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In this paper, a stacked microstrip patch antenna with polarization reconfigurable property has been proposed for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) application. The proposed antenna has two substrate layers: upper and lower layers with two radiating patches connected with the coaxial probe. Without the upper layer the lower square-shaped substrate layer having regular hexagonal radiating patch with probe fed acts as a linear polarized antenna with impedance bandwidth for (S11 ≤ −10 dB) is 370 MHz 10.56% (3.32–3.69 GHz) cover WiMAX (3.4–3.69 GHz) application band. The hexagonal radiating patch is perturbed with an optimum rectangular slot to enhance the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. The lower substrate layer having hexagonal patch with the same probe position is stacked with the upper square-shaped substrate layer with same sized square patch and the upper patch soldered with the coaxial probe. The overall stacked antenna generates a circularly polarized band when the opposite corner of the top square radiating patch of the upper layer is truncated with optimum size. In order to generate another circularly polarized band and to improve the input impedance matching of the stacked antenna, the top radiating patch is perturbed with two slots and a slit. The stacked circularly polarized antenna generates impedance bandwidth of 12.75% (3.23–3.67 GHz) for (S11 ≤ −10 dB) with two circularly polarized bands (3.34–3.37 GHz) and (3.66–3.70 GHz) as per (axial ratio ≤ 3 dB) for WiMAX application. Therefore, the proposed antenna can be used as linearly polarized or dual band circularly polarized according to requirement.
Anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy is of concern in children treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Risk is dose-dependent, increasing with higher doses. We aim to highlight the risk of early-onset cardiotoxicity with low-cumulative anthracycline dose in a young Omani boy with AML. We conclude in the presence of other known risk factors for cardiac dysfunction, there is probably no risk-free anthracycline dose.
The state of opinion which governs a decision on political issues is always the result of a slow evolution, extending over long periods and proceeding at many different levels. New ideas start among a few and gradually spread until they become the possession of a majority who know little of their origin.
—Friedrich Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty
The history of ideas has unfortunately been a fading concern among economists. Modern political economy primarily focuses on the role of special interests in determining public policy. These special interest coalitions are seen to have a stranglehold over the policy process. The most pessimistic variants of this view virtually rule out the possibility of policy reforms unless there is an exogenous shock that undermines the dominant coalition of interests. The role of ideas as instruments that loosen such political constraints over the long run is often ignored (Rodrik 2013). Yet policy debates have important effects on the subsequent direction of economic policy.
In a similar vein, the Indian tryst with centralized national planning was preceded by several decades of intense discussions within the Indian nationalist movement about the contours of economic policy. There was a wide agreement among nationalists that the state has to support industrialization in countries such as India that were late entrants in the development process. Their arguments constituted both a critique of colonial economic policy as well as an attempt to learn from the experiences of countries as diverse as Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union that depended on institutional innovations to begin the process of capital accumulation. This chapter will show how the economic ideas prevalent in the Indian nationalist mainstream created the intellectual conditions for the eventual establishment of the Planning Commission in 1950.
What began as a sharp critique of British colonial practice, in the early years of modern Indian nationalism after the revolt of 1857, later evolved into a broad consensus among Indian nationalists that the state should assist the industrialization drive that would be necessary to break the iron grip of mass poverty. However, there was also a gradual evolution in the consensus about what would be the principal instrument for such state-led industrialization.
Wheat, a major food crop, faces significant yield constraints due to losses caused by various diseases, especially rusts and powdery mildew. Since the causal organisms are always evolving, there is a never-ending hunt for new genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to control the damage. For this purpose, Triticum durum–Aegilops speltoides backcross introgression lines (DS-BILs) developed in our wide hybridization programme were screened against stripe rust and powdery mildew at both seedling and adult plant stages. DS-BILs showed complete to moderate resistance at the adult plant stage while varying resistance and susceptibility at the seedling stage. A total of 1095 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified on 14 chromosomes of T. durum, using genotyping by sequencing, were used for QTL mapping. Eleven unique QTLs, across six chromosomes (chr1B, chr2A, chr2B, chr3B, chr6B and chr7B) were identified for resistance, four QTLs for field mixture of stripe rust pathotypes, two QTLs for stripe rust pathotype 78S84 and five QTLs for field mixture of powdery mildew pathotypes using stepwise regression-based likelihood ratio test for additive effect of markers and single-marker analysis. Eleven DS-BILs carrying multiple QTLs were identified which will serve as a useful resource to transfer the respective resistance to susceptible cultivars to develop all stage resistant elite cultivars where QTL for stripe rust resistance QYrAs.pau-2A.1 (LOD 3.8, PVE 24.51 linked to SNP S2A_16016633) and QTL for powdery mildew resistance QPmAs.pau-6B (logarithm of the odds (LOD) 3.2, phenotypic variation explained (PVE) 17.75 linked to SNP S6B_26793381) are major targets of the transfer.
Despite persistent efforts, unmet need for contraceptives in India has declined only slightly from 14% to 13% between 2005–06 and 2015–16. Many women using a family planning method discontinue it without switching to another method and continue to have unmet need. This study quantified the share of current unmet need for modern contraceptive methods attributed to past users of these methods in India. Data were drawn from two rounds of the National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005–06 and 2015–16. Using information on women with current unmet need, and whether they used any modern method in the past, the share of past users with current unmet need for modern methods was calculated. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Among 46 million women with unmet need, 11 million were past users of modern methods in 2015–16. The share of current unmet need attributed to past users of modern contraceptive methods declined from 27% in 2005–06 to 24% in 2015–16. Share of current unmet need attributed to past users was associated with reversible method use. This share rose with increased use of modern reversible methods. With the Indian family planning programme’s focus on increasing modern reversible method use, the share of unmet need attributed to past users of modern methods is likely to increase in the future. The programme’s emphasis on continuation of contraceptive use, along with bringing in new users, could be one of the key strategies for India to achieve the FP2020 goals.
This paper assesses the reasons for non-use of contraceptive methods, and the possible complexity of reported data on women in India. The study used recent data from two successive rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) (2005–06: N=37,296; 2015–16: N=247,024), which surveyed currently married women aged 15–49 years. The reporting on non-use of contraceptives and the changing pattern of the reasons for non-use were analysed, classified into fertility and other cited reasons. The self-reported reasons for non-use of contraception were verified with other related information captured in the survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Sexual abstinence (not having sex: 10%; infrequent sex: 3%) and infecundity (menopausal/hysterectomy: 12%; subfecund/infecund: 10%) were the most commonly reported reasons for non-use of contraceptive methods in 2015–16, followed by refusal to use (10%). The proportion of non-users who wanted to have a child soon (25% to 21%), were pregnant (16% to 13%), in postpartum amenorrhoea (68% to 40%) and who had method-related reasons (10% to 6%) declined over time (from 2005–06 to 2015–16, respectively). A higher proportion of less-educated women reported abstinence (6%) and menopause/hysterectomy (19%) than educated women. Abstinence was more commonly reported in states with low prevalence of modern contraceptive use. The findings suggest that the increasing trend of abstinence and infecundity among non-users of contraception may be a concern for future research and reproductive health programmes, as it questions both the quality of data and sexual health of married couples.
The positive effect of women’s empowerment on the use of contraceptives is well established. However, the reverse effect, i.e. the potential effect of use of contraceptives on women’s empowerment, is relatively unexplored. This study examined the direct impact of contraceptive use on women’s empowerment in currently married women aged 15–49 years in India using data from the National Family Health Survey-4 conducted in 2015–16. A two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression model was used to account for the issue of endogeneity that appears in a general logit model. The use of contraceptives by the sample women was found to be associated with greater women’s empowerment in terms of both their mobility and decision-making power. The pathways to greater women’s empowerment are often presumed to be factors such as changing perception of their domestic role and sense of control over their own body. While these are integral, this paper highlights how the possible control over family size and birth interval through use of contraception may also be critical pathways to increasing women’s empowerment.
The rotational behaviour of non-spherical particles in turbulent channel flow is studied by Lagrangian tracking of spheroidal point particles in a directly simulated flow. The focus is on the complex rotation modes of the spheroidal particles, in which the back reaction on the flow field is ignored. This study is a sequel to the letter by Zhao et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 115, 2015, 244501), in which only selected results in the near-wall buffer region and the almost-isotropic channel centre were presented. Now, particle dynamics all across the channel is explored to provide a complete picture of the orientational and rotational behaviour with consideration of the effects of particle aspect ratio ranging from 0.1 to 10 and particle Stokes number from 0 (inertialess) to 30. The rotational dynamics in the innermost part of the logarithmic wall layer is particularly complex and affected not only by modest mean shear, but also by particle inertia and turbulent vorticity. While inertial disks exhibit modest preferential orientation in either the wall-normal or cross-stream direction, inertial rods show neither preferential tumbling nor spinning. Examination of the co-variances between particle orientation, particle rotation and fluid rotation vectors explains the qualitatively different ‘wall mode’ rotation and ‘centre mode’ rotation. Inertialess spheroids transition between the two modes within a narrow zone (
) in the buffer region. If the spheroids have inertia, the transition zone between the two modes shifts to the inner part of the logarithmic layer, i.e.
. We ascribe the transition of inertialess spheroids from the ‘wall mode’ to the ‘centre mode’ rotation to the changeover between the time scales associated with mean shear and small-scale turbulence. Inertial spheroids, however, transition between the two rotational modes when the Kolmogorov time scale becomes comparable to the time scale for particle rotation, i.e. the effective Stokes number is of order unity. The aforementioned findings reveal, in addition to the effects of particle shape and alignment, the importance of the characteristic local time scale of fluid flow for the rotation of both tracer and inertial spheroids in turbulent channel flows.
This study examined the pattern of economic disparity in the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) among women receiving contraceptives from the public and private health sectors in India, using data from all four rounds of the National Family Health Survey conducted between 1992–93 and 2015–16. The mCPR was measured for currently married women aged 15–49 years. A concentration index was calculated and a pooled binary logistic regression analysis conducted to assess economic disparity (by household wealth quintiles) in modern contraceptive use between the public and private health sectors. The analyses were stratified by rural–urban place of residence. The results indicated that mCPR had increased in India over time. However, in 2015–16 only half of women – 48% (33% from the public sector, 12% from the private sector, 3% from other sources) – were using any modern contraceptive in India. Over time, the economic disparity in modern contraceptive use reduced across both public and private health sectors. However, the extent of the disparity was greater when women obtained the services from the private sector: the value of the concentration index for mCPR was 0.429 when obtained from the private sector and 0.133 when from the public sector in 2015–16. Multivariate analysis confirmed a similar pattern of the economic disparity across public and private sectors. Economic disparity in the mCPR has reduced considerably in India. While the economic disparity in 2015–16 was minimal among those accessing contraceptives from the public sector, it continued to exist among those receiving services from the private sector. While taking appropriate steps to plan and monitor private sector services for family planning, continued and increased engagement of public providers in the family planning programme in India is required to further reduce the economic disparity among those accessing contraceptive services from the private sector.
Common notions around the concept of sustainability tend to be framed within the values and principles that the world's natural environments need to be used and managed in such a way as to make them available for future generations. Consequently, pedagogical approaches in environmental education that follow this intellectual thread tend to adopt a standard scientific approach to inquiry-based learning. This article argues that the features of a geographical approach to inquiry, particularly in its wider conceptualisation of fieldwork, provides a much more effective means of developing an environmental education that is more cogniscent of the deeper aspects of sustainability. While the importance of the natural systems components of sustainability cannot be ignored, they tend to displace other inherent facets within the sustainability concept and, in particular, the reality that any discussion as to the sustainable use of natural environments must incorporate knowledge and understanding of the way people interact with these environments. We contend that sustainability, when taught in schools, has tended to be environmentally and scientifically based, diminishing the role of humans. In an example of how this deficit might be overcome, the Australian Curriculum incorporates sustainability as one of the three mandatory cross-curriculum priorities; that is, one of the avenues for encouraging complementary learning and teaching across different disciplines. Within this curriculum framework, the concept is expanded to not only include a consideration of the mutual interdependence of the environmental spheres (Systems), but also World View and Futures — thus including the human component. However, using the notion of the fieldwork imperative (Casinader & Kidman, 2017), which distinguishes between the reasons why we do fieldwork and the reasons why we should do fieldwork, we argue that sustainability education would be placed more effectively within the disciplinary domain of Geography, rather than as part of an integrated curriculum approach or in Science.
Premature ventricular contractions are a rare side effect of filgrastim, reported mainly in elderly men. Here we report the case of a 9-year-old child with thalassaemia who developed frequent premature ventricular contractions after three doses of filgrastim were given for deferiprone-induced agranulocytosis. The arrhythmia resolved 3 weeks after discontinuation of filgrastim. Children treated with filgrastim should be carefully monitored for potentially serious arrhythmia.
Background: Vestibular Schwannomas (VS) have a well- documented response to Gamma Knife® Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). However, there is limited data available regarding the volumetric response of cystic tumors. This report correlates the radiographic appearance of VS before radiosurgery with the delayed volumetric response. Methods: This study reviewed 219 VS patients between 2003 and 2013. Patients were treatment naïve and had a significant extracanalicular tumor volume. MRI at SRS identified; 42 contrast enhancing macrocystic tumors, 45 contrast enhancing microcystic tumors, and 132 homogeneously enhancing tumors with no intra-tumoral cyst formation. The median follow-up was 49.1 months. The median tumor volume was 2.6cm3 (0.70-16.1cm3) and the median dose was 12.5Gy (11-13Gy). Results: The actuarial tumor control rate was 99.4% at 2-years and 96.4% at 5-years. A volumetric reduction of >20% occurred in 85.4% of macrocystic tumors, 76.1% of microcystic tumors and 62.8% of homogeneously enhancing VS. The median volume decrease per year for macrocystic, microcystic and homogenous tumors was 17.2%, 7.5% and 7.9% per year respectively (p<0.001). Serviceable hearing was maintained in 61.5% of patients that had Gardner-Robertson grade I-II hearing. Conclusions: SRS provided VS tumor control in >95% of patients, regardless of radiographic characteristics. Tumor volume regression was most evident in patients with cystic tumors.
In this paper, we report on a multifunctional battery assembly, which possesses a
balanced combination of energy storage capability and resistance to electrical
failure under mechanical impact loading. The Granular Battery Assembly (GBA)
presented here exhibits a mechanical response that emerges from features of
granular and cellular media. We demonstrate that for the specific GBA embodiment
considered in the present study, the electrical reliability following a
mechanical loading event is substantively increased compared to that of plain
battery cells. The increased reliability is due to the sacrificial material
elements interspersed between the battery units, attributing energy absorption
and local stress limiting.
The data breach of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) during the U.S.
presidential election of 2016 is multi-faceted and has wide ranging implications. The
discourse of “cybersecurity” is increasingly thought of through the lens of states
and other powerful actors like large corporations, as a conflict or war that is waged by specialized
combatants while civilians are relegated to the sidelines and are the victims of
digital malfeasance or the object of regulation and education from those in
Data on best practices for evacuating an intensive care unit (ICU) during a disaster are limited. The impact of Hurricane Sandy on New York City area hospitals provided a unique opportunity to learn from the experience of ICU providers about their preparedness, perspective, roles, and activities.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians who played direct roles during the Hurricane Sandy ICU evacuations.
Sixty-eight health care professionals from 4 evacuating hospitals completed surveys (35% ICU nurses, 21% respiratory therapists, 25% physicians-in-training, and 13% attending physicians). Only 21% had participated in an ICU evacuation drill in the past 2 years and 28% had prior training or real-life experience. Processes were inconsistent for patient prioritization, tracking, transport medications, and transport care. Respondents identified communication (43%) as the key barrier to effective evacuation. The equipment considered most helpful included flashlights (24%), transport sleds (21%), and oxygen tanks and respiratory therapy supplies (19%). An evacuation wish list included walkie-talkies/phones (26%), lighting/electricity (18%), flashlights (10%), and portable ventilators and suction (16%).
ICU providers who evacuated critically ill patients during Hurricane Sandy had little prior knowledge of evacuation processes or vertical evacuation experience. The weakest links in the patient evacuation process were communication and the availability of practical tools. Incorporating ICU providers into hospital evacuation planning and training, developing standard evacuation communication processes and tools, and collecting a uniform dataset among all evacuating hospitals could better inform critical care evacuation in the future. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:20–27)