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The bomb-peak signal preserved in the Arches® cotton paper was used to detect art forgeries imitating the work of Chinese artist T’ang Haywen (1927–1991). The dating of seven legitimate T’ang Haywen art pieces showed that the timing of the paper production was consistent with the artist’s use of Arches® paper starting in the early 1980s. The measured F14C of the paper from the 14 suspected forged paintings shows that the support material was produced in the last decade (2008–2011), therefore the art pieces could not be genuine T’ang Haywen works.
Structuring the early design phase of automotive systems is an important part of efficient and successful development processes. Today, safety considerations (e.g., the safety life cycle of ISO 26262) significantly affect the course of development. Preliminary designs are expressed in functional system architectures, which are required to form safety concepts. Thus, mapping tasks and work products to a reference process during early design stages is an important part of structuring the system development. This contribution describes the systematic creation and notation of the functional safety concept within the concept phase of development of an unmanned protective vehicle within the research project aFAS. Different stages of preliminary design and dependencies between them are displayed by the work products created and used. The full set of functional safety requirements and an excerpt of the safety argument structure of the SAE level 4 application are presented.
Englacial hydrology plays an important role in routing surface water to the glacier's bed and it consequently affects the glacier's dynamics. However, it is often difficult to observe englacial conduit conditions on temperate glaciers because of their short-lived nature. We acquired repeated active surface seismic data over the Rhone Glacier, Switzerland to monitor and characterise englacial conduit conditions. Amplitude-versus-angle analysis suggested that the englacial conduit is water filled and between 0.5 and 4 m thick. A grid of GPR profiles, acquired during the 2018 melt season, showed the englacial conduit network persisting and covering ~ 14,000 m2. In late summer 2018, several boreholes were drilled into the conduit network. We observed generally stable water pressure, but there were also short sudden increases. A borehole camera provided images of a fast flowing englacial stream transporting sediment through the conduit. From these observations, we infer that the englacial conduit network is fed by surface meltwater and morainal streams. The surface and morainal streams merge together, enter the glacier subglacially and flow through subglacial channels along the flank. These subglacial channels flow into highly efficient englacial conduits traversing the up-glacier section of the overdeepening before connecting with the subglacial drainage system.
A survey on Internet use by employees at their workstations published by Sterling Commerce on 29 August 2000, showed that more than 60% of those employees that have access to the internet surf at least once a day for personal rather than their official business reasons. That means that every employee, on average, is online for about 3.2 hours each week — for personal reasons. This fact — according to the Sterling Report — causes a yearly loss for employers of about 104 Billion Deutsche Marks. In this calculation, costs for the connection to the Internet are not included.
During the last few years the German courts have had to face several cases in which companies — especially from the IT-sector — filed lawsuits against “headhunters.” “Headhunters” in this context are (usually) executive consultants who try to poach personnel from other companies by simply calling them and asking whether or not they want to change companies. Since skilled and qualified workers and employees are desperately but often unsuccessfully searched by innumerable German companies on the domestic and most recently also the European and international job-market, the methods of poaching have reached and sometimes crossed the borders of unfair practices. The courts faced with these cases had to draw these borders, a process this article attempts to outline.
On July 18, 2001, the Bundesverfassungsgericht (German Federal Constitutional Court) will issue its ruling in the application for a temporary injunction, brought by the Länder (Federal States) of Bavaria and Saxony, to block the August 1 effective date of the new federal Lebenspartnerschaftgesetz (LPartG — Registered Lifetime Partnership Act for Homosexual Relationships). This act has been the subject of considerable controversy including the claims at the heart of the Federal States' challenge to the constitutionality of the statute. This article will: (a) briefly survey the social evolution that has necessitated the regulations in this statute; (b) describe some of the statute's provisions; and (c) end by summarizing some of the sometimes harsh and often very emotional arguments involved in the debate over the LPartG and raised as part of the challenge to the statute's constitutionality in the proceedings before the Federal Constitutional Court.
In three high-profile cases the Bundesverfassungsgericht (BVerfG — Federal Constitutional Court) was recently called upon to exercise its authority to issue a temporary injunction in proccedings referred to as einstweilige Anordnungen (provisional measures). Article 32 of the Bundesverfassungsgerichtgesetz (BVerfGG — Federal Constitutional Court Act) provides: In a dispute the Federal Consitutional Court may deal with a matter provisionally by means of a temporary injunction if this is urgently needed to avert serious detriment, ward off imminent force or for any other important reason for the common good.
For the first time in the \“New Market\”\'s history, a claim for damages against Infomatec, a NEMAX-company has been ruled in favor of plaintiff. Nemax is the index in which New Market companies are quoted. On September 26, 2001, the Landgericht (Regional Court) Augsburg granted a compensation worth DM 100.000 for a former shareholder of Infomatec [\“company\”]. This article will first give a brief survey of the facts as well as an explanation of the so-called \“Ad Hoc-notifications\” under German securities law before outlining the Court\'s holding.
This essay examines the legitimation work of globalization by bringing into dialogue the authors' research on immigration, finance, and intercountryadoption. It is concerned with the practices that produce, define, and preclude both movement and connection, such as “naturalizing” some border crossings while criminalizing others; denying the histories and policies that allow some parents to “choose” babies while others must abandon them; and challenging the practices through which small states tweak transnational financial systems while allowing multinational corporations privileges denied small states. Legitimation work (re)configures jurisdictionality, transparency, and sovereignty–the constructs on which debates over globalization's consequences hinge. Examining how these constructs order, include, and exclude persons, goods, and practices sheds light on the boundaries, slippages, and connections between the legitimate and the illegitimate within global processes.
Many believe that global capital markets will generate lower returns in the future versus the past. We examine how persistently lower real returns will reshape work, retirement, saving, and investment behavior of older persons using a calibrated dynamic life cycle model. In a low return regime, workers build up less wealth in their tax-qualified 401(k) accounts versus the past, claim social security benefits later, and work more. Moreover, the better-educated are more sensitive to real interest rate changes, while the least-educated alter their behavior less. Interestingly, the distribution of wealth is more uniform in periods of persistent low expected returns.
Speak Percussion, soprano Jessica Aszodi, and a crowd of 25, gave an intense performance, and world premiere, of Liza Lim's hour-long Atlas of the Sky. Lim's work was inspired by three poems: ‘The Stars’ by Eliot Weinberger, and ‘Whetting’ and ‘The Answer’ by contemporary Chinese poet Bei Dao. Imagery on stage was derived from the poetry, and the work touched on themes of community, ritual, and crowds.
Traditionally, helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems are operated with a single pair of bistatic dipole antennas to measure the thickness of glaciers. We demonstrate numerically that the directivity of the radiation pattern of single airborne dipoles do not correspond to an ideal full-space solution if the antennas are employed at typical flight heights. These directionality effects can degrade the quality of the subsurface images significantly, when the GPR antennas are orientated unfavorably. Since an adjustment of the antenna orientation is impractical during flight, we have developed a novel dual-polarization helicopter-borne GPR system consisting of two orthogonal pairs of commercial antennas in broadside configuration. To overcome the image quality deficits of the individual channels, we apply a pseudo-scalar approach in which we combine the data of both polarizations. Results of helicopter-borne GPR surveys on two alpine glaciers in Switzerland reveal more coherent bedrock reflections in the summed data compared with single dipole pair profiles. Generally, the dual-polarization setup is more suitable than a single antenna systems, because it is more versatile and less prone to directional effects caused by the placement of the dipole antennas in relation to undulating subsurface reflectors.