To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter argues for the idea of collective rights with which a people endow themselves in the face of political crises, as opposed to the more popular concept of human rights which is to be given by (often hostile) states to individuals, at the urging of international organizations. Citing examples such as those of the Zapatistas in Chiapas, Mexico and the people of Palestine, the author sheds light on the political rewards in the translation of the rights of the individual to collective rights. The latter kind has the advantage of having evolved from cultural specificities, as opposed to the more conventional idea of transcendent human rights. They are more in tune with material realities as well as unobligated to universal standards and forms.
Optimizing interfaces between photosynthetic natural photoconverters, like photosynthetic bacterial Reaction Centers (RCs) and electrode surfaces represents a challenge in the progress of bio-optoelectronic devices. The features of the surfaces may result detrimental for the tertiary and quaternary structures of the RC, even resulting in the denaturation of the enzyme. Functional surfaces possessing both confinement capability and conductive features able to preserve the conformation of the biomolecule and its bioelectronic behaviours are highly needed. In this work, the RC is adsorbed on diatomaceous silica and plasma treated hydrophobic silicon based materials. Both the materials are demonstrated to be able to preserve and enhance the RC photoconverting activity. In particular, we evaluate the functioning of isolated bacterial RC interacting with flat pSi electrode through two nanotextured interfaces designed to address the RC: a thin conductive silicon film nanotextured in pillars via plasma treatment, and a cast film of nanostructured dielectric biosilica obtained from diatomaceous earth. The characterization of these interfaces, together with the RC photocurrent production measurements, pave the way to new generation RC based bio-devices for photocurrent investigation.
The chemical composition of soil from the Glasgow (UK) urban area was used to identify the controls on the availability of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in soil to humans. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in 27 soil samples, collected from different land uses, were coupled to information on their solid-phase partitioning derived from sequential extraction data. The total element concentrations in the soils were in the range <0.1–135mgkg–1 for As; 65–3680mgkg–1 for Cr and 126–2160mgkg–1 for Pb, with bioaccessible concentrations averaging 27, 5 and 27% of the total values, respectively. Land use does not appear to be a predictor of contamination; however, the history of the contamination is critically important. The Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distribution (CISED) sequential chemical extraction and associated self-modelling mixture resolution analysis identified three sample groupings and 16 geochemically distinct phases (substrates). These were related to iron (n=3), aluminium–silicon (Al–Si; n=2), calcium (n=3), phosphorus (n=1), magnesium (Mg; n=3), manganese (n=1) and easily extractable (n=3), which was predominantly made up of sodium and sulphur. As, Cr and Pb were respectively found in 9, 10 and 12 of the identified phases, with bioaccessible As predominantly associated with easily extractable phases, bioaccessible Cr with the Mg-dominated phases and bioaccessible Pb with both the Mg-dominated and Al–Si phases. Using a combination of the Unified Barge Method to measure the bioaccessibility of PHEs and CISED to identify the geochemical sources has allowed a much better understanding of the complexity of PHE mobility in the Glasgow urban environment. This approach can be applied to other urban environments and cases of soil contamination, and made part of land-use planning.
Ground-based, remote and “in situ” observations show that dust plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar, circumstellar and interplanetary media. Despite the wealth of available astronomical data, a main item to be clarified concerns the actual chemico-physical composition of cosmic dust. A correct interpretation of observations must rely on a systematic comparison with results coming from laboratory simulations. In this paper we present an overview of recent results, obtained in our laboratory, on various forms of carbon-based and silicate grains of possible astrophysical interest.
The increased use of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to investigate cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia fostered interest in its sensitivity in the context of family studies. As various measures of the same cognitive domains may have different power to distinguish between unaffected relatives of patients and controls, the relative sensitivity of MCCB tests for relative–control differences has to be established. We compared MCCB scores of 852 outpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) with those of 342 unaffected relatives (REL) and a normative Italian sample of 774 healthy subjects (HCS). We examined familial aggregation of cognitive impairment by investigating within-family prediction of MCCB scores based on probands’ scores.
Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze group differences in adjusted MCCB scores. Weighted least-squares analysis was used to investigate whether probands’ MCCB scores predicted REL neurocognitive performance.
SCZ were significantly impaired on all MCCB domains. REL had intermediate scores between SCZ and HCS, showing a similar pattern of impairment, except for social cognition. Proband's scores significantly predicted REL MCCB scores on all domains except for visual learning.
In a large sample of stable patients with schizophrenia, living in the community, and in their unaffected relatives, MCCB demonstrated sensitivity to cognitive deficits in both groups. Our findings of significant within-family prediction of MCCB scores might reflect disease-related genetic or environmental factors.
Reports in the literature of treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator following cardiac surgery are limited. We reviewed our experience to provide a case series of the therapeutic use of tissue plasminogen activator for the treatment of venous thrombosis in children after cardiac surgery. The data describe the morbidity, mortality, and clinical outcomes of tissue plasminogen activator administration for treatment of venous thrombosis in children following cardiac surgery.
The study was designed as a retrospective case series.
The study was carried out in a 25-bed cardiac intensive care unit in an academic, free-standing paediatric hospital.
All children who received tissue plasminogen activator for venous thrombosis within 60 days of cardiac surgery, a total of 13 patients, were included.
Data was collected, collated, and analysed as a part of the interventions of this study.
Measurements and main results
Patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator were principally young infants (median 0.2, IQR 0.07–0.58 years) who had recently (22, IQR 12.5–27.3 days) undergone cardiac surgery. Hospital mortality was high in this patient group (38%), but there was no mortality attributable to tissue plasminogen activator administration, occurring within <72 hours. There was one major haemorrhagic complication that may be attributable to tissue plasminogen activator. Complete or partial resolution of venous thrombosis was confirmed using imaging in 10 of 13 patients (77%), and tissue plasminogen activator administration was associated with resolution of chylous drainage, with no drainage through chest tubes, at 10 days after tissue plasminogen activator treatment in seven of nine patients who had upper-compartment venous thrombosis-associated chylothorax.
On the basis of our experience with administration of tissue plasminogen activator in children after cardiac surgery, tissue plasminogen activator is both safe and effective for resolution of venous thrombosis in this high-risk population.
Studies of the HEAO–1 A2 all–sky survey data have established that the level of anisotropy of the extragalactic X–ray background (XRB) is relatively low:
–The cell–to–cell XRB intensity variations can be entirely accounted for by Poisson fluctuations in the space distribution of known classes of sources; the 90% confidence upper limit to any additional contribution on a scale of 26 square degrees is 2.3% (Shafer and Fabian 1983).
–No significant correlations of XRB intensity fluctuations appear to be present; the formal 90% confidence upper limit on the amplitude of autocorrelations, relative to the mean background intensity, for an angular scale of 3° is Γ(3°) ≤ 1.9 × 10−2 (Persic et al. 1988).
A catalogue of radial velocities of galaxies has been completed which lists all radial velocities published until the end of December, 1980, for galaxies in both the northern and the southern hemispheres.
For each galaxy the catalogue provides R.A. and Declination, name(s) of the galaxy (NGC, IC, 3 CR, etc.), each known heliocentric radial velocity with its reference, and the type of observation (whether optical or radio).
Starting from polydisperse diatomaceous earth (DE), we proposed an efficient separation method for obtaining different morphologies of biosilica from diatoms. DE is a very low-cost source of silica containing all the differently nanostructured elements. By a glucose gradient/dialysis, three types of biosilica morphologies were achieved: rods, valves, and clusters. We fully characterized the diatom fractions and we used them to produce fluorescent biosilica platforms (“tabs”). These supports exhibited good resistance in water, ethanol, and soft scraping. A preliminary biologic application by testing Saos-2 proliferation was also performed to check osteoblasts-like cells biologic attitude for this scaffolds with tunable nanostructure.
The HEAO–1 A2 scanning survey has provided small field-of-view data characterized by a full width zero intensity of 3° along the scan direction (at approximately constant ecliptic longitude λ) and of 6° perpendicular to it. We have used independent fields taken from scanning circles separated by Δλ = 6° and whose centers are separated by Δβ = 3°. After having excluded all fields at | β | < 60° or at | b | ≤ 20°, only 905 of the total turned out to be not significantly contaminated by diffuse galactic emission or by known discrete sources. The flux intensity at each field's central position was evaluated by fitting a point source plus a constant background. The sample average C (θ) of the products dI (θ) x dI'(θ + Δθ) of positive and negative intensity fluctuations computed for angular separations of 3°, 6°, …, and 27° provides the X-ray background (XRB) angular correlation function.
Diatoms represent a natural source of mesoporous silica whose applications range from biomedical to photonic fields. Porous hierarchically organized micro structures, the biosilica shells called frustules, can be obtained by removal of the organic biological matter from the unicellular living algae. Diatoms frustules have been investigated as scaffold for bone tissue growth taking advantage of their nanostructured surface and of the possibility to chemically modify the biosilica. Here we report on an easy way to calcium-doped biosilica supports for bone tissue regeneration by in vivo feeding the algae. FTIR and EDX analyses confirmed the incorporation of calcium into the mesopouros biosilica. Cell viability studies showed an ameliorative effect on the Saos-2 cells spreading compared with the cells grown on non-doped biosilica supports.
Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) can be studied in the ROSAT energy band also when serendipitously observed during long pointed observation of unrelated targets. From the available ROSAT database three Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) AGNs, detected with more than 500 counts, have been studied. One AGN (MS 1803.6+6738 = Kaz 102) was observed twice and in one field the target is the BL Lac 0716+714.
– Spectral studies reveal that all three AGNs are well described by a single power law. Values of relevance are summarized in the table where they are compared to previous values from Einstein and the ROSAT survey (Walter R. & Fink H.H., 1993, A&A, 274, 105). All four sources have a NH value well below the estimated value given by Stark et al. (1992, ApJS, 79, 77) and Elvis et al. (1989, ApJ, 97, 777). This probably is an indication that a soft excess is present.
– Variability studies show flux variations for the BL Lac on time scales of days, while the photon index appears rather constant. The high count rate for this object allows to attribute a probability of variability greater than 99% (running a K-S test against constancy). In the case of Kaz 102, the comparison of previous measurements with the present one does not show evidence of long term (years) variability.
The role played by environment on nuclear activity in galaxies is not clear and largely debated (see e.g. Barnes & Hernquist 1992, Kelm 1996). To overcome statistical uncertainties, environment properties of two large samples of Seyfert galaxies (Sy 1 and Sy 2 have been kept separated) have been computed and compared with equivalent size “normal galaxy” sample ones. Seyfert samples have been extracted from the Veron & Veron catalogue (Veron & Veron 1996), whilst “normal galaxies” have been randomly extracted from ZCAT (Huchra 1993). The samples are limited in cz ([1500–9500] km/sec) and contain 149 Sy 1, 173 Sy 2 and 160 “normal galaxies” (hundreds of random extractions from ZCAT). For each galaxy neighbors have been computed (from ZCAT) within two variables radii, R (isolation radius) and r (pair separation), which span [0.2 - 2] h100 Mpc. and [20–90]h100 kpc. respectively. Neighbors must lie also within 700 km/sec from the galaxy. In this way, for each value of R and r, environment of each galaxy has been “quantified”.
The first-ever high energy (~ 1-30 keV) X-ray spectra of three z ~ 2 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) are presented. If confirmed, the most interesting result is the marginal, but consistent, evidence for FeKα emission lines in at least two of the sources. Further ASCA observations of high-z RQQs are needed for firm conclusions.
We aimed to evaluate residence in evacuation areas (storm areas) as a risk factor for food and waterborne disease (FWBD) associated with Hurricane Sandy flooding.
We captured 9601 incident outpatient and inpatient FWBD hospital discharge diagnoses for residents of the greater New York City area. We used Poisson or negative binomial regression models to compare the covariate-adjusted risk for a FWBD diagnosis, pre-Sandy (10/28-11/09, 2001-2011) vs. post-Sandy (10/28-11/09, 2012), for residents of “storm” and “non-storm” areas.
Outpatient FWBD risk was lower for storm area residents after Hurricane Sandy (risk ratio [RR]=0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.74), and varied by age, sex, and county. However, storm area residents 65 years of age or older experienced higher risk after Hurricane Sandy (RR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.11-4.19), albeit based on few cases. Inpatient FWBD risk was lower for non-storm area residents after Hurricane Sandy (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.95), and varied by age, race, and county, although there was no significant change for storm area residents (RR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.69-1.08). Those ≥65 years of age were also at lower risk for inpatient FWBD diagnosis, yet the effect was weaker for storm area (RR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.67-1.18) than for non-storm area residents (RR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89).
Hurricane preparation, mitigation, and response activities in the greater New York City area may have led to “protective” effects for FWBD. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:503–511)
A method of searching for multiplets in a large catalogue of galaxies with measured redshifts is described. Compact Groups samples having different local and global characteristics are generated when the algorithm is applied to ZCAT catalogue. Both local and environmental galaxy density have been computed thus allowing to define truly isolated compact groups as well as compact groups in dense and medium dense environments. We find 40% of our compact groups to be isolated while as much as 20% are identified in high density structures.
A statistical analysis of the relationship between the continuum and the narrow emission lines of a sample of Seyfert 2 galaxies strongly suggests the presence of a starburst emitting at all wavelengths from radio to soft X-rays as well as in the narrow lines.