To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The development of a second version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) coincides with the latest updates in the diagnosis of addiction as documented in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The objective of the present study was to translate the YFAS 2.0 into the Malay language and test its psychometric properties in a primary-care population.
Patients were assessed for food addiction utilizing the Malay YFAS 2.0. The participants were also assessed for eating disorder using the validated Malay Binge Eating Scale. The psychometric properties of the YFAS 2.0 were determined by analysing factor structure, overall item statistics, internal consistency and construct validity.
Between 2017 and 2018, participants were chosen from a regional primary-care clinic in the district of Seremban, Malaysia.
Patients (n 382) from a regional primary-care clinic.
The prevalence of food addiction was 5·0%. A two-factor structure of the YFAS was confirmed as the most optimal solution for the scale via confirmatory factor analysis. In both its diagnostic and symptom count version, the YFAS 2.0 had good internal consistency (Kuder–Richardson α > 0·80 and McDonald’s ω > 0·9).
We validated a psychometrically sound Malay version of the YFAS 2.0 in a primary-care population. Both diagnostic and symptom count versions of the scale had robust psychometric properties. The questionnaire can be used to develop health promotion strategies to detect food addiction tendencies in a general population.
Studies of masculinity and armed conflict have struggled to capture the complex interaction between globalized militarized masculinities and local gender formations. Particularly in conflicts characterized by a high degree of combatant mobility (in the form of foreign fighters, massed displacement, or significant diaspora involvement) locating the relevant gender dynamics can prove to be a difficult step in understanding the character of armed groups. Based on fieldwork with Indonesian former foreign fighters, we make the case that feminist international relations have tended to unreflectively default to the nation when locating gender hierarchies. Exploring the multiple articulations of masculinity present in former fighters’ lives, we suggest that efforts must be made to resist methodological nationalism in understanding the relationship between gender hierarchies and armed conflict. Charting how foreign fighters traverse local constructions of gender, national gender hierarchies, and transnational social structures to participate in the conflict, we argue that adopting a conscious consideration of scale in our research method is needed to move beyond methodological nationalism.
In Ethiopia, women’s dietary diversity is low, primarily due to poor food availability and access, both at home and market level. The present study aimed to describe market access using a new definition called market food diversity (MFD) and estimate the impact of MFD, crop and livestock diversity on dietary diversity among women enrolled in the Agriculture to Nutrition (ATONU) trial.
Baseline cross-sectional data collected from November 2016 to January 2017 were used for the analysis. Availability of foods in markets was assessed at the village level and categorized into nine food groups similar to the dietary diversity index for women. Bivariate and multivariate mixed-effects regression analyses were conducted, adjusted for clustering at the village level.
Chicken-producing farmers in rural Ethiopia.
Women (n 2117) aged 15–49 years.
Overall, less than 6 % of women met the minimum dietary diversity (≥5 food groups) and the most commonly consumed food groups were staples and legumes. Median MFD was 4 food groups (interquartile range: 2–8). Multivariate models indicated that women’s dietary diversity differed by livestock diversity, food crop diversity and agroecology, with significant interaction effects between agroecology and MFD.
Women’s dietary diversity is poor in Ethiopia. Local markets are variable in food availability across seasons and agroecological zones. The MFD indicator captures this variability, and women who have access to higher MFD in the highland agroecological zone have better dietary diversity. Thus, MFD has the potential to mitigate the effects of environment on women’s dietary diversity.
The main aim was to examine the effect of bit depth on computed tomography (CT) number for high-density materials. Analysis of the CT number for high-density materials using 16-bit scanners will extend the CT scale that currently exists for 12-bit scanners and thus will be beneficial for use in CT–electron density (ED) curve in radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS). Implementation of this extended CT scale will compensate for tissue heterogeneity during CT–ED conversion in treatment planning.
Materials and methods
An in-house built phantom with 10 different metal samples was scanned using 80, 100 and 120 kVp in two different CT scanners. A region of interest was set at the centre of the material and the mean CT numbers together with data deviation were determined. Dosimetry calculation was performed by applying a direct anterior beam on 12-bit, 12-bit extended and 16-bit.
High-density materials (>4·34 g cm−3) in 16-bit depth provide disparities up to 44% compared to Siemens’ 12-bit extended. Influence of tube voltage showed a significant difference (p<0·05) in both bit depth and CT number of the gold and amalgam saturated in 16-bit depth. A 120 kVp energy illustrated a low variation on CT number for different scanners, but dosimetry calculation showed significant disparities at the metal interface in 12-bit, 12-bit extended and 16-bit.
High-density materials require 16-bit scanners to obtain CT number to be implemented in treatment planning in radiotherapy. This also suggests that proper tube voltage together with correct CT–ED resulted in accurate TPS algorithm calculation.
The purpose of this study is the verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) head neck treatment planning with one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) dosimeters using imaging and radiation oncology core (IROC) Houston head & neck (H&N) phantom.
The image of the H&N phantom was obtained by computed tomography scan which was then transferred to Pinnacle@3 treatment planning system (TPS) for treatment planning. The contouring of the target volumes and critical organ were done manually and dose constraints were set for each organ according to IROC prescription. The plan was optimised by adoptive convolution algorithm to meet the IROC criteria and collapse cone convolution algorithm calculated the delivered doses for treatment. Varian Clinac 2110 was used to deliver the treatment plan to the phantom, the process of irradiation and measurement were repeated three times for reproducibility and reliability. The treatment plan was verified by measuring the doses from thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and GafChromic external beam therapy 2 films. The agreement between the planned and delivered doses were checked by calculating the percentage dose differences, analysing their isodose line profiles and 2D gamma maps.
The average percent dose difference of 1·8% was obtained between computed doses by TPS and measured doses from TLDs, however these differences were found to be higher for organ at risk. The film dose profile was well in agreement with the planned dose distribution with distance to agreement of 1·5 mm. The gamma analysis of the computed and recorded doses passed the criteria of 3%/3 mm with passing percentages of >96%, which shows successful authentication of delivered doses for IMRT.
IMRT pre-treatment validation can be done with IROC anthropomorphic phantoms, which is essential for the delivery of modulated radiotherapies. It was concluded that films and TLDs can be used as quality assurance tools for IMRT.
Smellmelon is an invasive weed in the Golestan and Mazandran provinces of Iran. In a series of experiments, germination of freshly harvested seeds, cardinal temperatures, plant burial depth, and distribution and chemical control of smellmelon were evaluated to assist us in developing a management program to help growers manage this weed more effectively. The optimal seed germination temperature was estimated at 32.7 C by a two-piece segmented model. Mature fresh seeds of smellmelon exhibited no dormancy, whereas mucilage of the seed negatively affected germination. The greatest seed sowing depth from which seedlings emerged was 5 cm. Geographical distribution of smellmelon occurred up to an elevation of 350 m above sea level, whereas the density of smellmelon decreased at elevations higher than 151 m. Imazethapyr reduced plant growth and the reproductive capacity of smellmelon. Germination of seed from smellmelon plants treated with imazethapyr was significantly reduced compared with seed treated with bentazon or bentazon plus acifluorfen. A combination of tillage of deeper than 5 cm, early planting time, and the use of imazethapyr can reduce smellmelon competition in various field crops.
Investigating the mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy of 3D printed parts is an important step towards achieving optimum printing conditions. This condition, which leads to the fabrication of parts with appropriate mechanical properties and accuracy, is achieved by studying the effect of different process parameters on the final structure. In this work, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to design specified experiments to investigate the effects of layer thickness, printing orientation and delay, on the compressive strength and dimensional error of the parts. The results show that an increase in the delay time in X orientation results in better binder spreading and uniformity followed by improvement in the compression strength. Furthermore, more binder spreads in the vertical direction leads to the higher dimensional error in the Z direction. The results proved that the RSM provides a time and cost-efficient design to print the prototypes with optimum strength and dimensional error.
To verify dose delivery and quality assurance of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for head and neck (H&N) cancer.
The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC-H) H&N phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and films, were imaged with computed tomography scan and the reconstructed image was transferred to pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS). On TPS, the planning target volume (PTV), secondary target volume (STV) and organ at risk (OAR) were delineated manually and a treatment plan was made. The dose constraints were determined for the concerned organs according to IROC-H prescription. The treatment plan was optimised using adoptive convolution algorithm to improve dose homogeneity and conformity. The dose calculation was performed using C.C Convolution algorithm and a Varian True Beam linear accelerator was used to deliver the treatment plan to the H&N phantom. The delivered radiation dose to the phantom was measured through TLDs and GafChromic external beam radiotherapy 2 (EBT2) films. The dosimetric performance of the VMAT delivery was studied by analysing percent dose difference, isodose line profile and gamma analysis of the TPS-computed dose and linac-delivered doses.
The percent dose difference of 3.8% was observed between the planned and measured doses of TLDs and a 1.5-mm distance to agreement (DTA) was observed by comparing isodose line profiles. Passed the gamma criteria of 3%/3 mm was with good percentages.
The dosimetric performance of VMAT delivery for a challenging H&N radiotherapy can be verified using TLDs and films embedded in an anthropomorphic H&N phantom.
To determine the degree of food environment policies that have been implemented and supported by the Malaysian Government, in comparison to international best practice, and to establish prioritised recommendations for the government based on the identified implementation gaps.
The Healthy Food-Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) comprises forty-seven indicators of government policy practice. Local evidence of each indicator was compiled from government institutions and verified by related government stakeholders. The extent of implementation of the policies was rated by experts against international best practices. Rating results were used to identify and propose policy actions which were subsequently prioritised by the experts based on ‘importance’ and ‘achievability’ criteria. The policy actions with relatively higher ‘achievability’ and ‘importance’ were set as priority recommendations for government action.
Twenty-six local experts.
Majority (62 %) of indicators was rated ‘low’ implementation with no indicator rated as either ‘high’ or ‘very little, if any’ in terms of implementation. The top five recommendations were (i) restrict unhealthy food marketing in children’s settings and (ii) on broadcast media; (iii) mandatory nutrition labelling for added sugars; (iv) designation of priority research areas related to obesity prevention and diet-related non-communicable diseases; and (v) introduce energy labelling on menu boards for fast-food outlets.
This first policy study conducted in Malaysia identified a number of gaps in implementation of key policies to promote healthy food environments, compared with international best practices. Study findings could strengthen civil society advocacies for government accountability to create a healthier food environment.
The role of panendoscopy in the modern investigation of head and neck cancer is changing with the development of improved radiological techniques, in-office biopsy capabilities and the low rate of synchronous primary tumours. This study aimed to review the indications for panendoscopy in the investigation of newly diagnosed head and neck cancer.
A retrospective review was conducted of 186 patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer, between January 2014 and December 2015, at two tertiary centres.
Obtaining a tissue diagnosis was the most common indication for panendoscopy (65 per cent), followed by surgical planning including transoral robotic surgery suitability assessment (22.6 per cent), and the investigation of carcinoma of an unknown primary (11.3 per cent). Two synchronous primary tumours were identified, generating a yield of 1.1 per cent.
Panendoscopy remains integral in the assessment of transoral robotic surgery suitability. Refining indications for modern panendoscopy could reduce the need for this procedure in this cohort of patients.
To compare the contributions of UVB exposure and diet to total vitamin D among Asians living in Kuala Lumpur (KL) and Aberdeen (AB).
UVB exposure (using polysulfone film badges) and skin colour and dietary vitamin D intake (by web-based questionnaire) were measured at each season in AB and during south-west (SWM) and north-east monsoons (NEM) in KL.
One hundred and fifteen Asians in KL and eighty-five Asians in AB aged 20–50 years.
Median summer UVB exposure of Asians in AB (0·25 SED/d) was higher than UVB exposure for the KL participants (SWM=0·20 SED/d, P=0·02; NEM= 0·14 SED/d, P<0·01). UVB exposure was the major source of vitamin D in KL year-round (60%) but only during summer in AB (59%). Median dietary vitamin D intake was higher in AB (3·50 µg/d (140 IU/d)), year-round, than in KL (SWM=2·05 µg/d (82 IU/d); NEM=1·83 µg/d (73 IU/d), P<0·01). Median total vitamin D (UVB plus diet) was higher in AB only during summer (8·45 µg/d (338 IU/d)) compared with KL (SWM=6·03 µg/d (241 IU/d), P=0·04; NEM=5·35 µg/d (214 IU/d), P<0·01), with a comparable intake across the full year (AB=5·75 µg/d (230 IU/d); KL=6·15 µg/d (246 IU/d), P=0·78).
UVB exposure among Asians in their home country is low. For Asians residing at the northerly latitude of Scotland, acquiring vitamin D needs from UVB exposure alone (except in summer) may be challenging due to low ambient UVB in AB (available only from April to October).
Accurate three-dimensional dosimetry is essential in modern radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this research work, the PRESAGE® dosimeter was used as quality assurance (QA) tool for VMAT planning for head and neck (H&N) cancer.
Material and method
Computer tomography (CT) scans of an Image Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) H&N anthropomorphic phantom with both IROC standard insert and PRESAGE® insert were acquired separately. Both CT scans were imported into the Pinnacle (9.4 version) TPS for treatment planning, where the structures [planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk) and thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were manually contoured and used to optimise a VMAT plan. Treatment planning was done using VMAT (dual arc: 182°–178°, 178°–182°). Beam profile comparisons and gamma analysis were used to quantify agreement with film, PRESAGE® measurement and treatment planning system (TPS) calculated dose distribution.
The average ratio of TLD measured to calculated doses at the four PTV locations in the H&N phantom were between 0·95 to 0·99 for all three VMAT deliveries. Dose profiles were taken along the left–right, the anterior–posterior and superior–inferior axes, and good agreement was found between the PRESAGE® and Pinnacle profile. The mean value of gamma results for three VMAT deliveries in axial and sagittal planes were found to be 94·24 and 93·16% when compared with film and Pinnacle, respectively. The average values comparing the PRESAGE® results and dose values calculated on Pinnacle were observed to be 95·29 and 94·38% in the said planes, respectively, using a 5%/3 mm gamma criteria.
The PRESAGE® dose measurements and calculated dose of pinnacle show reasonable agreement in both axial and sagittal planes for complex dual arc VMAT treatment plans. In general, the PRESAGE® dosimeter is found to be a feasible QA tool of VMAT plan for H&N cancer treatment.
Selecting pivot features that connect a source domain to a target domain is an important first step in unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA). Although different strategies such as the frequency of a feature in a domain, mutual (or pointwise mutual) information have been proposed in prior work in domain adaptation (DA) for selecting pivots, a comparative study into (a) how the pivots selected using existing strategies differ, and (b) how the pivot selection strategy affects the performance of a target DA task remain unknown. In this paper, we perform a comparative study covering different strategies that use both labelled (available for the source domain only) as well as unlabelled (available for both the source and target domains) data for selecting pivots for UDA. Our experiments show that in most cases pivot selection strategies that use labelled data outperform their unlabelled counterparts, emphasising the importance of the source domain labelled data for UDA. Moreover, pointwise mutual information and frequency-based pivot selection strategies obtain the best performances in two state-of-the-art UDA methods.
Noor Aisha Abdul Rahman, Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Malay Studies, National University of Singapore (NUS). Her research and teaching areas include Malay legal history and institutions, Muslim law and its administration in Southeast Asia, and sociology of religion (Islam and Malay religious orientations).
Since the 1970s, Southeast Asia has witnessed the emergence of religious resurgence amongst the Malays, popularly referred to as the dakwah movement. Essentially an urban phenomenon, it is manifested in a puritanical understanding and experience of Islam expressed in various domains of life, not excluding the Muslim law otherwise known as Shariah. While there has been considerable research on the problems of Shariah revivalism in neighbouring countries, the same cannot be said for Singapore, where the Muslims are subjected to the same laws as non-Muslims in all areas except in the domain of the family and inheritance. In these areas, the AMLA (1968), supplemented by the classical Muslim law, in particular the tenets of the Shafie school, bind them while non-Muslims are subjected to the Woman's Charter (1960). This chapter analyses the mode of thinking of Singapore's Shariah revivalist proponents based on their discourse. It argues that their imagination of the Shariah is not only alienated from the legal history and tradition of the community, but reflects and breeds exclusivist and dogmatic perceptions of Shariah which impedes prospects for the development of effective Muslim law, imperative for the well-being of Muslims and the wider community.
Shariah revivalism is a major facet of the Islamic resurgence in Singapore that emerged about a decade after Independence amidst unprecedented social change induced by the process of development and nation building. For the Malays already mired in socio-economic problems under the colonial rule, adaptation to the demands of the new socio-political conditions proved highly challenging. Their stark socio-economic lag compared to non- Malays quickly drew the attention of scholars and community leaders alike who warned that their manifold problems did not bode well for the young nation as a whole.
In their attempts to alleviate the problems and propel the community's progress, the Malay elites constantly evoked religious values and cultural traditions, an effort reinforced by the government's emphasis on multiculturalism in its search for national identity. The turn to Islam as ballast for the community's socio-economic progress was neither novel nor unexpected given its strong influence on the lives of the Malays. However the potential of the religion in preparing and facilitating adaptation to the demands of modernization in the value sphere was impeded by the emergence of a religious experience strongly characterized by exclusivist, puritan and authoritarian traits.