonček is a high-altitude lake in the Southern Volcanic Zone in the northern Patagonian Andes. We documented the responses of the subfossil chironomid community to the effects of successive volcanic and different conditions in a sedimentary sequence from this lake comprising the last 900 years. The community composition and structure (abundance, diversity, and richness) and the development of morphological anomalies in the chironomid mouthparts were evaluated throughout the core. Both climatic conditions and volcanism affected the chironomid community differentially. The chironomid community changed following short-term climate change patterns, being affecting not only by temperature changes but also by variations in the regional precipitation regime. Decreases in abundance and diversity were only observed in coarse volcanic layers. In these samples, we recorded a high percentage of damaged chironomid mouthparts caused by mechanical wear, breakage or abrasion, possibly due to the increase of mineral particles. Our results represent important baseline data about the responses of chironomid communities to environmental disturbances in high-altitude lakes over long time frames.
Marinobacter sp. W1-16 from Antarctic surface seawater was analysed for the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). Enhancement of the EPS biosynthesis was carried out by evaluating the influences of the carbon source (type and concentration), temperature, pH and salinity. EPS yields varied strongly depending on sugar substrate and temperature, while pH and salinity did not strongly affect levels of EPS production. Marinobacter sp. W1-16 produced the highest quantity of EPSs when growing at 15°C and pH 8, in the presence of 2% glucose and 3% NaCl. The EPS chemical characterization revealed a molecular weight of about 260 kDa. Colorimetric assays determined a higher quantity of carbohydrate than of proteins and uronic acids, as well as the presence of sulphate, in the extracted EPSs. The monosaccharidic composition resulted in Glc:Man:Gal:GalN:GalA:GlcA in relative molar proportions of 1:0.9:0.2:0.1:0.1:0.01. Some biotechnological potentialities (i.e. emulsifying and cryoprotective actions, and heavy metal binding properties) of the EPSs were proved, suggesting possible industrial and bioremediation applications.
Sophisticated matrix correction techniques have been successfully applied to analysis in an interactive laboratory environment (1-3). The present paper describes their application, to an on-line industrial environment, where reliable operation is to be maintained with a minimum of operator intervention. Out of bound situations must be detected and corrected automatically to the extent possible. Programming must be substituted for human judgement, within restricted circumstances.
In this article, we demonstrate that the combination of elemental and phase mapping is a very powerful tool for characterizing sputtered, binary plutonium alloys.
A specially designed energy-dispersive spectrometer equipped with an automated x-y translational stage was used to measure elemental differences in several disks sputter-coated with binary plutonium alloys. Automated diffractometer scans were obtained from selected areas on the disks by using specially designed sample holders. The elemental differences were then correlated with the phases present and the observed corrosion resistance. The elemental spectra and diffractometer scans were analyzed using a modified version of the SPECPLOT program. This program enables the user to analyze both energy-dispersive elemental data and diffractometer data using a single program.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To complete a needs assessment and action planning process that engaged clinical and translational research network members in identifying needs through survey feedback, characterizing the needs in small group sessions, and developing recommendations for action at the network’s annual scientific meeting. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The project included (1) a survey of 357 members across partner institutions from the Great Plains IDeA CTR Network, (2) 6 - 90 minute brainstorming sessions to characterize needs identified through survey assessment, and (3) 6 - 60 minute sessions to develop recommendations for network improvement based on the characterization activity. Approximately 75 members participated in the characterization and recommendation sessions. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Seven areas of need from the survey were identified based upon the frequency of identification by network members (support to move research across the translational spectrum, database design and management, data access and sharing, data analysis, recruitment and retention of subjects, support for members who have submitted grants but were repeatedly unsuccessful, mentoring). Members indicated which characterization sessions they were interested in attending and based on the enrollment numbers needs related to unsuccessful grant submitters and mentoring were combined as were needs related to database design and data access-sharing. Sessions resulted in 8 inter-related recommendations for network action that included to (1) develop GP-CTR directory/registry of clinicians, researchers, system partners, that can be used to identify people that want to be involved in research partnerships or mentoring, (2) create a GP CTR Navigators Program to will provide support to network members throughout the collaborative research and grant preparation process, (3) identify and disseminate information about assets (funding, databases/registries) that exist amongst network partners that can be leveraged by member, (4) develop a searchable repository of evidence-based interventions for T3/T4 efforts, (5) review GP CTR supported professional development, and technological resource offerings and identify potential gaps, (6) facilitate opportunities for peer support/networking, (7) provide guidance to GP CTR network institutions looking to adopt policies that will support translational research collaboration, and (8) identify potential barriers to GP CTR network engagement (i.e., infrastructure, communication, marketing). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This process allowed for a wide range of network members to contribute to actionable recommendations for CTR leadership to move into action and improve the scientific network’s ability to conduct clinical and translational research.
Bromine (Br) to organic matter (OM) concentration ratio is studied in lake sediment sequences to provide information on environmental changes modifying OM production. The sequences studied were extracted from shallow lakes Morenito, El Trébol, Escondido, and Portezuelo; and deep lakes Futalaufquen, Moreno, and Traful (North Patagonia Andean range). Lake Morenito, a former Lake Moreno bay until its closure in AD 1960, showed a decrease in Br:OM ratios from 1.38 to 0.74 after lake closure, associated with an increase of primary autochthonous productivity attributable to the development of submerged and emerging macrophytes. Sedimentary sequences from Lakes Escondido, Portezuelo, and El Trébol (with large participation of macrophytes in primary productivity), and from Lakes Moreno, Futalaufquen, and Traful (with little development of littoral macrophytes), showed Br:OM ratios consistent with the Lake Morenito pattern. Consistently, the morphometric parameters mean depth and shoreline development correlate with Br:OM ratios. Therefore, Br:OM ratios can be associated with the composition of primary autochthonous productivity, with values of about 0.7 associated to significant macrophyte contributions, and higher values associated with more pelagic contributions. Accordingly, Br:OM variations along a sedimentary sequence can be associated with modifications on the composition of the primary autochthonous productivity of the water body, providing information on environmental changes.
Particular attention has been recently devoted to the development of biohybrid photoconverters based on the bacterial Reaction Center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. This highly efficient photoenzyme has a conversion yield close to unit that makes it extremely appealing in the field of artificial photosynthesis. Isolated RCs suffer of a limited absorption cross-section in the visible spectral region that limits their applicative employment. Here we report the synthesis of two heptamethine cyanine molecules, whose photophysical properties make them potentially suitable as light harvesting antennas for the RC.
In recent years, several European antitrust authorities intervened in the wine sector to authorize mergers and acquisitions, provide opinions to governments, and ascertain anticompetitive agreements. This article analyzes these interventions in the context of an evolving regulatory framework. I draw conclusions about the direction of competition policy, in particular in relation to possible co-operations among various players in the wine industry. (JEL Classifications: K21, L40, L51)
Sunlight is the most environmental friendly energy source available on Earth; many efforts devoted to design artificial photoconversion systems are ongoing, nevertheless they are still expensive and poorly efficient. Photoconversion devices made with organic-biological hybrids, or biohybrids, based on the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) have been introduced. In these systems, the photoenzyme is garnished with artificial antennas to enhance the photoactivity of the RC. Here we present a newly synthesized heptamethine cyanine dye that fulfills requisites to act as efficient RC light harvesting antenna.
The Paracas culture of Late Formative Period south coastal Peru (c. 900–100 BC) is renowned for its elaborate and colourful ceramics—particularly those decorated using the post-fire painting technique. The materials and the methods used to achieve post-fire painting, however, remain elusive. To investigate the evolution of, and regional variation in, this technology, the authors deploy a range of techniques to analyse a sample of Paracas ceramics curated in museum collections. The results indicate diachronic and regional variations in the paint binders and colourants used by the Paracas potters, which correlate with changes in vessel form and iconography over time.
Radiocarbon (14C) is one of the key radionuclides for the performance and safety assessment of a radioactive waste disposal, due to its high activity concentration in waste materials from the nuclear cycle and to its mobility. The measurement of the 14C content in spent ion exchange resins from nuclear reactors is important for the safety assessment of the disposal concept and for the choice of the appropriate treatment/disposal method. Ion exchange resins are commonly used in nuclear reactors as filters for the purification of process liquids or wastes streams and they retain molecules containing radioactive isotopes, among which is 14C. Their efficiency, both as filters and as waste containers, is strictly connected with the morphology. The preservation of spherical shape upon aging is one of the key parameters for their quality assessment and for the evaluation of the potential release of 14C during storage conditions. In this study, the change in IERs morphology during storage periods has been investigated in order to verify correlation with 14C release. Both brand new and aged specimens have been studied in order to assess the quality of the resins after 10 yr of storage and to contribute to the understanding of 14C release mechanisms.
Megabenthic soft bottom communities of trawlable grounds have been studied since the first few decades of the last century, thanks to trawl fishing technologies. Despite providing an extensive amount of presence data, trawling cannot be considered reliable from a quantitative point of view, frequently giving only weak information about sessile species density, large and small-scale distribution and main habitat features. The recent development of visual technologies on remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) can give a more accurate approach for the study of mega-epibenthic communities. The present study reports the application of both ROV imaging and trawling approaches for the study of a large aggregation (i.e. field) of the red sea pen Pennatula rubra in the Ionian Sea. Density, biomass and population structure were studied in the same population of P. rubra. The density assessed by ROV was significantly higher than that estimated with a three-year series of trawling surveys. Trawling gear efficiency in the removal of P. rubra was low overall. Incidental mortality can be very high due to damage to those specimens that encounter the trawl net but are not directly captured. However, sampling of several colonies by trawling was necessary to establish biometric correlations to estimates of size and biomass from ROV imaging. Trawling catch abundance/biomass data could be useful to identify areas of higher concentration of sea pens, while ROV imaging can be used to monitor these fields in a non-destructive manner that would be consistent with protection measures.