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The effect of citalopram was investigated in 20 mentally retarded patients suffering from a depressive disorder characterized by alterations in the domains of affectivity, motivation, motor activity and vital signs. The study followed a baseline-controlled open design. Citalopram was started in a daily dosage of 20 mg that was kept unchanged for 6 weeks. Thereafter dosage was adjusted to maximally 60 mg per day. Treatment effects were assessed according to the Clinical Global Improvement Scale (CGIS) after at least 6 months.
In 12 of the 20 patients a moderate to marked improvement in all domains was observed upon treatment with 20–40 mg citalopram daily. Treatment for one year in the effective dose prevented recurrence of depressive symptomatology. Concomitant use of sedative anticonvulsants reduced responsiveness to treatment. No interactions were observed.
It is concluded that citalopram is a well-tolerated, safe and effective antidepressant in mentally retarded subjects with depressive disorders.
This knowledge translation project explored the appropriateness of utilizing health promotion materials developed for a national Indigenous population with Indigenous people living in a northern Ontario urban community. A de-colonized, community-based participatory action research approach using tribal epistemology assisted in establishing a local Indigenous advisory group and a partnership with the N’Swakamok Native Friendship Centre. Two focus groups (n = 8) with Indigenous adults and five one-on-one interviews with Indigenous caregivers of a person with dementia informed a qualitative thematic analysis. Four themes emerged from the data: (1) the need for shared understandings of Indigenous and Western cultures in health care; (2) improving cross-cultural communication within health-related encounters; (3) grounding health promotion materials in culture; and (4) Indigenous health literacy strategies for dementia awareness. As health care providers search for effective ways to communicate with Indigenous people, it is important to deliver locally and culturally relevant information to improve uptake and effectiveness by Indigenous people.
Early-life environmental and nutritional exposures are considered to contribute to the differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden. Among sub-Saharan African populations, the association between markers of early-life exposures such as leg length and sitting height and CVD risk is yet to be investigated. This study assessed the association between leg length, sitting height, and estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among Ghanaian-born populations in Europe and Ghana. We constructed sex-specific quintiles for sitting height and leg length for 3250 participants aged 40–70 years (mean age 52 years; men 39.6%; women 60.4%) in the cross-sectional multicenter Research on Diabetes and Obesity among African Migrants study. Ten-year risk of ASCVD was estimated using the Pooled Cohort Equations; risk ≥7.5% was defined as “elevated” CVD risk. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated to determine the associations between sitting height, leg length, and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk. For both men and women, mean sitting height and leg length were highest in Europe and lowest in rural Ghana. Sitting height was inversely associated with 10-year ASCVD risk among all women (PR for 1 standard deviation increase of sitting height: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.85). Among men, an inverse association between sitting height and 10-year ASCVD risk was significant on adjustment for study site, adult, and parental education but attenuated when further adjusted for height. No association was found between leg length and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk. Early-life and childhood exposures that influence sitting height could be the important determinants of ASCVD risk in this adult population.
This article explores issues of developing individual and collective professional identities within art librarianship, with an emphasis on art librarians’ relationship to art and art-making. By having more honest conversations around what art does, what artists do and how they function in society, we can challenge deeply held assumptions about art librarianship; in particular, that our work is somehow removed from the political and social contexts in which we perform it. Through critical interventions within our profession we can develop a better understanding and definition of our relationship to art and artists in order to situate ourselves within current art practices. We can then build impactful relationships and social justice-oriented solidarity with creative practitioners and artists who are actively challenging structural oppression and promoting social justice through their work.
A recent study of single-ticket buyers and subscribers at a major regional theatre – Actors Theatre of Louisville, Kentucky – focused on measuring quantitatively the psychological benefits of engaging with theatre and gathering qualitatively observations by focus groups. Both confirmed the hypothesis that regular attendance promotes flourishing and meaningful social interaction, psychological stimulation, and positive emotions. The study also affirms that attending theatre contributes to a shared sense of community, this at a time when such community appears starkly diminished in the United States. In addition, focus groups wished that audiences better reflected the demographic diversity outside the auditorium. Evident disparities include urban vs. rural, prosperous vs. not, more education vs. less, black vs. white – reflecting those that splinter national politics. One microcosm of one theatre's audience provokes suggestions to foster a more democratic audience and plural istic culture that endeavours to cross rather than ignore the divides. Russell Vandenbroucke is Professor of Theatre at the University of Louisville and Director of its Peace, Justice & Con flict Transformation programme. He was previously Artistic Director of Chicago's Northlight Theatre. Suzanne Meeks is Professor and Chair of the Psychological and Brain Sciences Department, University of Louisville. Her research focuses on mental health in later life.
The Twenty-Sixth British Combinatorial Conference was held at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow in July 2017. The British Combinatorial Committee had invited nine distinguished combinatorialists to give survey lectures in their areas of expertise, and this volume contains the survey articles on which these lectures were based.
In compiling this volume, we are very grateful to the authors for preparing their excellent surveys so professionally, and to the anonymous referees for their detailed and timely responses. We would also like to thank the team at Cambridge University Press, in particular Roger Astley, Clare Dennison and Abigail Walkington, for all their assistance and advice. Finally, we could not have completed this task without the experience of the editors of earlier volumes of Surveys and the guidance of the British Combinatorial Committee.
This volume contains nine survey articles which provide expanded accounts of plenary seminars given at the British Combinatorial Conference at the University of Strathclyde in July 2017. This biennial conference is a well-established international event attracting speakers from around the world. Written by internationally recognised experts in the field, these articles represent a timely snapshot of the state of the art in the different areas of combinatorics. Topics covered include the robustness of graph properties, the spt-function of Andrews, switching techniques for edge decompositions of graphs, monotone cellular automata, and applications of relative entropy in additive combinatorics. The book will be useful to researchers and advanced graduate students, primarily in mathematics but also in computer science and statistics.
The Tuscan city of Lucca was ruled as an independent commune in the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. As such it not only has its own records of political events, but also extensive holdings of customs accounts, commercial transactions, court records, and private documents. In these records footwear is both ubiquitous and elusive. Household accounts frequently mention the acquisition of shoes and to a lesser extent hose, yet in other sources in which clothing is listed, such as inventories or records of items seized as security for debt, footwear very rarely appears. Shoemakers and cobblers are among the most frequently mentioned types of artisan, but this is often in contexts that reveal little about the circumstances of their trade. There are problems too about the precise meaning of terms for footwear. The distinction between shoes and hose is less clear-cut than might be supposed; shoes could be made of cloth, and stockings might have soles. There are, however, a number of regulations, petitions, and contracts featuring footwear of various kinds, which convey a little more about its nature and the circumstances of its production. This article will consider what late medieval Lucchese sources can be made to reveal about footwear in the two or three decades on either side of 1400. It will proceed by discussing first demand and the acquisition of footwear, and then its manufacture and supply, particularly as shown through regulations and disputes, which can shed light on the nature of different kinds of footwear and the meaning of terms used for it.
Lucca unfortunately has very few of the ricordi or family memoirs which have proved so fruitful a source for fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Florence, but two, both of them relating to doctors, are preserved in the Lucchese archives in the series Spedale di San Luca. In the case of servants, it was not the practice to make payments of the agreed salary on a regular monthly basis, but rather to run an account which would record small cash payments and anything paid to third parties on the servant's behalf, with the totals being worked out every so often. These accounts frequently included payments to shoemakers for footwear, and can provide useful information on the frequency of such purchases and the relative costs of the various items.
MUCH OF THE WRITING about twentieth-century Scottish masculinities has focused upon the changing definitions of ‘manliness’ and its links to social, economic and domestic shifts, which have resulted in a renegotiation of men's roles. Yet despite considerable scholarship focusing on the emergence of queer masculinities in England during the interwar period, there is a paucity of research from a Scottish perspective. The notion that a solid, inflexible form of Scottish masculinity has existed relatively unchanged has rightly been challenged, but largely from a heterosexual position. Just where are Scotland's queer masculinities? This chapter will demonstrate that deviant, subversive and oppositional forms of masculinity did exist in twentieth-century Scotland, with the interwar period featuring centrally in the history of queer men and queer masculinities.
The emergence of the resolute British male has its links to Empire, where a culture of ‘otherness’ disassociated the British man from his effeminate subordinates in the colonies. Empire-driven masculinities also shunned expressive sexuality, viewing it as a dangerous threat to order and control and likely, if unrestrained, to lead to dangerous and deviant behaviours. The concept of the British soldier in World War One was built upon Edwardian notions of masculinity, which promoted self-control, emotional restraint and physical toughness. The inability of some men to adhere to these principles, as a result of either mental trauma or a failure to reassert their place within the breadwinner family model, led to considerable concerns over the shape of British manhood. Further, the queer man had come to represent an unacceptable version of masculinity, both deviant and dangerous. Noel Pemberton Billing, publisher, aviator and Member of Parliament, infamously saw within the homosexual the potential for perfidiousness, through his claim in The Imperialist magazine that Germany was infiltrating British society through the use of male and female homosexuals during World War One. German spies had allegedly formed intimate relationships with British subjects with the intention of blackmailing them for sensitive information. The homosexual was just a nudge away from treachery.