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Breast cancer is the second most common form of malignant neoplasia in the world, with an estimated 1.67 million new cancer cases diagnosed in 2012, accounting for 25 percent of all cancers (Ferlay et al. 2013). It is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in women in both the developed and less developed regions. The biological and pathological diversity of this disease as influenced by distinct phenotypes, differences in prognosis, and mixed responses to treatment limit the progress to reduce the burden of this disease (Kestler et al. 2011). Thus, the incidence of breast cancer is rising in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries. Breast cancer does not manifest equally in various regions of the world. Its incidence is higher in North America and Northern and Western Europe compared to Southern Europe, and lowest in Africa and Asia (Ferlay et al. 2013).
This paper deals with a continuous design task of a planar cable robot used in a gait training machine called the cable-driven legs trainer. The design of cable robots requires satisfying two constraints, that is, tensions in the cables must remain non-negative, and cable interferences should be avoided. The carried design approach is based on interval analysis, which is one of the most efficient methods to obtain certified results. The constraints of non-negative tensions and cable to end-effector interference are solved using interval analysis tools. By means of a dynamic simulation, the reached workspace and the produced wrenches of the cable robot are evaluated as a set of interval vectors. An optimization algorithm is then designed to optimize the cable robot structure for the gait training machine. The robot is designed to produce non-negative tensions in the cables and to avoid collision at all times within the desired workspace and under the required external loads.
This study aimed to assess the potential role of pneumatisation of the mastoid and its communicating air cells in the development of middle-ear barotrauma in aircrew members.
Seventy-nine aircrew members (158 ears) underwent temporal computed tomography. All were assessed before flying by clinical examination and audiology evaluation, followed by post-flight examination to detect barotrauma.
Aircrew members’ ears were divided into 3 groups based on barotrauma and temporal bone pneumatisation: 33 ears with barotrauma and temporal bone pneumatisation of 71 cm3 or greater (group A); 12 ears with barotrauma and temporal bone pneumatisation of 11.2 cm3 or lower (group B); and 113 ears with no barotrauma (group C). Mean pneumatisation volumes were 91.05 cm3, 5.45 cm3 and 28.01 cm3 in groups A, B and C, respectively. A direct relationship was observed between volume of temporal bone pneumatisation of 71 cm3 or greater and barotrauma grade.
Pneumatisation volume of the mastoid and its communicating air cells that ranges from 11.3 cm3 to 70.4 cm3 serves as a reliable predictor of the avoidance of middle-ear barotrauma associated with flying in aircrew members who have normal resting middle-ear pressure and good Eustachian tube function.
In this paper, a multi-objective design optimization of the 3-UPU translational parallel manipulator is presented. Based on a new algorithm, which combines the genetic algorithms and the Krawczyk operator, the robot position error is minimized and the robot design parameters tolerances are maximized, simultaneously. The results show that the designer can maintain the manipulator accuracy by using a specific size of the base, and can restrict its tolerance even by enlarging the actuators’ tolerance intervals. This algorithm is also used to determine the maximum design parameters tolerances for an allowable robot position error. The proposed algorithm can be extended to optimize other types of robots.
Among the members of a religious college revealed by a monumental Latin inscription recently discovered in the medina of Sousse (Hadrumetum, Proconsular Africa), there is a member in charge of moctor. This is in fact an unprecedented function among the clergy of the temples of the Roman-African cities. It seems to have been formed from the Semitic consonantal skeleton KTR or QTR, which we find in KTRT (incense) and QTRT (perfume) words. Thus, it is quite possible that moctor is a nominal Semitic form of the root KTR / QTR prefixed with M to designate in the Phoenicio-Punic etymology the ‘offering to incense’. This evidence of a function of Semitic origin in a Latin inscription is not unusual when one understands the privileged place occupied by incense in rituals of Punic and Oriental cults. Similarly, the presence of this function is not surprising in a city with a significant Phoenician-Punic foundation and heritage. If this comparison is plausible, we will have here additional evidence of the resurgence of the religious vocabulary of Semitic origin among the religious language of the Roman provinces of Africa.
In this paper, a parametric analysis of the inverse dynamics of an upright partially unloaded walking is performed. This motion is produced through a gait-training machine emulating the over-ground walking using a body weight support mechanism and a cable-driven robot. The input motion is the kinematics of a normal gait, and the ultimate output result is the required tensions to be generated by the cable robot in order to drive the lower limb. The dynamic analysis is carried out based on the Newton–Euler approach. A Matlab Simscape model is also built to validate the analytical results. The obtained dynamic model is used to investigate the effect of the variation of the gait simulation parameters on the actuation wrench and the cable tensions. The obtained results could be used to determine the optimal design of the gait trainer actuators and they are useful in estimating optimal gait training parameters.
In this paper, a theoretical study for the design of multi-source transmitters suitable for perpendicular dynamic wireless power transfer is presented. Unlike conventional systems, the concept presented here overcomes the traditional limitation on the receiver's orientation by providing an optimal distribution of the transmitted energy obtained by using different sources. For this purpose, a theoretical study of different transmitters has been achieved by solving the inverse problem. Comparison with conventional single-source transmitters carrying the same total current as the multi-source transmitters, shows a significant enhancement of the power gain when a Genetic Algorithm is used. The obtained theoretical results show power gain levels over 7.5 dB for different path lengths at different heights. At the end, a solution for a path of an infinite length is presented.
The present study was conducted to determine the rate of level IV lymph node involvement among node-negative (N0) necks in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.
The study comprised 32 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, with tumour–node–metastasis staging of T1–3N0M0, who were admitted to the Otolaryngology Department at Tehran University of Medical Sciences from March 2012 to March 2014. After a complete diagnostic evaluation, wide primary tumour excision (with 1.5–2 cm margins) and extended supraomohyoid neck dissection (levels I–IV) were accomplished.
Occult metastasis was found in 28 per cent of the patients. Level I, II and III metastases were the most common (18.75, 18.75 and 15.62 per cent, respectively). Level IV metastasis was found in 6.25 per cent of patients.
Supraomohyoid neck dissection appears to be an appropriate treatment for N0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma and there is no need for level IV lymph node dissection in a N0 patient.
Laterally diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) transistors with 10 V breakdown voltage have been implemented in a 65 nm Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process without extra masks or process steps. Radio frequency (RF) performance for Wireless local area network (WLAN) frequencies and in X-band at 8 GHz is investigated by load-pull measurements in class AB operation for both 3.3 and 5 V supply voltage. Results at 2.45 GHz showed 290 mW/mm output power density with 17 dB linear gain and over 45% power added efficiency (PAE) at 4 dB compression at a supply voltage of 5 V. Furthermore, results in X-band at 8 GHz show 8 dB linear gain, 320 mW/mm output power density and over 22% PAE at 4 dB compression. Third-order intermodulation measurements at 8 GHz revealed OIP3 of 18.9 and 21.9 dBm at 3.3 and 5 V, respectively. The transistors were also tested for reliability which showed no drift in quiescent current after 26 h of DC stress while high-power RF stress showed only small extrapolated drift at 10 years in output power density. This is to the authors' knowledge the first time high output power density in X-band is demonstrated for integrated LDMOS transistors manufactured in a 65 nm CMOS process without extra process steps.
The variations in the composition and structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities in relationship with the marine sediment enrichment with heavy metals were investigated in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia. Standard community parameters as well as the trophic and ecological structure were analysed in 18 stations sampled in six localities. Highest values of diversity descriptors (S, N and H′) were recorded in the less-polluted localities and vice versa. Besides, the results of AMBI and BENTIX indexes were also concordant with those obtained with the classical diversity parameters and matched with the sediment heavy metals distribution in the Gulf of Gabes. Compared with the northern and southern parts of the Gulf, the central area was found to be the most polluted and to host the most-affected benthic community. In addition, biotic indexes were found to be very useful tools to monitor the ecological quality status of benthic assemblages.
Pb1-xSnxS nanopowder with different Sn concentrations (x = 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00) were synthesized by chemical precipitation route under N2 atmosphere. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), UV-vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The XRD results show that the samples with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 have cubic (fcc) structure with diameter in the 12.8–24 nm range. The sample with x = 0.5 has orthorhombic structure with a diameter of 9.2 nm. The band gap (or absorption edge) of PbS exhibits a large blue shift when the crystallite size is reduced to nanometer scale, from 0.4 eV in bulk samples to 1.8 eV in nanosize samples, which can be related to large Bohr excitonic radius of PbS nanoparticles. PL emission spectra of Pb1-xSnxS in red region excited at 315 nm, for x = 0 showed three broad peaks located at 776.5 nm, 809 nm and 826 nm which due to the defect densities and for x = 0.02, 0.05, 0.10 there are two relatively strong emission peaks located at 786 nm and 823 nm which can be related to transition from sulfur vacancy level and Sn+2 ion level respectively.
In this study, we propose an artificial neural network in conjunction with spectral domain approach (SDA), for fast and accurate determination of the resonant frequency and half-power bandwidth of rectangular patch over the ground plane with rectangular aperture. The performances evaluation of the neurospectral method reveals superiority over the conventional SDA model in terms of errors and time. The results obtained from the neurospectral method are in very good agreement with the experimental and theoretical results available in the literature. Finally, numerical results for the effect of rectangular aperture dimensions on the resonant characteristics of the rectangular patch are also investigated.