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We examined differences in consumer-level characteristics and structural resources and capabilities of small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, pharmacies, dollar stores) by racial segregation of store neighbourhood and corporate status (corporate/franchise- v. independently owned).
Observational store assessments and manager surveys were used to examine availability-, affordability- and marketing-related characteristics experienced by consumers as well as store resources (e.g. access to distributors) and perceived capabilities for healthful changes (e.g. reduce pricing on healthy foods). Cross-sectional regression analyses of store and manager data based on neighbourhood segregation and store corporate status were conducted.
Small and non-traditional food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA.
One hundred and thirty-nine stores; seventy-eight managers.
Several consumer- and structural-level differences occurred by corporate status, independent of residential segregation. Compared with independently owned stores, corporate/franchise-owned stores were more likely to: not offer fresh produce; when offered, receive produce via direct delivery and charge higher prices; promote unhealthier consumer purchases; and have managers that perceived greater difficulty in making healthful changes (P≤0·05). Only two significant differences were identified by residential racial segregation. Stores in predominantly people of colour communities (<30 % non-Hispanic White) had less availability of fresh fruit and less promotion of unhealthy impulse buys relative to stores in predominantly White communities (P≤0·05).
Corporate status appears to be a relevant determinant of the consumer-level food environment of small and non-traditional stores. Policies and interventions aimed at making these settings healthier may need to consider multiple social determinants to enable successful implementation.
Little is known about customer purchases of foods and beverages from small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores and pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) describe customer characteristics, shopping frequency and reasons for shopping at small and non-traditional food retailers; and (ii) describe food/beverage purchases and their nutritional quality, including differences across store type.
Data were collected through customer intercept interviews. Nutritional quality of food/beverage purchases was analysed; a Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for purchases was created by aggregating participant purchases at each store.
Small and non-traditional food stores that were not WIC-authorized in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA.
Customers (n 661) from 105 food retailers.
Among participants, 29 % shopped at the store at least once daily; an additional 44 % shopped there at least once weekly. Most participants (74 %) cited convenient location as the primary draw to the store. Customers purchased a median of 2262 kJ (540 kcal), which varied by store type (P=0·04). The amount of added sugar far surpassed national dietary recommendations. At dollar stores, participants purchased a median of 5302 kJ (1266 kcal) for a median value of $US 2·89. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most common purchase. The mean HEI-2010 score across all stores was 36·4.
Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.
The influence of Si-doping on the growth and material characteristics of InAs nanowires deposited by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was investigated. It was observed that above a certain partial pressure ratio, doping has an influence on the morphology. The nanowires exhibit better uniformity but lower height vs. diameter aspect ratio as the supply of the dopant increases. It was consistantly found that the specific conductance of the nanowires also increases. Moreover the electrical measurements showed a transition from semiconducting to metallic behavior in the case of highly doped nanowires.
Rare earth scandate thin films (GdScO3 and DyScO3) were investigated with respect to future high-k applications. They were deposited on (100) silicon substrates using either pulsed laser deposition (PLD) or electron beam evaporation. The investigation of the films was done by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, high-temperature X-ray-diffractometry, X-ray reflectometry, spectroscopic ellipsometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy. For the electrical characterization capacitor stacks were prepared. Both materials show very promising characteristics independent from the deposition technique used. The films are stoichiometric and amorphous and exhibit a smooth surface (roughness RMS < 1 Å). The amorphous phase is stable up to 1000°C. The electrical characterization revealed featureless C-V-curves with a small hysteresis. From CET plots (CET = capacitance equivalent thickness) k-values between 20 and 23 could be extracted. The electron beam evaporation produces films with a better homogeneity and a thinner interfacial silicon dioxide and therefore a smaller CET value as confirmed by TEM. The leakage current density of the film with CET = 1.5 nm was as low as 7.7x10-4 A/cm2.
Strain relaxed Si1−xGex buffer layers are of great importance as virtual substrates for Si1−xGex/Si quantum well structures and devices. We apply He+ ion implantation and subsequent annealing on pseudomorphic, MBE-grown Si1−xGex/Si(100) heterostructures with an implantation depth of about 100 nm below the Si1−xGex/Si interface. A narrow defect band is generated inducing the formation of strain relieving misfit dislocations during subsequent thermal annealing. Efficient strain relaxation was demonstrated for Si1−xGex layers with Ge fractions up to 30 at. %. The variation of the implantation dose and the annealing conditions changes the dislocation configuration and the He bubble structure. At a dose of 2×1016 cm−2 a high degree of relaxation is accompanied by a low density of threading dislocations of about 107 cm−2 for a Ge content of 30%. An additional increase of the Ge content can be achieved by annealing in oxygen. The oxidation of Si1−xGex leads to the formation of SiO2 while the Ge atoms are rejected from the oxide leading to a pile-up of Ge below the oxidation front. The heterostructures were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy.
The synthesis of polycarbodiimide and polyimide in a cyanate resin precursor was achieved. A unique procedure for achieving a high molecular weight of the molecular composite reinforcement molecules was demonstrated. In spite of phase separation being present during the processing, the final cured composites were transparent. The enhanced mechanical properties and the presence of a single Tg, which increases with rigid rod content, were indications that a molecular composite was achieved. The agreement between measured mechanical properties and those predicted using molecular mechanics simulations CERIUS2 software was encouraging.
The basic concepts of in-situ molecular composite formation are presented with a polyazomethine/nylon 6 system as an example. All the encouraging attributes of molecular reinforcement - increased Tg, solvent resistance and mechanical properties were observed. This provides a commodity resin, such as nylon 6, with properties normally associated with higher priced engineering/specialty resins.
Van den Bergh (1964) has selected and mapped OB associations in M 31 on the basis of plates taken with the Tautenburg 52 inch Schmidt camera. The selection was done by the blinking method. The task of the present investigation is to find if there exist OB stars (single or in association) on the outermost borders of this stellar system. For this purpose we measured the brightness of all stellar objects in UBV down to the magnitude 20m.0 (B) on Tautenburg plates in a special test field (Figure 1). It includes 0.26 square degrees and its centre has a distance of 104′ = 22 kpc from the centre of M 31. This test field includes too Baade's field IV with the photoelectric standards in UBV observed by Arp (Baade and Swope, 1963) and the OB associations OB 184, OB 185 and OB 186 of Van den Bergh. The total number of stars brighter than 20m.0 (B) was 996. The stars within the associations OB 184 and OB 185 are not included in these statistics. From this number, 704 objects could be measured in all 3 colours. We found among them 23 blue objects with U–B ≤ U− ≤ −0m.25. The mean error of the brightness on the basis of 4 plates in each colour does not exceed ±0m.0.7 for stars of 19m.0 (B).
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