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People aging with long-term physical disabilities (PAwLTPD), meaning individuals with onset of disability from birth through midlife, often require long-term support services (LTSS) to remain independence. The LTSS system is fragmented into aging and disability organizations with little communication between them. In addition, there are currently no evidence-based LTSS-type programs listed on the Administration for Community Living website that have been demonstrated to be effective for PAwLTPD. Because of these gaps, we have developed a community-based research network (CBRN), drawing on the practice-based research network model (PBRN), to bring together aging and disability organizations to address the lack of evidence-based programs for PAwLTPD.
Materials and Methods:
Community-based organizations serving PAwLTPD across the state of Missouri were recruited to join the CBRN. A formative process evaluation of the network was conducted after a year to evaluate the effectiveness of the network.
Nine community-based organizations across the state of Missouri joined the CBRN. CBRN members include three centers for independent living (CILs), three area agencies on aging (AAAs), one CIL/AAA hybrid, one non-CIL disability organization, and one non-AAA aging organization. To date, we have held seven meetings, provided educational opportunities for CBRN members, and launched an inaugural research study within the CBRN. Formative evaluation data indicate that CBRN members feel that participation in the CBRN is beneficial.
The PBRN model appears to be a feasible framework for use with community-based organizations to facilitate communication between agencies and to support research aimed at addressing the needs of PAwLTPD.
Electron microscopy is uniquely suited for atomic-resolution imaging of heterogeneous and complex materials, where composition, physical, and electronic structure need to be analyzed simultaneously. Historically, the technique has demonstrated optimal performance at room temperature, since practical aspects such as vibration, drift, and contamination limit exploration at extreme temperature regimes. Conversely, quantum materials that exhibit exotic physical properties directly tied to the quantum mechanical nature of electrons are best studied (and often only exist) at extremely low temperatures. As a result, emergent phenomena, such as superconductivity, are typically studied using scanning probe-based techniques that can provide exquisite structural and electronic characterization, but are necessarily limited to surfaces. In this article, we focus not on the various methods that have been used to examine quantum materials at extremely low temperatures, but on what could be accomplished in the field of quantum materials if the power of electron microscopy to provide structural analysis at the atomic scale was extended to extremely low temperatures.
While rhenium has proven to be an ideal material in fast-cycling high-temperature applications such as rocket nozzles, its prohibitive cost limits its continued use and motivates a search for viable cost-effective substitutes. We show that a simple design principle that trades off average valence electron count and cost considerations proves helpful in identifying a promising pool of candidate substitute alloys: The Mo–Ru–Ta–W quaternary system. We demonstrate how this picture can be combined with a computational thermodynamic model of phase stability, based on high-throughput ab initio calculations, to further narrow down the search and deliver alloys that maintain rhenium’s desirable hcp crystal structure. This thermodynamic model is validated with comparisons to known binary phase diagram sections and corroborated by experimental synthesis and structural characterization demonstrating multiprinciple-element hcp solid-solution samples selected from a promising composition range.
Defects in crystalline solids control the properties of engineered and natural materials, and their characterization focuses our strategies to optimize performance. Electron microscopy has served as the backbone of our understanding of defect structure and their interactions, owing to beneficial spatial resolution and contrast mechanisms that enable direct imaging of defects. These defects reside in complex microstructures and chemical environments, demanding a combination of experimental approaches for full defect characterization. In this article, we describe recent progress and trends in methods for examining defects using scanning electron microscopy platforms. Several emerging approaches offer attractive benefits, for instance, in correlative microscopy across length scales and in in situ studies of defect dynamics.
Functional and mechanical properties of modern devices are directly controlled by the stress and strain state acting on the materials within. For manufacturers, elastic strain engineering of complex materials systems throughout processing and utilization is crucial. This requires methodologies with ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolutions. On the other hand, the nanoscale elastic strain field around individual defects fundamentally controls the deformation of crystalline materials. To date, a variety of techniques are available for measuring elastic strain, including transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and x-ray diffraction. Recent advances in instrumentation have dramatically improved speed and resolution, enabling direct elastic strain mapping during in situ deformation at the nanoscale. In addition, plastic strain can be determined during deformation using digital image correlation. Current techniques are surveyed here to accurately quantify complex strain fields at the nanoscale and their potential to resolve scientific challenges in materials science.
In situ nanomechanical testing provides critical insight into the fundamental processes that lead to deformation phenomena in materials. Often, in situ tests are performed in relevant conditions such as high or low temperatures, tribological contact, gas environments, or under radiation exposure. Modern diffraction and imaging methods of materials under load provide high spatial resolution and enable extraction of quantitative mechanical data from local microstructure components or nano-sized objects. The articles in this issue cover recent advances in different types of in situ nanomechanical testing methods, spanning from dedicated nanomechanical testing platforms and microelectromechanical systems devices to deformation analyses via in situ diffraction and imaging methods. This includes scanning electron microscopy, advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and synchrotron techniques. Emerging areas such as in situ tribology enable novel insights into the origin of deformation mechanisms, while the evolution of microelectromechanical systems for controlled in situ testing provide opportunities for advanced control and loading strategies. Discussion on the current state of the art for in situ nanomechanical testing and future opportunities in imaging, strain sensing, and testing environments are also addressed.