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The swamp deer Rucervus duvaucelii is the largest grassland-dwelling endemic cervid of India and Nepal. With a declining population trend across its range, this species is found in fragmented habitats of northern, north-eastern and central India and south-western Nepal. The northern swamp deer subspecies Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii occurs in small wetland patches across the states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh in India and has lost most of its habitat in the last century. Information about the distribution of the swamp deer in the upper Gangetic plains is limited, except in the Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve in Uttarakhand and around the Bijnor barrage area of Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh. We surveyed the upper Gangetic plains between the Reserve and the Sanctuary, including some adjoining areas and three tributaries of the Ganges, to assess the status of these habitats, current swamp deer distribution and the threats faced by the species. We found several areas harbouring swamp deer within non-protected wetlands along the entire surveyed stretch of the upper Ganges and a previously unreported population in Uttar Pradesh. We documented major threats including habitat conversion, livestock grazing, poaching, conflict and other anthropogenic disturbances. We recommend community driven conservation and management of Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii in this fragmented landscape to ensure survival of this species and other threatened fauna of these wetlands and grasslands.
Linear logical frameworks with subexponentials have been used for the specification of, among other systems, proof systems, concurrent programming languages and linear authorisation logics. In these frameworks, subexponentials can be configured to allow or not for the application of the contraction and weakening rules while the exchange rule can always be applied. This means that formulae in such frameworks can only be organised as sets and multisets of formulae not being possible to organise formulae as lists of formulae. This paper investigates the proof theory of linear logic proof systems in the non-commutative variant. These systems can disallow the application of exchange rule on some subexponentials. We investigate conditions for when cut elimination is admissible in the presence of non-commutative subexponentials, investigating the interaction of the exchange rule with the local and non-local contraction rules. We also obtain some new undecidability and decidability results on non-commutative linear logic with subexponentials.
Reduction of odor-induced anxiety through a presentation of an odor has not heretofore been described.
Case report: A 69-year-old right-handed male with a five year history of generalized anxiety disorder, presented with a one and a half month history of hypersensitivity to odors of multiple synthetic chemicals manifest by the perception that these odors were more intense and unpleasant inducing nausea, abdominal cramping, coughing, a need to “get away from the smell”, and panic with intense anxiety. These symptoms would occur whenever he was exposed to these smells, 20 to 25 times a day, and would persist for 10 to 15 minutes after the exposure. When odors induced the above symptoms, exposure to the aroma of cinnamon immediately alleviated these symptoms. He now continues using cinnamon odor whenever the odor induced anxiety and associated symptoms arise. This remedy has been effective over the course of treatment, for almost two years.
Abnormalities on examination: Three per second titubation. Archimedean Spiral Test: Saw tooth pattern with macrographia. Anxious, circumstantial, overly inclusive. Unable to determine how to put on shoe covers. Impaired voluntary upward gave, but intact vertical doll’s eyes. Left torticollis. Bilateral finger to nose dysmetria. Low amplitude, high frequency tremor on extension of both upper extremities. Areflexic. Olfactory Testing: hyposmic. MRI of brain with and without infusion: mild generalized volume loss.
There are myriad mechanisms whereby odor may have reduced the odor-induced anxiety. Since aroma induced anxiogeneis is usually confined to a specific odor, it does not preclude other odors from acting in an anxiolytic manner. The combination of exposure simultaneously of anxiolytic and anxiogenic odors may have acted to increase the threshold of the anxiety producing odor, inhibiting perception of the anxiogenic odor and thus precipitation of anxiety. The two odors could have combined in an additive fashion, changing the olfactory characteristics of the anxiety provoking odor such that it no longer was perceived as the same odor and thus no anxiety. The anxiolytic/anxiogenic odor mixture could have overwhelmed the anxiogenic odor, thus creating the perception of only anxiolytic odor. On a central basis, the anxiolysis and anxiogenesis may have been induced to occur coincidently with anxiolysis superseding anxiogenesis. Alternatively, the odors may have acted as a distractor, changing the focus of attention from anxiogenic odor to a different odor which does not have the same anxiety provoking effect. Maybe because the patient already has demonstrated a heightened odor emotion linkage, he may be more susceptible to any other odor emotion effects. Trial of odors in those with odor induced anxiety warrants consideration.
Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. We have evaluated the involvement of cholinergic pathways in association with cytokines regulation as an insight into the immuno-pathogenesis of canine demodicosis in the present study. Remarkable elevations in circulatory immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 and cholinesterase activity were observed in dogs with demodicosis. Simultaneously, remarkable reduction in circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha level was observed in dogs with demodicosis. Findings of the present study evidently suggest that Demodex mites might be affecting the cholinergic pathways to induce immunosuppression in their host and then proliferate incessantly in skin microenvironment to cause demodicosis.
We reconstruct centennial scale quantitative changes in surface seawater temperature (SST), evaporation-precipitation (from Mg/Ca and δ18O of surface dwelling planktic foraminifera), productivity (from relative abundance of Globigerina bulloides), carbon burial (from %CaCO3 and organic carbon [%Corg]) and dissolved oxygen at sediment-water interface, covering the entire Holocene, from a core collected from the eastern Arabian Sea. From the multi-proxy record, we define the timing, consequences and possible causes of the mid-Holocene climate transition (MHCT). A distinct shift in evaporation-precipitation (E-P) is observed at 6.4 ka, accompanied by a net cooling of SST. The shift in SST and E-P is synchronous with a change in surface productivity. A concurrent decrease is also noted in both the planktic foraminiferal abundance and coarse sediment fraction. A shift in carbon burial, as inferred from both the %CaCO3 and %Corg, coincides with a change in surface productivity. A simultaneous decrease in dissolved oxygen at the sediment-water interface, suggests that changes affected both the surface and subsurface water. A similar concomitant change is also observed in other cores from the Arabian Sea as well as terrestrial records, suggesting a widespread regional MHCT. The MHCT coincides with decreasing low-latitude summer insolation, perturbations in total solar intensity and an increase in atmospheric CO2.
Activities such as clinical investigations (CIs) or financial processes are subject to regulations to ensure quality of results and avoid negative consequences. Regulations may be imposed by multiple governmental agencies as well as by institutional policies and protocols. Due to the complexity of both regulations and activities, there is great potential for violation due to human error, misunderstanding, or even intent. Executable formal models of regulations, protocols and activities can form the foundation for automated assistants to aid planning, monitoring and compliance checking. We propose a model based on multiset rewriting where time is discrete and is specified by timestamps attached to facts. Actions, as well as initial, goal and critical states may be constrained by means of relative time constraints. Moreover, actions may have non-deterministic effects, i.e. they may have different outcomes whenever applied. We present a formal semantics of our model based on focused proofs of linear logic with definitions. We also determine the computational complexity of various planning problems. Plan compliance problem, for example, is the problem of finding a plan that leads from an initial state to a desired goal state without reaching any undesired critical state. We consider all actions to be balanced, i.e. their pre- and post-conditions have the same number of facts. Under this assumption on actions, we show that the plan compliance problem is PSPACE-complete when all actions have only deterministic effects and is EXPTIME-complete when actions may have non-deterministic effects. Finally, we show that the restrictions on the form of actions and time constraints taken in the specification of our model are necessary for decidability of the planning problems.
The gaur (Bos gaurus), also known as the ‘Indian bison’, inhabits a wide variety of habitat across South and Southeast Asia, with a presence in three disjoint regions: southwestern India, central India and northeastern India (including Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh) (Choudhury 2002a). The habitats broadly include the tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests in the Western Ghats; tropical moist deciduous and dry deciduous forests in Central India; and tropical evergreen, semi-evergreen, subtropical broadleaf, dry deciduous and temperate broadleaf forests in northeastern India (Hussain & Khader 1969; Johnsingh 1979; Choudhury 2002a). Though gaur were once widely distributed across India, there has been a decline in their number and range, which has been primarily attributed to habitat destruction, poaching, predation – especially at calf and subadult stage – disease, insurgency, straying and various developmental activities (Imam 1985; Choudhury 2002a, 2002b).
The turn of the twentieth century witnessed a remarkable decrease in the population densities, as well as local extinctions of gaur from some protected areas (PAs), namely Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve (BTR) and Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Madhya Pradesh; Thattakad Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala and Kanger Valley National Park in Chhattisgarh (Sankar et al. 2001). These known extinctions have happened in a relatively short span of time and have necessitated urgent measures to revive the populations. The possible solution besides habitat improvement, habitat connectivity and law enforcement involves active management of the species by reintroduction, or replenishing them in vacant suitable habitats.
Concurrent Constraint Programming (CCP) is a simple and powerful model for
concurrency where agents interact by telling and asking constraints. Since their
inception, CCP-languages have been designed for having a strong connection to
logic. In fact, the underlying constraint system can be built from a suitable
fragment of intuitionistic (linear) logic -ILL- and processes can be interpreted
as formulas in ILL. Constraints as ILL formulas fail to represent accurately
situations where “preferences” (called soft constraints)
such as probabilities, uncertainty or fuzziness are present. In order to
circumvent this problem, c-semirings have been proposed as algebraic structures
for defining constraint systems where agents are allowed to tell and ask soft
constraints. Nevertheless, in this case, the tight connection to logic and proof
theory is lost. In this work, we give a proof theoretical meaning to soft
constraints: they can be defined as formulas in a suitable fragment of ILL with
subexponentials (SELL) where subexponentials, ordered in a c-semiring structure,
are interpreted as preferences. We hence achieve two goals: (1) obtain a CCP
language where agents can tell and ask soft constraints and (2) prove that the
language in (1) has a strong connection with logic. Hence we keep a declarative
reading of processes as formulas while providing a logical framework for
soft-CCP based systems. An interesting side effect of (1) is that one is also
able to handle probabilities (and other modalities) in SELL, by restricting the
use of the promotion rule for non-idempotent c-semirings.This finer way of
controlling subexponentials allows for considering more interesting spaces and
restrictions, and it opens the possibility of specifying more challenging
Biofortification (delivery of micronutrients via micronutrient-dense crops) can be achieved through plant breeding and offers a cost-effective and sustainable approach to fighting micronutrient malnutrition. The present study was conducted to facilitate the initiation of a breeding programme to improve the concentration of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds. The experiment was conducted with 64 diverse peanut genotypes for 2 years in eight different environments at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India to assess the genetic variation for Fe and Zn concentrations in peanut seeds and their heritability and correlations with other traits. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes and environments for Fe (33–68 mg/kg), Zn (44–95 mg/kg), protein (150–310 mg/g) and oil (410–610 mg/g) concentration in seeds and their heritability was high, thus indicating the possibility of improving them through breeding. As seen in other plants, a significant positive association between concentrations of Fe and Zn was observed. Trade-offs between pod yield and Fe and Zn concentrations were not observed and the same was also true for oil content. Besides being high yielding, genotypes ICGV 06099 (57 mg/kg Fe and 81 mg/kg Zn) and ICGV 06040 (56 mg/kg Fe and 80 mg/kg Zn) had stable performance for Fe and Zn concentrations across environments. These are the ideal choices for use as parents in a breeding programme and in developing mapping populations.
Iodine is an essential micronutrient needed for the production of thyroid hormones. Pregnant mothers who are deficient in iodine provide less iodine to the fetal thyroid. This results in low production of thyroid hormones by the fetal thyroid, thereby leading to compromised mental and physical development of the fetus. The current study aimed to assess the current status of iodine nutrition among pregnant mothers in Himachal Pradesh, India, a known endemic region for iodine deficiency.
Three districts, namely Kangra, Kullu and Solan, were selected.
In each district, thirty clusters (villages) were identified by utilizing the population-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each cluster, seventeen pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinics were included.
A total of 1711 pregnant mothers (647 from Kangra, 551 from Kullu and 513 from Solan) were studied. Clinical examination of the thyroid of each pregnant mother was conducted. Spot urine samples were collected from ten pregnant mothers in each cluster. Similarly, salt samples were collected from eleven pregnant mothers in each cluster.
Total goitre rate was 42·2 % (Kangra), 42·0 % (Kullu) and 19·9 % (Solan). The median urinary iodine concentration was 200 μg/l (Kangra), 149 μg/l (Kullu) and 130 μg/l (Solan). The percentage of pregnant mothers consuming adequately iodized salt (iodine content of 15 ppm and more) was found to be 68·3 % (Kangra), 60·3 % (Kullu) and 48·5 % (Solan).
Pregnant mothers in Kullu and Solan districts had iodine deficiency as indicated by a median urinary iodine concentration less than 150 μg/l.
Hemitruncus is a rare congenital heart disease. Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery is not only rare but also pathogenetically different from anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta. In most cases in isolated hemitrucus pressures in the right ventricle and the normally originating pulmonary artery are systemic or suprasystemic. We present a rare case of anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta diagnosed in an adult with normal pressures in the right ventricle and normally originating pulmonary artery. To the best of our knowledge, this unique haemodynamics has never been reported in the literature.
Mechanical flexibility is one of the key advantages of organic semiconducting films in applications such as wearable-electronics or flexible displays. The present study is aimed at gaining deeper insight into the effect of strain on charge transport properties of the organic semiconductor films. We have fabricated high performance C60 top gate organic field effect transistors (OFET) on flexible substrates and characterized the devices by curling the substrates in concave and convex manner, to apply varying values of compressive and tensile strain, respectively. Electron mobility is found to increase with compressive strain and decrease with tensile strain. The observed strain effect is found to be strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of flow of current. This observation on mobility is quantified using an Extended Gaussian Disorder Model (EGDM) for the hopping charge transport. We suggest that the observed strain dependence of the electron transport is dominated by a change in the effective charge hopping distance over the grain boundaries in polycrystalline C60 films.
Endothelial dysfunction is a turning point in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and its complications and is predictive of future cardiovascular events. Ingestion of high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals often results in postprandial hyperglycaemia and/or hypertriacylglycerolaemia that may lead to a transient impairment in endothelial function. The present review will discuss human studies evaluating the impact of high-carbohydrate and high-fat challenges on postprandial endothelial function as well as the potential role of oxidative stress in such postprandial metabolic alterations. Moreover, the present review will differentiate the postprandial endothelial and oxidative impact of meals rich in varying fatty acid types.
Spruce budworm, Choristoneurafumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), larvae can cause extensive defoliation in balsam fir (Abies balsamea [Linnaeus] Miller) and exhibit high temporal and spatial variability in individual behaviour. We gathered field data to determine the influence of daily and hourly variation in abiotic conditions on daytime activity patterns of late-instar budworm larvae on balsam fir. In both years of our study, less than 10% of larvae were observed feeding during the daytime. Most larvae observed were either resting, spinning silk, or roaming, although the proportion of individuals engaged in each activity varied between years, with more larvae in the first year roaming (48%) and in the second year either resting (38%) or spinning silk (42%). Daily and hourly variation in abiotic conditions had a limited influence on activity patterns. Our results indicate that in nature, mid- to late-instar budworm larvae maintain fairly consistent activity patterns across a wide range of abiotic conditions. We suggest that site-specific conditions such as variation in host-plant quality and/or budworm population density may be more important than weather in determining the relative frequencies of different larval activities in space and time.
To determine (1) the accuracy of positron emission tomography – computed tomography in the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, (2) the learning curve involved, and (3) whether its use alters patient management.
Materials and methods:
A retrospective study including 80 patients with head and neck cancer who underwent positron emission tomography – computed tomography image fusion at Blackpool Victoria Hospital.
Fifty-three patients underwent positron emission tomography – computed tomography for staging (32 for detection of a primary tumour and 21 for detection of distant metastasis) and 27 for detection of loco-regional recurrence. Ten primary tumours and 20 recurrences were accurately diagnosed by this method. Eighteen patients had their tumour stage and management modified as a result of this method of imaging. The effect of the learning curve resulted in better true positive detection rates, one year after introduction (81 versus 61 per cent). The sensitivity and specificity of this method in detecting head and neck cancer were 70 and 42 per cent, respectively, whereas those of conventional imaging were 73 and 51 per cent, respectively.
Compared with magnetic resonance imaging, the benefits of positron emission tomography – computed tomography may be limited to diagnosis of recurrence, as it is less hindered by tissue fibrosis, radiotherapy-related oedema, scarring and inflammation.
We examine the effect of numerical integration on the accuracy of high order conforming pyramidal finite element methods. Non-smooth shape functions are indispensable to the construction of pyramidal elements, and this means the conventional treatment of numerical integration, which requires that the finite element approximation space is piecewise polynomial, cannot be applied. We develop an analysis that allows the finite element approximation space to include non-smooth functions and show that, despite this complication, conventional rules of thumb can still be used to select appropriate quadrature methods on pyramids. Along the way, we present a new family of high order pyramidal finite elements for each of the spaces of the de Rham complex.
To describe a case of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm occurring as a rare complication of parotid surgery (to the authors' knowledge, the first such case reported), to review the aetiology of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm, and to highlight pseudoaneurysm as a cause of facial swelling after parotidectomy.
A literature search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases was carried out using the Medical Subject Heading key words ‘superficial temporal artery’, ‘aneurysm’, ‘pseudoaneurysm’ and ‘parotid’.
No previously reported cases of superficial temporal artery aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm following parotid surgery were identified.
Pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery is a rare complication of parotid surgery which has not previously been reported.
Live specimens of benthic foraminiferal species Rosalina leei were subjected to a combination of temperature (25°C, 30°C and 35°C) and salinity (25‰, 30‰ and 35‰) to assess its differential response to the annual range of seawater temperature and salinity reported at the sampling site. A total of 216 specimens were used for the experiment. Within the range of temperature and salinity, to which R. leei specimens were subjected as part of the present experiment, growth increased with increasing salinity, whereas increase in seawater temperature resulted in retarded growth. Maximum growth was reported in the specimens kept at 25°C temperature and 35‰ salinity while the rest of the specimens maintained in 30‰ and 25‰ saline water, showed comparatively less growth. The specimens kept at 30°C and 35°C temperature and different salinities showed much less growth as compared to the specimens maintained at 25°C temperature. However, none of the R. leei specimens subjected to the present experiment reproduced during the course of the experiment. The absence of reproduction under the present set of temperature and salinity conditions, probably indicates that R. leei reproduces at a very narrow range of temperature and salinity which is different from the temperature and salinity conditions in the present experiment. It is further inferred that under the present set of temperature–salinity conditions, 25°C temperature and 35‰ saline water is most suitable for the growth of R. leei. Results are significant as the responses of benthic foraminifera to different temperatures and salinity are being used for palaeoclimatic reconstruction.