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Most studies on violence in the Hebrew Bible focus on the question of how modern readers should approach the problem. But they fail to ask how the Hebrew Bible thinks about that problem in the first place. In this work, Matthew J. Lynch examines four key ways that writers of the Hebrew Bible conceptualize and critique acts of violence: violence as an ecological problem; violence as a moral problem; violence as a judicial problem; violence as a purity problem. These four 'grammars of violence' help us interpret crucial biblical texts where violence plays a lead role, like Genesis 4-9. Lynch's volume also offers readers ways to examine cultural continuity and the distinctiveness of biblical conceptions of violence.
Power Sharing and Democracy in Post-Civil War States examines the challenge of promoting democracy in the aftermath of civil war. Hartzell and Hoddie argue that minimalist democracy is the most realistic form of democracy to which states emerging from civil war violence can aspire. The adoption of power-sharing institutions within civil war settlements helps mitigate insecurity and facilitate democracy's emergence. Power sharing promotes “democratization from above” by limiting the capacity of the state to engage in predatory behavior, and “democratization from below” by empowering citizens to participate in politics. Drawing on cross-national and case study evidence, Hartzell and Hoddie find that post-civil war countries that adopt extensive power sharing are ultimately more successful in transitioning to minimalist democracy than countries that do not. Power Sharing and Democracy in Post-Civil War States presents a new and hopeful understanding of what democracy can look like and how it can be fostered.
Systematic analysis of fiduciaries and trust is rare. The aim of this volume is to help fill this gap. The chapters explore the interactions of fiduciary law and trust, drawing on literatures on trust that have been generated in a variety of disciplines. They do so with an eye to the full scope of extension claimed for the fiduciary principle, from its heartland in private law, to its frontiers in public law and government more broadly. Overall, the volume advances an integrated and wide-ranging understanding of the relation of fiduciaries and trust that illuminates key legal and political problems, and challenges and deepens our understanding of fiduciaries and trust themselves.
Classrooms are dynamic spaces of teaching and learning, where language and culture are intertwined in remarkable ways. The theory of language socialization explores how sociocultural practices in classrooms help to shape language learning and development. This collection is the first of its kind to bring together research on this fascinating concept. It presents ten case studies, based on linguistic and ethnographic research conducted in classrooms located within communities in North America, Europe and India, spanning learners from preschool, to primary and secondary school, to university. Following an introduction that discusses the theory and core concepts of language socialization, the volume is divided into three central themes: socializing values, dispositions, and stances; socializing identities; and language socialization and ideology. Both new and more experienced researchers will appreciate its new insights into how language socialization is carried out across the globe.
Violence permeated much of social life across the vast geographical space of the European, Asian, and Islamic worlds and through the broad sweep of what is often termed the Middle Millennium (roughly 500 to 1500). Focusing on four contexts in which violence occurred across this huge area, the contributors to this volume explore the formation of centralized polities through war and conquest; institution building and ideological expression by these same polities; control of extensive trade networks; and the emergence and dominance of religious ecumenes. Attention is also given to the idea of how theories of violence are relevant to the specific historical circumstances discussed in the volume's chapters. A final section on the depiction of violence, both visual and literary, demonstrates the ubiquity of societal efforts to confront meanings of violence during this longue durée.
The first in a four-volume set, The Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 1 provides a comprehensive examination of violence in prehistory and the ancient world. Covering the Palaeolithic through to the end of classical antiquity, the chapters take a global perspective spanning sub-Saharan Africa, the Near East, Europe, India, China, Japan and Central America. Unlike many previous works, this book does not focus only on warfare but examines violence as a broader phenomenon. The historical approach complements, and in some cases critiques, previous research on the anthropology and psychology of violence in the human story. Written by a team of contributors who are experts in each of their respective fields, Volume 1 will be of particular interest to anyone fascinated by archaeology and the ancient world.
Ireland's experience in the nineteenth century was quite different from that of Victorian Britain. Its fictions were written in differing forms – like the gothic or historical novel – and its poetry and drama were populated with ballad and song. Its writers were by turns nationalist or unionist, anglophile or de-anglicising. If the effects of Famine and emigration were catastrophic for mid-nineteenth-century Irish culture, they initiated a literary story that spread across the diaspora. Despite the decline of spoken Irish, literature continued to be published, while scholarly endeavours such as translation or the Ordance Survey preserved much from the Gaelic past. This rich volume examines the many forms of new writing that thrived throughout this period. Utilizing a thematic and historical approach, it addresses addresses a broad anglophone readership in Victorian literature. Essays consider the Irish authors in America and India, women's writing, and the resilience of Irish literature before the revival.
When presidents take positions on pending Supreme Court cases or criticize the Court's decisions, they are susceptible to being attacked for acting as bullies and violating the norm of judicial independence. Why then do presidents target Supreme Court decisions in their public appeals? In this book, Paul M. Collins, Jr and Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha argue that presidents discuss the Court's decisions to demonstrate their responsiveness to important matters of public policy and to steer the implementation of the Court's decisions. Using data from Washington to Trump, they show that, far from being bullies, presidents discuss cases to promote their re-election, policy goals, and historical legacies, while attempting to affect the impact of Court decisions on the bureaucracy, Congress, the media, and the public.
Climate Change, Disasters and the Refugee Convention is concerned with refugee status determination (RSD) in the context of disasters and climate change. It demonstrates that the legal predicament of people who seek refugee status in this connection has been inconsistently addressed by judicial bodies in leading refugee law jurisdictions, and identifies epistemological as well as doctrinal impediments to a clear and principled application of international refugee law. Arguing that RSD cannot safely be performed without a clear understanding of the relationship between natural hazards and human agency, the book draws insights from disaster anthropology and political ecology that see discrimination as a contributory cause of people's differential exposure and vulnerability to disaster-related harm. This theoretical framework, combined with insights derived from the review of existing doctrinal and judicial approaches, prompts a critical revision of the dominant human rights-based approach to the refugee definition.
What do Americans want from immigration policy and why? In the rise of a polarized and acrimonious immigration debate, leading accounts see racial anxieties and disputes over the meaning of American nationhood coming to a head. The resurgence of parochial identities has breathed new life into old worries about the vulnerability of the American Creed. This book tells a different story, one in which creedal values remain hard at work in shaping ordinary Americans' judgements about immigration. Levy and Wright show that perceptions of civic fairness - based on multiple, often competing values deeply rooted in the country's political culture - are the dominant guideposts by which most Americans navigate immigration controversies most of the time and explain why so many Americans simultaneously hold a mix of pro-immigrant and anti-immigrant positions. The authors test the relevance and force of the theory over time and across issue domains.
The United States has a multidimensional set of employment law protections. From minimum wage and health and safety standards to antidiscrimination and antiretaliation protections, the law provides specific standards and structures to shield workers from egregious employer behavior and remedy the harms inflicted. These mandatory protections dovetail with the organizational power that labor law is intended to confer. The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) provides for worker representation and obligates employers to bargain with these representatives over terms and conditions of employment. Labor law specifically provides employees with representation and requires management to negotiate with those representatives. And labor law professors have marveled at the spare commands of the NLRA and the depth of the Board’s interpretive nuance, as refined over 80 years.
International Law and the Cold War is the first book dedicated to examining the relationship between the Cold War and International Law. The authors adopt a variety of creative approaches - in relation to events and fields such as nuclear war, environmental protection, the Suez crisis and the Lumumba assassination - in order to demonstrate the many ways in which international law acted upon the Cold War and in turn show how contemporary international law is an inheritance of the Cold War. Their innovative research traces the connections between the Cold War and contemporary legal constructions of the nation-state, the environment, the third world, and the refugee; and between law, technology, science, history, literature, art, and politics.
Union density – the number of union members as a share of all wage and salary earners in employment – is labor unions’ primary power resource. Union members contribute dues, which finance unions’ collective bargaining activities, strike funds, and political advocacy. Becoming a union member entails commitments to participate in strikes, work stoppages, and other demonstrations of strength. Unions are “schools of democracy,” providing opportunities for learning, participation, and leadership in the roles and obligations of industrial, and, by extension, political citizenship.
The majority of traumatic hemothoraces can be managed successfully with a chest tube placement.
Retained hemothorax is defined as residual pleural blood >300–500 mL after initial thoracostomy tube evacuation.
The gold standard for diagnosing retained hemothorax is a noncontrast CT scan of the chest. A chest X-ray is not reliable in the accurate diagnosis of retained hemothorax.
VATS is usually contraindicated in patients with previous thoracic operations and in patients with respiratory failure or significant contralateral lung injury, such as contusion, atelectasis, or pneumonia, because single-lung ventilation may not be tolerated.
Ideally, VATS should be done within the first 3–5 days. Early VATS (within 72 hours of admission) for evacuation of retained hemothorax reduces hospital length of stay, number of procedures, and cost. VATS is more difficult and less effective if performed more than 7–10 days after the injury, due to clot organization and dense adhesions.
The inferior vena cava (IVC) is formed by the confluence of the common iliac veins, just anterior to the L5 vertebral body, and posterior to the right common iliac artery. As it courses superiorly towards the diaphragm, it lies to the right of the lumbar and thoracic vertebral bodies. It enters the thorax at T8, where the right crus of the diaphragm separates the IVC and aorta. In most individuals, there is a small segment of suprahepatic IVC, about 1 cm in length, between the liver and diaphragm, which is amenable to cross clamping.
The IVC receives four or five pairs of lumbar veins, the right gonadal vein, the renal veins, the right adrenal vein, the hepatic veins, and the phrenic veins. It is of practical importance to remember that all lumbar veins are below the renal veins and that between the renal veins and the hepatic veins, besides the right adrenal vein, there are no other venous branches. The left lumbar veins pass behind the abdominal aorta.
The confluence of the renal veins with the IVC lies posterior to the duodenum and the head of the pancreas.
The retrohepatic IVC is about 8–10 cm in length and is adhered to the posterior liver, helping to anchor the liver in place. In this liver “tunnel,” several accessory veins from the caudate lobe and right lobe drain directly into the IVC.
There are three major hepatic veins which drain the liver into the IVC. The extrahepatic portion of these veins is short, measuring about 0.5–1.5 cm in length. The right hepatic vein is the largest. In about 70% of individuals, the middle vein drains into the left hepatic vein to enter the IVC as a single vein.
The thoracic IVC is almost entirely in the pericardium.
The common femoral artery is a continuation of the external iliac artery and is approximately 4 cm long. It begins directly behind the inguinal ligament, midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis.
The profunda femoris artery arises from the lateral aspect of the common femoral artery, towards the femur, approximately 3–4 cm below the inguinal ligament. The common femoral artery continues obliquely down the anteromedial aspect of the thigh as the superficial femoral artery.
The superficial femoral artery exits the femoral triangle to enter the subsartorial canal and ends by passing through an opening in the adductor magnus to become the popliteal artery.
In the upper third of the thigh, the femoral vessels are contained within the femoral triangle (Scarpa’s triangle).
The femoral triangle is formed laterally by the medial border of the sartorius muscle, medially by the adductor longus, and superiorly by the inguinal ligament.
In the femoral triangle, the femoral vein lies medial to the femoral artery. The greater saphenous vein drains into the femoral vein about 3–4 cm below the inguinal ligament; further distally, the femoral vein lies posterior to the artery and maintains this relationship in the popliteal fossa. The femoral nerve and its branches are found lateral to the common femoral artery.
In the middle third of the thigh, the femoral artery lies within the adductor canal (Hunter’s canal), an aponeurotic tunnel in the middle third of the thigh that extends from the apex of the femoral triangle to the opening in the adductor magnus.
The adductor canal is bounded by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the vastus medialis laterally, and the adductor longus and magnus posteromedially. A fascial plane between the vastus medialis and adductor longus and magnus covers the canal.
The canal contains the femoral artery and vein, the saphenous nerve which crosses from lateral to medial, and branches of the femoral nerve.
The femoral vein courses from a medial position in the groin to a posterior and then lateral position with respect to the artery as it moves distally towards the knee.
The greater saphenous vein courses medially to lie on the anterior surface of the thigh, before entering the fascia lata and joining the common femoral vein at the sapheno-femoral junction near the femoral triangle.
The following are the major muscles that will be encountered and may be divided during thoracic operations for trauma.
Anterior Chest Wall: Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles
Pectoralis major muscle: It originates from the anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle, the anterior surface of the sternum, and the cartilages of all the true ribs (1–7 ribs). The 5-cm wide tendon inserts into the upper humerus.
Pectoralis minor muscle: It arises from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs, near their cartilages, and from the aponeuroses over the intercostal muscles. It inserts into the coracoid process of the scapula.
Lateral Chest Wall: Serratus anterior muscle
Serratus anterior muscle: It originates from the lateral part of the first eight to nine ribs and inserts into the medial aspect of the scapula.
Posterior Chest Wall: Latissimus Dorsi
Latissimus Dorsi muscle: It originates from the spinal processes of the lower thoracic spine and the posterior iliac crest and inserts into the upper portion of the humerus.
The spleen lies under the ninth to eleventh ribs, under the diaphragm. It is lateral to the stomach and anterosuperior to the left kidney. The tail of the pancreas is in close anatomical proximity to the splenic hilum and amenable to injury during splenectomy or hilar clamping.
The spleen is held in place by four ligaments, which include the splenophrenic and splenorenal ligaments posterolaterally, the splenogastric ligament medially, and the splenocolic ligament inferiorly. The splenorenal ligament begins at the anterior surface of Gerota’s fascia of the left kidney and extends to the splenic hilum, as a two-layered fold that invests the tail of the pancreas and splenic vessels. The splenophrenic ligament connects the posteromedial part of the spleen to the diaphragm, and the splenocolic ligament connects the inferior pole of the spleen to the splenic flexure of the colon. The splenogastric ligament is the only vascular ligament and contains five to seven short gastric vessels that originate from the distal splenic artery and enter the greater curvature of the stomach. Excessive retraction of the splenic flexure or the gastrosplenic ligaments can easily tear the splenic capsule and cause troublesome bleeding.
The mobility of the spleen depends on the architecture of these ligaments. In patients with short and well-developed ligaments, mobilization is more difficult and requires careful dissection in order to avoid further splenic damage.
The splenic hilum contains the splenic artery and vein and is often intimately associated with the tail of the pancreas. The extent of the space between the tail of the pancreas and the splenic hilum varies from person to person.
The splenic artery is a branch of the celiac axis that courses superior to the pancreas towards the splenic hilum where it divides into upper and lower pole arteries. There is significant variability in where this branching occurs. Most people, approximately 70%, have a distributed or medusa like branching that occurs 5–10 cm from the spleen. Simple branching occurs in approximately 30%, 1–2 cm from the spleen.
The splenic vein courses posterior and inferior to the splenic artery, receives the inferior mesenteric vein, and joins the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein.
This is a hyperextension injury in ulnar deviation: a Mayfield stage 4. Lower-energy hyperextension injuries might result in scapholunate ligament injury. In order to dislocate the lunate, this patient must have torn the scapholunate ligament, dislocated the lunocapitate joint, torn the lunotriquetral ligament and the dorsal radiolunate ligament. The only remaining ligamentous attachments are the strong volar radiocarpal ligaments.
A 38-year-old left-hand dominant lady fell on to her right arm when out drinking and attended the accident and emergency department the next day at 4 pm as the pain in the right shoulder had not settled down. These are the X-rays of her right shoulder (Figure 12.1a). What is your diagnosis?
Anterior dislocation of the right shoulder with an associated greater tuberosity (GT) fracture. Complete loss of joint congruence is demonstrated on the AP view, while the anterior displacement is best demonstrated on the axial view. There is no visible evidence of fracture through the anatomical neck, although this occurs in about 10% of cases. This pattern of injury is more in keeping with this patient’s age than surgical neck fracture, which is more typically seen in an older demographic.