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Development of high-efficiency solar cell modules and new application fields are significant for the further development of photovoltaics (PV) and creation of new clean energy infrastructure based on PV. Especially, development of PV-powered EV applications is desirable and very important for this end. This paper shows analytical results for efficiency potential of various solar cells for choosing candidates of high-efficiency solar cell modules for automobile applications. As a result of analysis, Si tandem solar cells are thought to be some of their candidates. This paper also overviews efficiency potential and recent activities of various Si tandem solar cells such as III-V/Si, II-VI/Si, chalcopyrite/Si, perovskite/Si and nanowire/Si tandem solar cells. The III-V/Si tandem solar cells are expected to have a high potential for various applications because of high efficiency with efficiencies of more than 36% for 2-junction and 42 % for 3-junction tandem solar cells under 1-sun AM1.5 G, lightweight and low-cost potential. Recent results for our 28.2 % efficiency and Sharp’s 33% mechanically stacked InGaP/GaAs/Si 3-junction solar cell are also presented. Approaches to automobile application by using III-V/Si tandem solar cells and static low concentration are presented.
Although individual values have been scarcely studied in the entrepreneurship literature, existing research provides evidence that they are relevant for understanding entrepreneurial behavior. Values, however, do not necessarily influence action in a direct way. Instead, they may indirectly predict behavior via more proximal psychological processes. We build upon previous research in entrepreneurship values using Schwartz (1992) individual-values theory and Frese’s (2007) entrepreneurial action theory, and propose a theoretical model in which individual values have an indirect effect on entrepreneurial behavior through a series of four ulterior cognitive processes: Goal setting and intentions, mapping of information about the environment, planning and monitoring of the execution, and feedback processing. In doing so we integrate the theory of individual values with entrepreneurial cognition research. Despite their complementarity, these two theoretical approaches have not been studied together before. In this way, we offer new insights on the way individual values can explain entrepreneurial action. Based on these two lines of research we additionally propose a research agenda.
Two radiocarbon (14C) excursions are caused by an increase of incoming cosmic rays on a short time scale found in the Late Holocene (AD 774–775 and AD 993–994), which are widely explained as due to extreme solar proton events (SPE). In addition, a larger event has also been reported at 5480 BC (Miyake et al. 2017a), which is attributed to a special mode of a grand solar minimum, as well as another at 660 BC (Park et al. 2017). Clearly, other events must exist, but could have different causes. In order to detect more such possible events, we have identified periods when the 14C increase rate is rapid and large in the international radiocarbon calibration (IntCal) data (Reimer et al. 2013). In this paper, we follow on from previous studies and identify a possible excursion starting at 814–813 BC, which may be connected to the beginning of a grand solar minimum associated with the beginning of the Hallstatt period, which is characterized by relatively constant 14C ages in the period from 800–400 BC. We compare results of annual 14C measurements from tree rings of sequoia (California) and cedar (Japan), and compare these results to other identified excursions, as well as geomagnetic data. We note that the structure of the increase from 813 BC is similar to the increase at 5480 BC, suggesting a related origin. We also assess whether there are different kinds of events that may be observed and may be consistent with different types of solar phenomena, or other explanations.
We have previously shown that the C-terminal region of the intermediate subunit of Entamoeba histolytica galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin (C-Igl) is a useful antigen for serodiagnosis of amebiasis. An immunochromatographic kit was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles coated with C-Igl prepared in Escherichia coli. Samples for examination were added to the freeze-dried particles and then applied to the immunochromatographic device, in which a test line on the membrane was also coated with C-Igl. Fluorescent intensity was measured using a hand-held reader. In an evaluation of the kit using a human monoclonal antibody, the minimum amount of C-Igl specific antibody showing positive results was 100 pg. In the evaluation of serum samples with different antibody titers in indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests in the kit, 20 µL of serum was sufficient to obtain positive results at 30 min. Serum samples from symptomatic patients with amebic colitis and amebic liver abscess and those from asymptomatic E. histolytica-cyst carriers showed positive results in the kit. Based on evaluation using sera from healthy controls and patients with other infectious diseases, the sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 100 and 97.6%, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that the newly developed kit is useful for rapid serodiagnosis of amebiasis.
Egg-white protein (EWP) is known to reduce lymphatic TAG transport in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary EWP on body fat mass. Male rats, 4 weeks old, were fed diets containing either 20 % EWP or casein for 28 d. Carcass protein levels and gastrocnemius leg muscle weights in the EWP group were significantly higher than those in the casein group. In addition, carcass TAG levels and abdominal fat weights in the EWP group were significantly lower than those in the casein group; adipocyte size in abdominal fat in the EWP group was smaller than that in the casein group. To identify the involvement of dietary fat levels in the rats, one of two fat levels (5 or 10 %) was added to their diet along with the different protein sources (EWP and casein). Abdominal fat weight and serum and hepatic TAG levels were significantly lower in the EWP group than in the casein group. Moreover, significantly higher values of enzymatic activity related to β-oxidation in the liver were observed in the EWP group compared with the casein group. Finally, abdominal fat weight reduction in the EWP group with the 10 % fat diet was lower than that in the EWP group with the 5 % fat diet. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, dietary EWP reduces body fat mass in rats through an increase of body protein mass and the acceleration of β-oxidation in the liver.
This study assessed whether agricultural and household incomes were the same across different agro-ecological environments in Bangladesh. An in-depth analysis of the effect of unfavourable ecologies on maternal and child malnutrition was carried out. Data were from a longitudinal data set comprising a nationally representative data sample collected in 2014 and the Food Security Nutrition Surveillance Project (FSNSP) conducted in 2011 and 2012. Anthropometric indices were used to assess the nutritional status of mothers and under-five children. The key variables of interest were food seasonality and geographical location. Data were analysed using the General Linear Model and multinomial and binary logistic regression analysis. Panel data analysis showed that household income was not equal across agro-ecological zones, indicating that the fragility of the environment affects a household’s ability to access food, and thus the nutritional status of mothers and children. Coastal areas of Bangladesh were found to be less dependent on agriculture, particularly cultivation, which had diminished during last few decades. Per capita income has been increasing in coastal areas of Bangladesh, led by remittance (money sent home by migrant workers) growing at 8% per year against 6% in other areas. Regression analysis showed that a household in a coastal zone earned 19% less than one in more favourable zones. Although the income from farm practices was found to be lower in unfavourable areas, the deficiency was compensated by increased non-farm incomes. The results from the FSNSP data showed that overall the rates of stunting and wasting among under-five children were 37% and 11.7%, respectively, and nearly 28% of mothers suffered from undernutrition. A highly significant regional heterogeneity in undernutrition was found, with alarmingly high levels in the Haor Basin and coastal belt areas. There were significantly higher rates of underweight and wasting in the monsoon season compared with the two harvest seasons among children under the age of five. The findings stress the importance of bringing geographical location and seasonality thinking into debates on hunger and nutrition in Bangladesh.
The so-called Millennium Eruption of Baitoushan Volcano is one of the largest of the Common Era but its date has been uncertain. Recently, Oppenheimer et al. (2017) reported the eruptive year as late AD 946 using a new method called carbon-14 spike matching. However, it is necessary to verify their result to confirm the eruptive year, since only one wood sample was used in their study. We verified the eruptive year by measuring 14C contents in tree rings from another wood sample buried during the Baitoushan eruption. We succeeded in reproducing the AD 774–775 14C spike (Miyake et al. 2012), and counted the number of rings from the outermost ring accompanied by bark to the ring possessing the AD 774–775 14C spike. We found the outermost ring was formed in AD 946. Our study supported the result of Oppenheimer et al. (2017), which makes the eruptive year conclusive. Also, we suggest that the 14C spike-matching method can be a prominent dating tool applicable to ancient woods that are difficult to date using the usual dendrochronology techniques.
Two radiocarbon excursions (AD 774–775 and AD 993–994) occurred due to an increase of incoming cosmic rays on a short timescale. The most plausible cause of these events is considered to be extreme solar proton events (SPE). It is possible that there are other annual 14C excursions in the past that have yet to be confirmed. In order to detect more of these events, we measured the 14C contents in bristlecone pine tree-ring samples during the periods when the rate of 14C increase in the IntCal data is large. We analyzed four periods every other year (2479–2455 BC, 4055–4031 BC, 4465–4441 BC, and 4689–4681 BC), and found no anomalous 14C excursions during these periods. This study confirms that it is important to do continuous measurements to find annual cosmic-ray events at other locations in the tree-ring record.
To investigate the relationship between the severities of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and white matter alterations.
We applied tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquired by 3T magnetic resonance imaging. First, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) between 20 OCD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC). Then, applying whole brain analysis, we searched the brain regions showing correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions assessed by Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and FA in all participants. Finally, we calculated the correlations between the six symptom dimensions and multiple DTI measures [FA, axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD)] in a region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and explored the differences between OCD patients and HC.
There were no between-group differences in FA or brain region correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions and FA in any of the participants. ROI analysis revealed negative correlations between checking severity and left inferior frontal gyrus white matter and left middle temporal gyrus white matter and a positive correlation between ordering severity and right precuneus in FA in OCD compared with HC. We also found negative correlations between ordering severity and right precuneus in RD, between obsessing severities and right supramarginal gyrus in AD and MD, and between hoarding severity and right insular gyrus in AD.
Our study supported the hypothesis that the severities of respective symptom dimensions are associated with different patterns of white matter alterations.
Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli to vertebrate hosts. Rhodnius prolixus is also a classical model in insect physiology, and the recent availability of R. prolixus genome has opened new avenues on triatomine research. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is classically described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism, also acting as a downstream component of the Wnt pathway during embryogenesis. GSK-3 has been shown to be highly conserved among several organisms, mainly in the catalytic domain region. Meanwhile, the role of GSK-3 during R. prolixus embryogenesis or glycogen metabolism has not been investigated. Here we show that chemical inhibition of GSK-3 by alsterpaullone, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK3, does not affect adult survival rate, though it alters oviposition and egg hatching. Specific GSK-3 gene silencing by dsRNA injection in adult females showed a similar phenotype. Furthermore, bright field and 4’−6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining analysis revealed that ovaries and eggs from dsGSK-3 injected females exhibited specific morphological defects. We also demonstrate that glycogen content was inversely related to activity and transcription levels of GSK-3 during embryogenesis. Lastly, after GSK-3 knockdown, we observed changes in the expression of the Wingless (Wnt) downstream target β-catenin as well as in members of other pathways such as the receptor Notch. Taken together, our results show that GSK-3 regulation is essential for R. prolixus oogenesis and embryogenesis.
The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country’s health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996–2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted). The socioeconomic status variables used were region, urban–rural residence, education and occupation of the parents, house type and household possession score. A series of General Linear Model and Sequential Linear and Binary Logistic Regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status. The trends of Z-scores were analysed by survey, as well as by child birth cohort. Region, house type, educational level of parents and household possession score showed significant associations with all three Z-scores of children after removing the effects of age, period of DHS and other explanatory variables in the model. No significant sex difference was observed between any of the Z-scores. There were improvements in mean WAZ and HAZ between 1996 and 2007 but deterioration in mean WHZ over this period. The obesity rate was below 2% in 2007, although the absolute numbers of obese children had nearly doubled in this 12-year period. Children from poorer households showed greater improvement than their better-off counterparts. The study reveals that over the years there has been substantial improvement in nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh and the main gains have been amongst the lower socioeconomic groups; it is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem, like poverty itself, and warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention.
To concomitantly determine the differential degrees of air and environmental contamination by Acinetobacter baumannii based on anatomic source of colonization and type of ICU layout (single-occupancy vs open layout).
Longitudinal prospective surveillance study of air and environmental surfaces in patient rooms.
A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida.
Consecutive A. baumannii–colonized patients admitted to our ICUs between October 2013 and February 2014.
Air and environmental surfaces of the rooms of A. baumannii–colonized patients were sampled daily for up to 10 days. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type and match the matching air, environmental, and clinical A. baumannii isolates.
A total of 25 A. baumannii–colonized patients were identified during the study period; 17 were colonized in the respiratory tract and 8 were colonized in the rectum. In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 38.3% of air samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 13.1% of air samples were positive (P=.0001). In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 15.5% of environmental samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 9.5% of environmental samples were positive (P=.02). The rates of air contamination in the open-layout and single-occupancy ICUs were 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively (P=.5). Environmental surfaces were positive in 9.5% of instances in open-layout ICUs versus 13.4% in single-occupancy ICUs (P=.09).
Air and environmental surface contaminations were significantly greater among rectally colonized patients; however, ICU layout did not influence the rate of contamination.
To analyse trends in maternal nutritional status in Bangladesh over a 12-year period and to examine the associations between nutritional status and socio-economic variables.
Maternal nutritional status indicators were height, weight and BMI. Socio-economic variables used were region, residency, education and occupation of the mothers and their husbands, house type, and possession score in the household.
Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (1996, 2000, 2004 and 2007) were the source of data.
A total of 16 278 mothers were included.
All of the socio-economic variables showed significant associations with maternal nutritional status indicators. Regional variation was found to be present; all three indicators were found to be lowest in the Sylhet division. Upward trends in maternal height, weight and BMI were evident from no possessions to four possessions in households, and for no education to higher education of women and their husbands. Bangladeshi mothers measured in 2007 were found to be on average 0·34 cm taller and 3·36 kg heavier than mothers measured in 1996. Between 1996 and 2007 maternal underweight fell from nearly 50 % to just over 30 % while overweight and obesity increased from about 3 % to over 9 % (WHO cut-offs) or from 7 % to nearly 18 % (Asian cut-offs).
The study reveals that over the 12-year period in Bangladesh there has been a substantial reduction in maternal underweight accompanied by a considerable increase in obesity. It is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem that warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention.
Tidal interactions are a key process to understand the evolution history of close-in exoplanets. But tidals still have a large uncertainty in their prediction for the damping timescales of stellar obliquity and semi-major axis. We have worked on a search for transiting giant planets around evolved stars, for which few close-in planets were discovered. It has been reported that evolved stars lack close-in planets, which is often attributed to the tidal evolution and/or engulfment of close-in planets by the hosts. Meanwhile, Kepler has detected a certain fraction of transiting planet candidates around evolved stars. Confirming the planetary nature for these candidates is especially important since the comparison between the occurrence rates of close-in planets around main sequence stars and evolved stars provides a unique opportunity to discuss the final stage of close-in planets. With the aim of confirming KOI planet candidates around evolved stars, we measured precision radial velocities (RVs) for evolved stars with transiting planet candidates using Subaru/HDS. We also developed a new code which simultaneously models and fits the observed RVs and phase-curve variations in the Kepler data (e.g., transits, stellar ellipsoidal variations, and planet emission/reflected light). As a result of applying the global fit to KOI giants/subgiants, we confirmed two giant planets around evolved stars (Kepler-91 and KOI-1894), as well as revealed that KOI-977 is more likely a false positive.
be a complex semisimple linear algebraic group and let Pet be the associated Peterson variety in the flag variety
. The main theorem of this note gives an eõcient presentation of the equivariant cohomology ring
(Pet) of the Peterson variety as a quotient of a polynomial ring by an ideal
generated by quadratic polynomials, in the spirit of the Borel presentation of the cohomology of the flag variety. Here the group
is a certain subgroup of a maximal torus
. Our description of the ideal
uses the Cartan matrix and is uniform across Lie types. In our arguments we use the Monk formula and Giambelli formula for the equivariant cohomology rings of Peterson varieties for all Lie types, as obtained in the work of Drellich. Our result generalizes a previous theorem of Fukukawa–Harada–Masuda, which was only for Lie type
Alumina matrix solidification is a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique used to immobilize radioactive iodine (129I) in the form of silver iodide. In the present study, an alumina matrix solidification sample with a porosity of 12.9% was obtained by performing HIP at 175 MPa and 1200°C for 3 hours on a simulated spent silver-sorbent saturated with stable iodine. Material Characterization Centre-1 (MCC-1) leaching tests for the simulated waste form were performed using hydrosulfide (HS-) as a reductant at concentrations ranging from 3 × 10-7 M to 3 × 10-3 M and at pH values ranging from 8.0 to 12.5. Leached iodine concentrations were below the detection limit for ICP-MS measurements at HS- concentrations of 3 × 10-7 M and 3 × 10-5 M. This result was due to the stability of AgI. At an HS- concentration of 3 × 10-3 M, iodine leaching rapidly increased within 10 days. The maximum iodine concentration in the solution was 4.33 × 10-3 M, which corresponds to 85% dissolution of the initial iodine. This value was measured after 552 days under an HS- concentration of 3 × 10-3 M at pH 11. An analysis of specimen cross-sections suggested the following reaction: 2AgI + HS- = Ag2S + 2I- + H+. The pH affected matrix aluminum dissolution but did not significantly affect the iodine leaching behavior. Furthermore, the normalized mass loss of iodine was larger than that of aluminum by a factor greater than 104, which is due to the large porosity and the dissolution of interior AgI of the solid.