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Gender, gender identity, and sexuality permeate interactions, institutions, and societies, including the organization of the political sphere, as well as the policies that states enact (Connell 1990, 2009; Orloff 1993; Risman 2004; Walby 2002). Expectations and norms around gender, gender identity, and sexuality vary from place to place, over time, and even within the same society, and play a central role in organizing all societies. Such cultural expectations are instantiated in the organization of the state, through its laws, policies, and institutions.
How will political sociology help us discern and analyze such changes now and in the next few decades? The future of politics is as uncertain as ever, but a brief overview of the history of political sociology may offer some clues to the theoretical challenges and opportunities ahead. For convenience, we divide the recent history of political sociology into three periods, suggesting that the field is now entering a fourth period with an expanding focus.
Political sociology is a large and expanding field with many new developments, and The New Handbook of Political Sociology supplies the knowledge necessary to keep up with this exciting field. Written by a distinguished group of leading scholars in sociology, this volume provides a survey of this vibrant and growing field in the new millennium. The Handbook presents the field in six parts: theories of political sociology, the information and knowledge explosion, the state and political parties, civil society and citizenship, the varieties of state policies, and globalization and how it affects politics. Covering all subareas of the field with both theoretical orientations and empirical studies, it directly connects scholars with current research in the field. A total reconceptualization of the first edition, the new handbook features nine additional chapters and highlights the impact of the media and big data.
The relative aging is an important notion which is useful to measure how a system ages relative to another one. Among the existing stochastic orders, there are two important orders describing the relative aging of two systems, namely, aging faster orders in the cumulative hazard and the cumulative reversed hazard rate functions. In this paper, we give some sufficient conditions under which one coherent system ages faster than another one with respect to the aforementioned stochastic orders. Further, we show that the proposed sufficient conditions are satisfied for k-out-of-n systems. Moreover, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the applications of proposed results.
The aim of this paper is to introduce a new stochastic order based on the residual lifetimes of two nonnegative dependent random variables and the stochastic precedence order. We develop some characterizations and preservation properties of this stochastic order. In addition, we study some of its reliability properties and its relation with other existing stochastic orders. One of the possible applications in reliability theory has also been discussed.
This paper dwells upon investigating the effect of aspect ratio (AR) variation on the aerodynamic performance of unconventional control surfaces called grid fins by virtue of a series of subsonic experiments on a simplified grid fin variant called the cascade fin. Wind tunnel tests were performed for different AR (variable span) grid fins. The same had been investigated for different gap-to-chord ratio (g/c) variants. Results demonstrated a tangible increase in the aerodynamic efficiency as well as stall angle reduction for higher AR. Moreover, higher AR leads to increased pitching moment, which emphasizes elevated hinge moment requirements. The study ensued the presence of higher deviation between the low AR fins, that is
compared to the pertinent deviations between the high AR fins, that is
. The effect associated with these variations was termed as span effect in this paper. It was established that, the deviations arising due to this phenomena were lesser for higher g/c and higher AR. The analysis of AR variation for different g/c presented a limiting value of AR reduction for stall performance enhancement. Thus, optimised selection of the g/c and AR values can lead to enhanced aerodynamic efficiency alongside an improved stalling characteristic.
Stand-off Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a critical new tool for planetary exploration. Mounted on a rover, a stand-off Raman system can be used to rapidly identify areas of interest for subsequent, synergistic investigations with other stand-off or close-up (arm-mounted) instruments; survey broad areas and perform reconnaissance tasks from a fixed location; and increase the efficiency of mission operations where targets of interest are in areas that are too hard to access for a rover. Not surprisingly, NASA’s next Mars mission will fly a stand-off Raman system as part of the SuperCam instrument package. This chapter reviews two stand-off Raman systems that paved the way for the development of new technologies and instrument architectures for robotic stand-off planetary exploration using Raman spectroscopy, including the SuperCam instrument suite.