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To investigate, through a questionnaire, older adults’ demographic and socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices in terms of food safety and healthy diet; and to develop dietary and hygiene indices able to represent participants’ nutritional and food safety behaviour, exploring their association with demographic and socio-economic factors.
One-year cross-sectional study.
Gemelli Teaching Hospital (Rome, Italy).
People aged ≥65 years, Italian speaking, accessing the Centre of Ageing Medicine.
Mean age of the sample was 74 (sd 7·7) years. Subjective perception of a safe diet was high: 64·2 % of respondents believed they have a balanced diet. Interviewees got informed about proper nutrition mainly from television, magazines, newspapers, Internet (29·9 %) and from health professionals (34·8 %) such as dietitians, whereas 15·4 % from general practitioners. Regarding food safety, 33·8 % of participants reported to consume expired food, even more than once per month; between 80 and 90 % of participants reported to follow food safety practices during preparation and cooking, even though 49·3 % defrosted food at room temperature. Calculated dietary and hygiene indices showed that the elderly participants were far from having optimal nutritional and food safety behaviours.
These results suggest it is necessary to increase the awareness of older adults in the matter of healthy diet and food safety. Specific and targeted educational interventions for the elderly and their caregivers could improve the adoption of recommended food safety practices and safe nutritional behaviours among older adults.
AlCoCrFeNi is among the promising high-entropy alloys (HEAs) that possess high strength with considerable ductility. Powder sintering is one of the competitive routes for the production of HEA powders. However, sintering of HEA powders under a pressureless condition is difficult. The present work aims to produce high-density components from mechanically alloyed AlCoCrFeNi HEA powders through the pressureless sintering method. Nearly full density was achieved at 1275 °C. Sintering was performed in the presence of a viscous phase in the temperature range of 1200–1250 °C, which was confirmed through differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometric measurements. This viscous phase was found have a Cr-rich composition, detected by interrupting the sintering and quenching of the sample. The powder initially contained the BCC phase with a small fraction of FCC and other phases. During sintering, a significant fraction of the FCC phase and nanosized B2 phase were formed. Sintered sample had a hardness of 679 ± 20 Hv.
Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) show aberrant brain activation patterns during reward and loss anticipation. We examined for the first time longitudinal changes in brain activation during win and loss anticipation to identify trait markers of aberrant anticipatory processing in BD.
Thirty-four euthymic and depressed individuals with BD-I and 17 healthy controls (HC) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging twice 6 months apart during a reward task.
HC, but not individuals with BD, showed longitudinal reductions in the right lateral occipital cortex (RLOC) activation during processing of cues predicting possible money loss (p-corrected <0.05). This result was not affected by psychotropic medication, mood state or the changes in depression/mania severity between the two scans in BD. Elevated symptoms of subthreshold hypo/mania at baseline predicted more aberrant longitudinal patterns of RLOC activation explaining 12.5% of variance in individuals with BD.
Increased activation in occipital cortex during negative outcome anticipation may be related to elevated negative emotional arousal during anticipatory cue processing. One interpretation is that, unlike HC, individuals with BD were not able to learn at baseline that monetary losses were smaller than monetary gains and were not able to reduce emotional arousal for negative cues 6 months later. Future research in BD should examine how modulating occipital cortical activation affects learning from experience in individuals with BD.
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are receiving considerable attention since last decade because of their ability to give excellent strength with reasonably good elongation during fracture. The mechanical alloying followed by sintering is one of the routes for fabrication; however, there are limited reports on sintering mechanisms of HEA powders. The present investigation studies sintering mechanisms of CoCrFeNi alloy powders in as-milled and annealed conditions using dilatometer experiments. The annealed powder shows slower densification behavior and higher activation energy of sintering, compared to the as-milled powder. Diffusion coefficients were analyzed through sintering models and compared with literature data. The as-milled powder was found to exhibit mixed response, i.e., the grain boundary diffusion seems to be dominating initially due to a large grain boundary fraction but volume diffusion (VD) also contributes significantly, due to high defect concentration and metastable phases. VD was found to be the dominating mechanism during sintering of single phase, stable annealed powder.
Weed-suppressive rice cultivars have the potential to reduce heavy reliance on synthetic herbicides in rice production. However, the economics of using weed-suppressive rice cultivars in conventional rice systems have not been fully evaluated. This study uses simulation and stochastic efficiency with respect to a function to rank weed-suppressive and weed-nonsuppressive rice cultivars under alternative herbicide intensity levels based on their certainty equivalents mapped across increasing levels of absolute risk aversion. The results indicate risk-averse rice producers would prefer to grow weed-suppressive cultivars using less herbicide inputs than what would be used to grow weed-nonsuppressive rice cultivars.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The promise and potential of connected personal health records (PHRs) has not come to fruition. This may be, in part, due to the lack of user-centered design and of a patient-centric approach to curating personal health data for use by patients. Co-design with end-users could help mitigate these issues by ensuring the software meets user’s needs, and also engages patients in informatics research. Our team partnered with patients with multiple chronic conditions to co-design a patient-centric PHR. This abstract will describe our experience with the co-design process, highlight functionalities desired by patients, and showcase the final prototype. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted 3 design sessions (90 min per session) with patients as co-designers and employed an iterative process for software development. Patients were recruited from Chapel Hill and surrounding areas. The initial design session laid the foundation for future sessions, and began with brainstorming about what patients thought their ideal version of an engaging connected PHR would look like in terms of features and functionalities. After each software iteration, our entire design team, including our patient co-designers, was shown the prototype during a subsequent design session. Once the final prototype was developed, usability testing was conducted with patient participants. Our team then conducted a final design session to debrief about the final prototype. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We started with an initial group of 12 patients (6 males) who all had diabetes and an additional comorbidity such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Age of participants ranged from 30 to 77 years with an average age of 56. The majority of participants were Caucasian with 1 Asian and 2 African Americans. Hemoglobin A1c values ranged from 6.0% to 9.2% with approximately half having A1c values less than the goal of 7.0%. Half the patients were aware of PHRs, majority had smartphones, and all participants had access to the Internet and used email. Two of the patients were retired engineers who had prior experience with software design. The other sessions had between 7 and 8 participants at each session, and 7 patients completed the 90-minute usability testing session. There was a core group of 7 patients who were engaged in the design and testing sessions throughout the entire 9-month study. Key features of the PHR that emerged from design sessions included the following: (1) allow for annotation of data by patients (particularly important for lab values like glucose or for physical activity); (2) calendars, to do list, and reminder functions should be linked so that an entry in one of these allows for auto-population of this data within the other sections; (3) notifications whenever new data from the electronic health record or other sources are pushed to the PHR account; (4) allow for drag and drop of photos of pills/medications taken via smartphone or from other sources so that medication list has photo of actual pills or pill bottle; (5) allow for patients to customize the order of sections in the PHR dashboard so that the sections most important to the individual patient can be displayed more prominently; (6) allow for notifications from pharmacies to be pushed to the PHR (eg, confirmation of receipt of prescription requests or alert that prescription is ready to pick up); and (7) graphical display of trends over time (patients would like to select the measures and time frames to plot for display). Patients cited the importance of data provenance so that patient-entered data Versus provider or electronic health record data could be easily differentiated. Patients also highlighted the importance of having this PHR be a “one-stop shop for all their health data” and to have meaningful data dashboards for the different types of information needed to comprehensively manage their health. Patients wished for a single PHR that could easily bring together data from multiple patient portal accounts to avoid having to manage multiple accounts and passwords. They felt that heat map displays such as those used on popular fitness tracking websites were not intuitive and that the color-coding made interpretation challenging. Participants noted that engagement in the design process made them feel that they contributed towards developing software that could not only positively impact them individually but others as well. Every patient indicated the desire to participate on future design projects. Of the 19 tasks evaluated during usability testing, only 5 tasks could not be completed (eg, adding exercise to the calendar, opening the heat map, etc.). Patients felt that the overall PHR design was clean and aesthetically pleasing. Most patients felt that the site was “pretty easy to use” (6 out of 7). The majority of participants would like to use this PHR in the future (5) and would recommend this PHR to their friends/family to use (6). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Involving patients directly in the design process for creating a patient-centric connected PHR was essential to sustaining engagement throughout the software life cycle and to informing the design of features and functionalities desired by patients with chronic conditions.
Recently, scholars have shown a growing interest in radical left parties (RLPs). In terms of electoral success, the rise of the KPÖ Graz, the Communist Party in Austria’s second biggest city, represents perhaps the most counterintuitive case in Western Europe. Adding to previous studies, the rise of the KPÖ Graz contradicts many of the claims made and patterns found about the conditions for the electoral success of RLPs. While the national KPÖ was voted out of parliament in 1959, the Graz branch has been a member of local government since 1998. Since then, the party has managed to gain 20 per cent of the vote in three out of four elections. In 2017, the KPÖ defended its place as the second largest party in local legislature and stayed ahead of the radical right FPÖ, on the rise at the national level. In stark contrast to the Communists’ current strength, however, they did not gain even 2 per cent of the vote in 1983. This analysis shows how the party has managed to ‘own’ the issue of housing and to exploit local political opportunities in order to be electorally successful. The findings point to the importance of agency and the subnational level for RLPs, and highlight more general questions in the study of this party family.
Within recent years, there has been growing interest in the prediction of bull fertility through in vitro assessment of semen quality. A model for fertility prediction based on early evaluation of semen quality parameters, to exclude sires with potentially low fertility from breeding programs, would therefore be useful. The aim of the present study was to identify the most suitable parameters that would provide reliable prediction of fertility. Frozen semen from 18 Italian Holstein-Friesian proven bulls was analyzed using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) (motility and kinetic parameters) and flow cytometry (FCM) (viability, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial function, lipid peroxidation, plasma membrane stability and DNA integrity). Bulls were divided into two groups (low and high fertility) based on the estimated relative conception rate (ERCR). Significant differences were found between fertility groups for total motility, active cells, straightness, linearity, viability and percentage of DNA fragmented sperm. Correlations were observed between ERCR and some kinetic parameters, and membrane instability and some DNA integrity indicators. In order to define a model with high relation between semen quality parameters and ERCR, backward stepwise multiple regression analysis was applied. Thus, we obtained a prediction model that explained almost half (R2=0.47, P<0.05) of the variation in the conception rate and included nine variables: five kinetic parameters measured by CASA (total motility, active cells, beat cross frequency, curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement) and four parameters related to DNA integrity evaluated by FCM (degree of chromatin structure abnormality Alpha-T, extent of chromatin structure abnormality (Alpha-T standard deviation), percentage of DNA fragmented sperm and percentage of sperm with high green fluorescence representative of immature cells). A significant relationship (R2=0.84, P<0.05) was observed between real and predicted fertility. Once the accuracy of fertility prediction has been confirmed, the model developed in the present study could be used by artificial insemination centers for bull selection or for elimination of poor fertility ejaculates.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients typically overmonitor their own behavior, as shown by symptoms of excessive doubt and checking. Although this is well established for the patients’ relationship with external stimuli in the environment, no study has explored their monitoring of internal body signals, a process known to be affected in anxiety-related syndromes. Here, we explored this issue through a cardiac interoception task that measures sensing of heartbeats. Our aim was to explore key behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of internal-cue monitoring in OCD, while examining their potential distinctiveness in this condition.
We administered a heartbeat detection (HBD) task (with related interoceptive confidence and awareness measures) to three matched groups (OCD patients, panic disorder patients, healthy controls) and recorded ongoing modulations of two task-relevant electrophysiological markers: the heart evoked potential (HEP) and the motor potential (MP).
Behaviorally, OCD patients outperformed controls and panic patients in the HBD task. Moreover, they exhibited greater amplitude modulation of both the HEP and the MP during cardiac interoception. However, they evinced poorer confidence and awareness of their interoceptive skills.
Convergent behavioral and electrophysiological data showed that overactive monitoring in OCD extends to the sensing of internal bodily signals. Moreover, this pattern discriminated OCD from panic patients, suggesting a condition-distinctive alteration. Our results highlight the potential of exploring interoceptive processes in the OCD spectrum to better characterize the population's cognitive profile. Finally, these findings may lay new bridges between somatic theories of emotion and cognitive models of OCD.
Manning’s empirical formula in conjunction with Strickler’s scaling is widely used to predict the bulk velocity
from the hydraulic radius
, the roughness size
and the slope of the energy grade line
in uniform channel and pipe flows at high bulk Reynolds numbers. Despite their importance in science and engineering, both Manning’s and Strickler’s formulations have waited for decades before finding a theoretical explanation. This was provided, for the first time, by Gioia & Bombardelli (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 88, 2002, 014501), labelled as GB02, using phenomenological arguments. Perhaps their most remarkable finding was the link between the Strickler and the Kolmogorov scaling exponents, the latter pertaining to velocity fluctuations in the inertial subrange of the turbulence spectrum and presumed to be universal. In this work, the GB02 analysis is first revisited, showing that GB02 employed several ad hoc scaling assumptions for the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and, although implicitly, for the mean velocity gradient adjacent to the roughness elements. The similarity constants arising from the GB02 scaling assumptions were presumed to be independent of
, which is inconsistent with well-known flow properties in the near-wall region of turbulent wall flows. Because of the dependence of these similarity constants on
, this existing theory requires the validity of the Strickler scaling to cancel the dependence of these constants on
so as to arrive at the Strickler scaling and Manning’s formula. Here, the GB02 approach is corroborated using a co-spectral budget (CSB) model for the wall shear stress formulated at the cross-over between the roughness sublayer and the log region. Assuming a simplified shape for the spectrum of the vertical velocity
, the proposed CSB model (subject to another simplifying assumption that production is balanced by pressure–velocity interaction) allows Manning’s formula to be derived. To substantiate this approach, numerical solutions to the CSB over the entire flow depth using different spectral shapes for
are carried out for a wide range of
. The results from this analysis support the simplifying hypotheses used to derive Manning’s equation. The derived equation provides a formulation for
that agrees with reported values in the literature over seven decades of
variations. While none of the investigated spectral shapes allows the recovery of the Strickler scaling, the numerical solutions of the CSB reproduce the Nikuradse data in the fully rough regime, thereby confirming that the Strickler scaling represents only an approximate fit for the friction factor for granular roughness.
Cotton–wheat (CW) is an important cropping system in South Asia. Wheat yields under a conventional CW system are generally lower compared to a rice–wheat system due to delayed seeding. Relay seeding of wheat can help timely sowing, capturing residual soil moisture of last irrigation to cotton, and increase the productivity and profitability of CW system. The field experiment included two Bt-cotton genotypes having different canopy cover (RCH 776 and MRC 7017), two types of relay seeders (RSs) for cotton planted at 67.5-cm and 101-cm row spacing and four types of relay seeding methods (manual broadcast, strip rotor (SR) and zero-till double disc and conventional till). Relay planting of wheat allowed one additional boll picking, which increased seed cotton yield by 12% compared with conventional tillage wheat. Cotton genotypes and RSs had no effect on emergence and yield of wheat. The RSs with SR and zero till double disc furrow openers performed better in terms of wheat emergence and grain yield compared to zero-till tine openers. Under relay seeding, wheat sowing was advanced by 31 days, which increased grain yield by 18.8% compared with conventional tillage practice. Net returns from the CW system with relay seeding of wheat were higher by US$ 311 to 425 ha−1 compared with the conventional CW system.
The wakes and the drag forces of canopy patches with different densities, immersed in turbulent boundary layers, are investigated experimentally. The patches are circular (with outer diameter
) and are made of several identical circular cylinders (height,
, and diameter,
). The bulk aspect ratio of all of the patches (
) was fixed at 1 and the patch density (
, also referred to as the solidity) is altered by varying the number of cylinders (
) in the patch. Drag measurements show that the patch drag coefficient increases with increasing density. However, the drag coefficient of the highest investigated density (
) is greater than the drag coefficient of a solid patch (i.e.
, which is a solid cylinder with
). Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out along the streamwise–wall-normal (
) plane along the centreline of patch and in the streamwise–spanwise (
) plane at its mid height (i.e.
). Mean velocity fields show that the porosity of the patch promotes bleeding along all directions. It was observed that bleeding along the vertical/horizontal direction increases/decreases with increasing
. Furthermore, it was also observed that bleeding along the lateral direction dictates the point of flow separation along the sides of the patch and makes it independent of
. All of these aspects make wakes for porous patches markedly different from their solid counterpart and provide a rational basis to explain the observed trends in the drag coefficient.