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Pathogenic helminth infections are responsible for severe health problems and economic losses worldwide. Timely and accurate diagnosis of helminth infections is critical for adopting suitable strategies for pathogen control. Here, we review recent advances in nucleic acid-based diagnostic methods, including polymerase chain reaction, quantitative qPCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification and recombinase polymerase amplification, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for diagnosing helminth infections. In addition, we highlight recent advances in biosensors for the detection of nucleic acid biomarkers that can potentially be used for the diagnosis of helminth infection.
Early laryngeal cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy or surgery has a high cure rate. This study evaluated the patterns of treatment failure and long-term results of early laryngeal cancers treated with definitive radiotherapy.
From January 2002 to December 2014, a total of 242 patients with early-stage laryngeal cancers were treated with radical radiotherapy.
All patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (92 per cent male and 8 per cent female). Median follow-up was 4.5 years. The majority of patients were smokers (57.4 per cent). Local failure was seen in 12.5 per cent of stage I patients and 22.8 per cent of stage II patients. The 5-year overall survival and disease specific survival were 84 per cent and 91 per cent, respectively.
In summary, radiotherapy is a suitable treatment modality for patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer, with an overall locoregional control rate of 84 per cent. Patients who fail radiotherapy may still undergo salvage laryngectomy.
Weed seeds with mechanical damage are more susceptible to mortality in soil than non-damaged seeds. In this study we introduce a colorimetric assay to distinguish mechanically damaged weed seeds from non-damaged weed seeds. Our objectives were to (1) compare steepates from mechanically damaged seeds against steepates from non-damaged seeds for their capacities to reduce resazurin — a non-toxic, water soluble dye that changes color and light absorbance properties in response to pH, and (2) use light absorbance data from steepate-resazurin solutions to create classification trees for distinguishing damaged from non-damaged weed seeds. Species in this study included barnyardgrass, curly dock, junglerice, kochia, oakleaf datura, Palmer amaranth, spurred anoda, stinkgrass, tall morningglory and yellow foxtail. Seeds of each species were subjected to mechanical damage treatments that collectively represented a range of damage severities. Damaged and non-damaged seeds were individually soaked in water to produce steepates that were combined with resazurin. Light absorbance properties of steepate-resazurin solutions indicated that, for all species except kochia, damaged seeds reduced resazurin to greater extents than non-damaged seeds. Prediction accuracy rates for classification trees that used absorbance values as predictor variables were conditioned by species and damage type. Prediction accuracy rates were relatively low (66 to 86% accurate) for lightly damaged seeds, especially grass weed seeds. Prediction accuracy rates were high (91 to 99% accurate) for severely damaged seeds of specific broadleaf and grass weeds. Steepate-resazurin solutions that successfully separated seeds took no more than 32 h to produce. The results of this study indicate that the resazurin assay is a method for quickly distinguishing damaged from non-damaged weed seeds. Because rapid assessments of seed intactness may accelerate the development of tactics for reducing the number of weed seeds in soil, we advocate further development of resazurin assays by laboratories studying methods for weed seedbank depletion.
To assess the impact of a newly developed Central-Line Insertion Site Assessment (CLISA) score on the incidence of local inflammation or infection for CLABSI prevention.
A pre- and postintervention, quasi-experimental quality improvement study.
Setting and participants:
Adult inpatients with central venous catheters (CVCs) hospitalized in an intensive care unit or oncology ward at a large academic medical center.
We evaluated CLISA score impact on insertion site inflammation and infection (CLISA score of 2 or 3) incidence in the baseline period (June 2014–January 2015) and the intervention period (April 2015–October 2017) using interrupted times series and generalized linear mixed-effects multivariable analyses. These were run separately for days-to-line removal from identification of a CLISA score of 2 or 3. CLISA score interrater reliability and photo quiz results were evaluated.
Among 6,957 CVCs assessed 40,846 times, percentage of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 in the baseline and intervention periods decreased by 78.2% (from 22.0% to 4.7%), with a significant immediate decrease in the time-series analysis (P < .001). According to the multivariable regression, the intervention was associated with lower percentage of lines with a CLISA score of 2 or 3, after adjusting for age, gender, CVC body location, and hospital unit (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06–0.34; P < .001). According to the multivariate regression, days to removal of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 was 3.19 days faster after the intervention (P < .001). Also, line dwell time decreased 37.1% from a mean of 14 days (standard deviation [SD], 10.6) to 8.8 days (SD, 9.0) (P < .001). Device utilization ratios decreased 9% from 0.64 (SD, 0.08) to 0.58 (SD, 0.06) (P = .039).
The CLISA score creates a common language for assessing line infection risk and successfully promotes high compliance with best practices in timely line removal.
We performed systematic review on 40 paired hospital and nursing home charts from a clinical trial to evaluate the fidelity of transitions of care among those discharged on antibiotics. We found that 30% of transitions included an inappropriate change to the patient’s antibiotic plan of care.
The present study was performed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of Theileria annulata transformed dendritic cells (TaDCs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) to compare differences in antigen presentation and stimulation of T lymphocyte proliferation. Antigen presentation for T lymphocyte proliferation was analysed by flow cytometry. Additionally, the level of mRNA transcription of small GTPases of the Rab family expressed in the TaDC cell line was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). The endocytosis rate of TaDCs was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than in MoDCs. In contrast, when T lymphocytes were co-cultured with TaDC-APCs T cell proliferation was similar, while co-culture with MoDC-APC stimulated proliferation of CD4+ cells to a greater degree than CD8+ cells. However, the efficacy of TaDC-APCs to stimulate T lymphocytes dropped as the number of passages of TaDC-APC increased. Likewise, the transcription level of Rab family genes also significantly (P > 0.001) declined with progressive passages (>50) of the TaDC cell line. We conclude that initially the TaDC cell line efficiently presents antigen to stimulate T lymphocyte proliferation to produce a cellular immune response against the presented antigen.
Although previous studies provide diverse perspectives on subordinate's deviant behavior as a reaction to abusive supervision (ABS), the influence of ABS on subordinates’ inter-personal relations received little attention. Grounded on social exchange theory, this study proposes that subordinates who are being abused by the same supervisor develop a bond among each other. That further provides strength to each of the abused group member to exhibit deviant behaviors against supervisor and non-abused peer group. Data were collected and analyzed through mediation analysis using AMOS. Using a sample of 920 employees from multi-sector organizations it was found that abused employees show citizenship behavior toward other abused peer-group members and counter-productive behavior toward supervisor and non-abused peer-group members. Moreover, citizenship behaviors created among the abused peer-group members partially mediate the relationship of ABS and counter-productive work behavior.
Pharmacological treatments targeting the neuroendocrine stress response may hold special promise in secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, findings from clinical trials have been inconsistent and the efficacy of specific drugs, their temporal window of efficacy, effective doses and the characteristics of likely treatment responders remain unclear.
Using an experimental human model of distressing involuntary memory formation, we compare the effects of two drugs that have theoretical or empirical support as secondary preventive agents in PTSD. Eighty-eight healthy women (average age: 23.5 years) received oral propranolol (80 mg), hydrocortisone (30 mg), or matched placebo immediately after viewing a ‘trauma film’. They then completed daily, time-stamped intrusion diaries for 1 week, at the end of which, voluntary memory was tested.
While neither drug affected voluntary memory for the trauma narrative, propranolol treatment was associated with 42% fewer, and hydrocortisone with 55% fewer intrusions across the week, relative to placebo. Additionally, propranolol reduced general trauma-like symptoms, and post-drug cortisol levels were negatively correlated with intrusion frequency in the hydrocortisone group.
Overall, this study shows substantial reductions in intrusive memories and preserved voluntary narrative-declarative memory following either propranolol or hydrocortisone in an experimental model of psychological trauma. As such, despite some inconsistencies in clinical trials, our findings support continued investigation of propranolol and hydrocortisone as secondary preventive agents for re-experiencing symptoms of PTSD. The findings also suggest that it is critical for future research to identify the conditions governing the preventive efficacy of these drugs in PTSD.
Recently, interest in integrated assembly sequence planning (ASP) and assembly line balancing (ALB) began to pick up because of its numerous benefits, such as the larger search space that leads to better solution quality, reduced error rate in planning, and expedited product time-to-market. However, existing research is limited to the simple assembly problem that only runs one homogenous product. This paper therefore models and optimizes the integrated mixed-model ASP and ALB using Multi-objective Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization (MODPSO) concurrently. This is a new variant of the integrated assembly problem. The integrated mixed-model ASP and ALB is modeled using task-based joint precedence graph. In order to test the performance of MODPSO to optimize the integrated mixed-model ASP and ALB, an experiment using a set of 51 test problems with different difficulty levels was conducted. Besides that, MODPSO coefficient tuning was also conducted to identify the best setting so as to optimize the problem. The results from this experiment indicated that the MODPSO algorithm presents a significant improvement in term of solution quality toward Pareto optimal and demonstrates the ability to explore the extreme solutions in the mixed-model assembly optimization search space. The originality of this research is on the new variant of integrated ASP and ALB problem. This paper is the first published research to model and optimize the integrated ASP and ALB research for mixed-model assembly problem.
The present study aimed to assess the antioxidant and oxidant status of goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Based upon the parasite burden, infection in goats was categorized as heavy (> 500 worms), mild (100–500 worms) or low (< 100 worms). Abomasal tissues from non-infected and infected goats were used for the determination of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases, acid (ACP) and alkaline (ALP) phosphatases, superoxide content (O2−), protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). A significantly higher level of CAT, GST and GR activity and a lower level of GPx activity were recorded in infected compared to non-infected tissue. A significant increase in the level of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP was found in the abomasal tissue of the infected animals, which was related to the worm burden. The oxidative stress markers were also altered, with a significant decline in GSH levels, whereas MDA, PC and O2− concentrations showed a marked increase. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that haemonchosis in goats resulted in considerable oxidative stress, which was directly related to the worm burden.
This paper presents a brief survey on the history of radar observations of meteors in Kazan from 1950s to present days. Such achievements of Kazan researchers as development and further improvement of original measuring equipment and antenna systems, of observational data processing methods, their contribution to the theory of physics of meteor phenomena and theoretical interpretation of experimental data are highlighted. A particular progress in meteor astronomy has been achieved with a new discrete quasi-tomoghraphic method for faint meteor showers identification that uses goniometer data of meteor radio reflections detected on radar as input data. The current state and new horizons of meteor studies in Kazan are stated.
Exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with health abnormalities that persist in subsequent generations. However, transgenerational effects of BPA on metabolic health are not widely studied. In a maternal C57BL/6J mice (F0) exposure model using BPA doses that are relevant to human exposure levels (10 μg/kg/day, LowerB; 10 mg/kg/day, UpperB), we showed male- and dose-specific effects on pancreatic islets of the first (F1) and second generation (F2) offspring relative to controls (7% corn oil diet; control). In this study, we determined the transgenerational effects (F3) of BPA on metabolic health and pancreatic islets in our model. Adult F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring had increased body weight relative to Controls, however glucose tolerance was similar in the three groups. F3 LowerB, but not UpperB, males had reduced β-cell mass and smaller islets which was associated with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Similar to F1 and F2 BPA male offspring, staining for markers of T-cells and macrophages (CD3 and F4/80) was increased in pancreas of F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring, which was associated with changes in cytokine levels. In contrast to F3 BPA males, LowerB and UpperB female offspring had comparable body weight, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion as Controls. Thus, maternal BPA exposure resulted in fewer metabolic defects in F3 than F1 and F2 offspring, and these were sex- and dose-specific.
The causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium, was thought to be the only schistosome species transmitted through Bulinus snails on Unguja and Pemba Island (Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania). For insights into the environmental risk of S. haematobium transmission on Pemba Island, malacological surveys collecting Bulinus globosus and B. nasutus, two closely related potential intermediate hosts of S. haematobium were conducted across the island in November 2016. Of 1317 B. globosus/B. nasutus collected, seven B. globosus, identified through sequencing a DNA region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), were observed with patent infections assumed to be S. haematobium. However, when the collected cercariae were identified through sequencing a region of the cox1 and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 + 2), schistosomes from five of these B. globosus collected from a single locality were in fact S. bovis. The identified presence of S. bovis raises concerns for animal health on Pemba, and complicates future transmission monitoring of S. haematobium. These results show the pertinence for not only sensitive, but also species-specific markers to be used when identifying cercariae during transmission monitoring, and also provide the first molecular confirmation for B. globosus transmitting S. bovis in East Africa.
Parasites reside inside or outside their hosts and get host nutrition and blood. Here, we have emphasized economic losses in cattle caused by parasitic diseases due to ecto- and endo- parasites (flies, ticks, mites and helminths). We have outlined different methods/models including economic evaluation techniques and dynamic analysis as a major class, used for the calculation of economic losses caused by parasites in cattle. According to already conducted studies, a decrease in production is mentioned in quantity and percentage while financial losses are expressed in the form of account with respect to per head, herd or for the specific study area. The parasites cause the reduced production and financial losses due to control, treatment and mortality costs. We calculated the average decrease in milk production and organ condemnation as 1.16 L animal−1 day−1 and 12.95%, respectively, from overall cattle parasitic infections. Moreover, the average calculated financial and percentage losses were US$ 50.67 animal−1 year−1 and 17.94%, respectively. Economically important parasitic diseases mentioned here are caused by specific spp. of protozoans and helminths according to data collected from the literature. Protozoan diseases include tick-borne diseases, coccidiosis, neosporosis, trypanosomiasis and cryptosporidiosis. Losses due to tick-borne infections were encountered for decreased milk production, mortality, treatment and control. Losses from coccidiosis were due to decreased weight gain, treatment costs and mortality. While abortion losses were encountered in neosporosis. Trypanosomiasis caused losses due to a decrease in milk yield. Moreover, only diagnostic (conventional or molecular techniques) cost was taken into account for cryptosporidiosis. Economically important nematode parasites are Oesophagostomum spp., Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Ostertagia spp. and Haemonchus placei. Due to the zoonotic importance of echinococcosis, Echinococcus granulosus is the most economically important cestode parasite. Losses caused by echinococcosis were due to organ condemnation, carcass weight loss and decreases hide value, milk production and fecundity. While, fascioliasis is one of the most economically important trematodal disease, which causes cirrhosis of the liver due to parasite migration, and thus, the organ becomes inedible. So, it would be helpful for farmers and researchers to approach these methods/models for calculation of parasitic losses and should adopt suitable measures to avoid long-term economic losses.
Royal Jelly (RJ) is product from bees that is used to feed larvae in the hive as well as a main nutritional source for the queen honey bee. It has various important biological activities including as an antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cholesterol-lowering, and growth promoter activities and has the ability for inhibition of certain enzymatic degradation. It can be used for the improvement of growth performance, gut health and quality and safety of animal products in poultry due to its antioxidant and immune modulating properties. The antioxidant activity of RJ is mainly due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. It is an excellent source of B and C vitamins and folic acid. The mineral profile of RJ is useful as it contains major macro and micro minerals. Studies conducted on supplementation with RJ in poultry diets have shown a significant increase in body weight, egg production, and immune levels and is especially useful in organic production. Supplementation of RJ at the level of 10 and 15 mg/kg in layer diets positively influenced egg weight (by 5.0% and 4.8% respectively), egg production (10.5% and 11.0% respectively), weight gain of hens (7.0% and 6.5% respectively) and yolk pigmentation (9.5% and 9.7% respectively). Total leukocyte and erythrocyte counts in the diet containing 200 mg/kg RJ were significantly higher than the diet contained 100 mg/kg or the unsupplemented control group. However, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and heterophil percent were reduced in RJ-fed groups. Supplementing poultry diets with RJ offers an opportunity to maximise profit from safe and high quality poultry production.
Little is known around how general practitioners (GP) approach tobacco products beyond traditional cigarettes.
To examine GP perceptions of tobacco and electronic cigarette (EC) products, and their attitudes and behaviours towards product cessation.
A 13-item self-completed anonymous questionnaire measured awareness of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and smokeless tobacco (ST). Cessation advice provision, referral to cessation services, and the harm perception of these products were asked using five-point Likert scales that were dichotomised on analysis. Correlates of cessation advice were analysed using regression models.
We analysed 312 responses, of whom 63% were aware of WTS and between 5–32% were aware of ST products. WTS and ST were considered less harmful than cigarettes by 82 and 68% of GPs, respectively. WTS, ST, and EC users were less advised (P<0.001) and referred (P<0.001) to cessation services compared to cigarette users. Ethnic minority and senior GPs were more likely to provide cessation advice for WTS and ST users compared to younger white GPs. GPs who were recent tobacco users were less likely to give cessation advice to cigarette users (adjusted odds ratios 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.99, P<0.049).
Conclusions (implications for practice and research)
GPs had lower harm perception, gave less cessation advice, and made less referrals for WTS and ST users compared to cigarettes. Our findings highlight the need for targeted tobacco education in general practice. More research is needed to explore GP perceptions in depth as well as patient perspectives.