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The center of gravity in Roman studies has shifted far from the upper echelons of government and administration in Rome or the Emperor's court to the provinces and the individual. The multi-disciplinary studies presented in this volume reflect the turn in Roman history to the identities of ethnic groups and even single individuals who lived in Rome's vast multinational empire. The purpose is less to discover another element in the Roman Empire's “success” in governance than to illuminate the variety of individual experience in its own terms. The chapters here, reflecting a wide spectrum of professional expertise, range across the many cultures, languages, religions and literatures of the Roman Empire, with a special focus on the Jews as a test-case for the larger issues.
What's the word that describes the process of making supportive noises when you're listening to someone? What is syntax and how does it differ from grammar? Do you know what a morpheme is? And did you know that it's not only an atom that has a nucleus? The Babel Lexicon of Language is an entertaining and accessible introduction to the key terminology involved in the study of language. It defines over 500 terms and uses contemporary language examples, explaining complex issues in an easy-to-understand way. Written by the expert editorial team behind Babel, the popular language magazine, and assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, The Babel Lexicon of Language is an invaluable resource for students, teachers and anyone with an interest in language.
Research on international norms has yet to answer satisfactorily some of our own most important questions about the origins of norms and the conditions under which some norms win out over others. The authors argue that international relations (IR) theorists should engage more with research in moral psychology and neuroscience to advance theories of norm emergence and resonance. This Element first provides an overview of six areas of research in neuroscience and moral psychology that hold particular promise for norms theorists and international relations theory more generally. It next surveys existing literature in IR to see how literature from moral psychology is already being put to use, and then recommends a research agenda for norms researchers engaging with this literature. The authors do not believe that this exchange should be a one-way street, however, and they discuss various ways in which the IR literature on norms may be of interest and of use to moral psychologists, and of use to advocacy communities.
To evaluate a Produce Prescription Programme’s utilisation, and its effects on healthy food purchasing and diabetes control among participants with type 2 diabetes.
Prospective cohort study using participants’ electronic health records (EHR) and food transaction data. Participants were categorized as “Frequent Spenders” and “Sometimes Spenders” based on utilisation frequency. Multivariate regressions assessed utilisation predictors; and programme effects on fruit/vegetable purchasing (spending, expenditure share, variety) and on diabetes-related outcomes (HbA1c, BMI, blood pressure).
Patients enrolled by clinics in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Participants received $40 monthly for fruits and vegetables at a grocery store chain.
699 food-insecure participants (353 with diabetes).
Being female and older was associated with higher programme utilisation; hospitalisations were negatively associated with programme utilisation. Frequent Spender status was associated with $8.77 more in fruit/vegetable spending (p < 0.001), 3.3% increase in expenditure share (p = 0.007), and variety increase of 2.52 fruits and vegetables (p < 0.001). For $10 of Produce Prescription Dollars spent, there was an $8.00 increase in fruit/vegetable spending (p < 0.001), 4.1% increase in expenditure share, and variety increase of 2.3 fruits/vegetables (p < 0.001). For the 353 participants with diabetes, there were no statistically significant relationships between programme utilisation and diabetes control.
Programme utilisation was associated with healthier food purchasing, but the relatively short study period and modest intervention prevent making conclusions about health outcomes. Produce Prescription Programmes can increase healthy food purchasing among food-insecure people, which may improve chronic disease care.
Current cancer prevention recommendations advise limiting red meat intake to <500g/week and avoiding consumption of processed meat, but do not differentiate the source of processed meat. We examined the associations of processed meat derived from red vs. non-red meats with cancer risk in a prospective cohort of 26,218 adults who reported dietary intake using the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire. Incidence of cancer was obtained through data linkage with Alberta Cancer Registry with median (IQR) follow-up of 13.3 (5.1) years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for covariates and stratified by age and gender. The median (IQR) consumption (g/week) of red meat, processed meat from red meat and processed meat from non-red meat were 267.9 (269.9), 53.6 (83.3), and 11.9 (31.8), respectively. High intakes (4th Quartile) of processed meat from red meat was associated with increased risk of gastro-intestinal cancer Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) (95% CI): 1.68 (1.09 – 2.57) and colorectal cancers AHR (95% CI): 1.90 (1.12 – 3.22), respectively in women. No statistically significant associations were observed for intakes of red meat or processed meat from non-red meat. Results suggests that the carcinogenic effect associated with processed meat intake may be limited to processed meat derived from red meats. The findings provide preliminary evidence toward refining cancer prevention recommendations for red and processed meat intake.
The household setting has some of the highest coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) secondary-attack rates. We compared the air contamination in hospital rooms versus households of COVID-19 patients. Inpatient air samples were only positive at 0.3 m from patients. Household air samples were positive even without a COVID-19 patient in the proximity to the air sampler.
Increasing research attention is being given to former felons, or returning citizens, after their release from prison. This paper contributes to that dialogue by exploring the documentary-making process of a grassroots organization founded by and for returning citizens and their families, and the contributions it made when it was completed in 1996, and continues to make today. Little is known about how community organizations can use the making of an organizational documentary to build the capacities of the organization, its affiliates, a neighborhood, and social change. By exploring the collaborations and challenges that took place during the local reintegration process back into family and community, the start and completion of the documentary in the mid-1990s was quite innovative. This article analyzes reciprocal tensions of service (Simmel 1908) reflected in the documentary when it was completed in 1996, and its continuing relevance to the growth of returning citizenship today.
Conservation tillage adoption continues to be threatened by glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-resistant Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weeds. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2010 through crop harvest in 2013 at two locations in Alabama to evaluate the effect of integrated management practices on weed control and seed cotton yield in glyphosate-resistant cotton. The effects of a cereal rye cover crop using high or low biomass residue, followed by wide or narrow within-row strip-tillage, and three PRE herbicide regimes were evaluated. The three PRE regimes were: 1) pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha-1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha-1 applied broadcast, 2) pendimethalin plus fomesafen applied banded on the row, or 3) no PRE. Each PRE treatment was followed by (fb) glyphosate (1.12 kg ae ha-1) applied POST fb a LAYBY applications of diuron (1.12 kg ai ha-1) plus MSMA (2.24 kg ai ha-1). Low residue plots ranged in biomass from 85 to 464 kg ha-1, while high biomass plots ranged from 3119 to 6929 kg ha-1. In most comparisons, surface disturbance width, residue amount, and soil applied herbicide placement did not influence within-row weed control; however, broadcast PRE resulted in increased carpetweed, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, tall morningglory, and yellow nutsedge weed control in row middles compared to plots receiving banded PRE. In addition, high residue increased carpetweed, common purslane, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, sicklepod, and tall morningglory weed control between rows. Use of banded PRE herbicides resulted in equivalent yield and revenue in four of six comparisons compared to those with broadcast PRE herbicide application; however, this would likely result in many between row weed escapes. Thus, conservation tillage cotton would benefit from broadcast soil-applied herbicide applications regardless of residue amount and tillage width when infested with Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weed species.
Palmer amaranth is the latest pigweed species documented in Connecticut; it was identified there in 2019. In a single-dose experiment, the Connecticut Palmer amaranth biotype survived the field-use rates of glyphosate (840 g ae ha−1) and imazaquin (137 g ai ha−1) herbicides applied separately. Additional experiments were conducted to (1) determine the level of resistance to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in the Connecticut-resistant (CT-Res) biotype using whole-plant dose-response bioassays, and (2) evaluate the response of the CT-Res biotype to POST herbicides commonly used in Connecticut cropping systems. Based on the effective dose required for 90% control (ED90), the CT-Res biotype was 10-fold resistant to glyphosate when compared with the Kansas-susceptible (KS-Sus) biotype. Furthermore, the CT-Res biotype was highly resistant to ALS-inhibitor herbicides; only 18% control was achieved with 2,196 g ai ha−1 imazaquin. The CT-Res biotype was also cross-resistant to other ALS-inhibitor herbicides, including chlorimuron-ethyl (13.1 g ai ha−1), halosulfuron-methyl (70 g ai ha−1), and sulfometuron-methyl (392 g ai ha−1). The CT-Res Palmer amaranth was controlled 75% to 100% at 21 d after treatment (DAT) with POST applications of 2,4-D (386 g ae ha−1), carfentrazone-ethyl (34 g ai ha−1), clopyralid (280 g ae ha−1), dicamba (280 g ae ha−1), glufosinate (595 g ai ha−1), lactofen (220 g ai ha−1), oxyfluorfen (1,121g ai ha−1), and mesotrione (105 g ai ha−1) herbicides. Atrazine (2,240 g ai ha−1) controlled the CT-Res biotype only 52%, suggesting the biotype is resistant to this herbicide as well. Here we report the first case of Palmer amaranth from Connecticut with multiple resistance to glyphosate and ALS inhibitors. Growers should proactively use all available weed control tactics, including the use of effective PRE and alternative POST herbicides (tested in this study), for effective control of the CT-Res biotype.
Few studies provide clear rationale for and the reception of adaptations of evidence-based interventions. To address this gap, we describe the context-dependent adaptations in critical time intervention-task shifting (CTI-TS), a manualized recovery program for individuals with psychosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Santiago, Chile. Implications of the adaptations – incorporating a task-shifting approach and modifying the mode of community-based service delivery – are examined from users' perspectives.
A secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with CTI-TS users (n = 9 in Brazil; n = 15 in Chile) was conducted. Using the framework method, we thematically compared how participants from each site perceived the main adapted components of CTI-TS.
Users of both sites appreciated the task-shifting worker pair to provide personalized, flexible, and relatable support. They wanted CTI-TS to be longer and experienced difficulty maintaining intervention benefits in the long-term. In Chile, stigma and a perceived professional hierarchy toward the task-shifting providers were more profound than in Brazil. Engagement with community-based services delivery in homes and neighborhoods (Chile), and at community mental health centers (Brazil) were influenced by various personal, familial, financial, and social factors. Uniquely, community violence was a significant barrier to engagement in Brazil.
CTI-TS’ major adaptations were informed by the distinct mental health systems and social context of Santiago and Rio. Evaluation of user experiences with these adaptations provides insights into implementing and scaling-up task-shifting and community-oriented interventions in the region through the creation of specialized roles for the worker pair, targeting sustained intervention effects, and addressing socio-cultural barriers.
Functional neurological disorder (FND) encompasses a complex and heterogeneous group of neuropsychiatric syndromes commonly encountered in clinical practice. Patients with FND may present with a myriad of neurological symptoms and frequently have comorbid medical, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. Over the past decade, important advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of FND within a biopsychosocial framework. Many challenges remain in addressing the stigma associated with this diagnosis, refining diagnostic criteria, and providing access to evidence-based treatments. This paper outlines FND treatment approaches, emphasizing the importance of respectful communication and comprehensive explanation of the diagnosis to patients, as critical first step to enhance engagement, adherence, self-agency, and treatment outcomes. We then focus on a brief review of evidence-based treatments for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and functional movement disorder, a guide for designing future treatment trials for FND, and a proposal for a treatment research agenda, in order to aid in advancing the field to develop and implement treatments for patients with FND.
Not all patients who acquire carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) develop infections by these organisms; many remain only colonized. Of 54 CPE-colonized patients, 16 (30%) developed CPE infections. We identified indwelling urinary catheter exposure, exposure to intravenous colistin, and overseas transfer as variables associated with CPE infection development among colonized patients.