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Schistosomiasis is an inflammatory disease that occurs when schistosome species eggs are deposited in the liver, resulting in fibrosis and portal hypertension. Schistosomes can interact with host inflammasomes to elicit host immune responses, leading to mitochondrial damage, generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of apoptosis during inflammation. This study aims to examine whether ROS and NF-κB (p65) expression elicited other types of inflammasome activation in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mouse livers. We examine the relationship between inflammasome activation, mitochondrial damage and ROS production in mouse livers infected with S. mansoni. We demonstrate a significant release of ROS and superoxides and increased NF-κB (p65) in S. mansoni-infected mouse livers. Moreover, activation of the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes was triggered by S. mansoni infection. Stimulation of HuH-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells with soluble egg antigen induced activation of the AIM2 inflammasome pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that S. mansoni infection promotes both NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation.
Fluctuation of pump power is one of the major sources of temporal and intensity noise in femtosecond fiber lasers. In this work, the transfer functions between the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the pump laser diode (LD) and the output RIN, between the RIN of the pump LD and timing jitter of femtosecond fiber lasers are systematically studied. It is demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, that the amplitude of the pump RIN transfer function can be effectively decreased by an intra-cavity narrow band-pass filter. In particular, for normal-dispersion lasers, the 3-dB bandwidth of the transfer function can also be narrowed by two-thirds, with a steeper falling edge. Furthermore, with the narrow band-pass filtering, the transfer function is almost independent of the net intra-cavity dispersion due to amplifier similariton formation. The proposed scheme can effectively isolate the pump-induced noise without the need of complex active pump LD control and intra-cavity dispersion management, thus providing an easy way for practical high-power, high-stability femtosecond fiber laser design and related high-precision applications outside the laboratory.
We report on environmentally stable long-cavity ultrashort erbium-doped fiber lasers, which self-start mode-locking at quite low thresholds by using spectrally filtered and phase-biased nonlinear amplifying long-loop mirrors. By employing 100-m polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) in the nonlinear loop, the fundamental repetition rate reaches 1.84 MHz and no practical limitation is found to further decrease the repetition rate. The filter used in the long loop not only suppresses Kelly sidebands of the solitons, but also eliminates the amplified spontaneous emission which exists widely in low-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber lasers. The bandwidth of the filter is optimized by using a numerical model. The laser emits approximately 3-ps pulses with an energy of 17.4 pJ, which is further boosted to
by using a fiber amplifier.
A supercapacitor electrode featured with a voltage self-stabilizing capability is demonstrated by growing indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires on Ni foam. The ITO nanowires with a single crystal structure are prepared by using magnetron sputtering technique, and they can act as an active electrode material. Charging–discharging experiments are performed under different current densities, demonstrating a good rate capability. Using properly designing top and bottom double connection circuits, part of the electrode can be used as a resistance switch. An electrode that can function as a supercapacitor and a resistance switch is fabricated. Detailed characteristics confirm that the device not only exhibits high performance as a supercapacitor but also has good characteristics of resistance switching (RS). The specific capacitance is 956 F/g at the scanning rate of 10 mV/s, and the switching ratio as a bipolar resistance switch is as high as 102. The stabilization time of discharging voltage is nearly doubled longer than that without any RS function, revealing the potential application of our devices, which can be used as a supercapacitor with voltage self-stabilizing.
Understanding the two-way interactions between finite-size solid particles and a wall-bounded turbulent flow is crucial in a variety of natural and engineering applications. Previous experimental measurements and particle-resolved direct numerical simulations revealed some interesting phenomena related to particle distribution and turbulence modulation, but their in-depth analyses are largely missing. In this study, turbulent channel flows laden with neutrally buoyant finite-size spherical particles are simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method. Two particle sizes are considered, with diameters equal to 14.45 and 28.9 wall units. To understand the roles played by the particle rotation, two additional simulations with the same particle sizes but no particle rotation are also presented for comparison. Particles of both sizes are found to form clusters. Under the Stokes lubrication corrections, small particles are found to have a stronger preference to form clusters, and their clusters orientate more in the streamwise direction. As a result, small particles reduce the mean flow velocity less than large particles. Particles are also found to result in a more homogeneous distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the wall-normal direction, as well as a more isotropic distribution of TKE among different spatial directions. To understand these turbulence modulation phenomena, we analyse in detail the total and component-wise volume-averaged budget equations of TKE with the simulation data. This budget analysis reveals several mechanisms through which the particles modulate local and global TKE in the particle-laden turbulent channel flow.
With the increasing availability of vehicle telemetry technology, there is great potential for Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) systems to improve trauma outcomes by detecting patients at-risk for severe injury and facilitating early transport to trauma centers.
National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data from 1999-2013 were used to construct a logistic regression model (injury severity prediction [ISP] model) predicting the probability that one or more occupants in planar, non-rollover motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) would have Injury Severity Score (ISS) 15+ injuries. Variables included principal direction of force (PDOF), change in velocity (Delta-V), multiple impacts, presence of any older occupant (≥55 years old), presence of any female occupant, presence of right-sided passenger, belt use, and vehicle type. The model was validated using medical records and 2008-2011 crash data from AACN-enabled Michigan (USA) vehicles identified from OnStar (OnStar Corporation; General Motors; Detroit, Michigan USA) records. To compare the ISP to previously established protocols, a literature search was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of first responder identification of ISS 15+ for MVC occupants.
The study population included 924 occupants in 836 crash events. The ISP model had a sensitivity of 72.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 41%-91%) and specificity of 93% (95% CI 92%-95%) for identifying ISS 15+ occupants injured in planar MVCs. The current standard 2006 Field Triage Decision Scheme (FTDS) was 56%-66% sensitive and 75%-88% specific in identifying ISS 15+ patients.
The ISP algorithm comparably is more sensitive and more specific than current field triage in identifying MVC patients at-risk for ISS 15+ injuries. This real-world field study shows telemetry data transmitted before dispatch of emergency medical systems can be helpful to quickly identify patients who require urgent transfer to trauma centers.