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Correction factors, termed α-factors, similar to those defined by LaChance and Traill have been generated by the addition of variable, known amounts of individual oxides, or other compounds, to a base cement sample and measuring the x-ray intensities of the elements of interest. The effects of all common constituents of cement on the determination of CaO, SiO2 and Al2O3 were found. Factors for rhodium and chromium primary radiation were determined and, in general, showed small but significant differences. The factors for rhodium at 50kV and 30kV were substantia11y identical. The correction factors were tested through the use of the NBS 1011- 1016 cements as reference standards to analyze the new proposed NBS cement series. The correction factors not only furnished improved calibration curves, but also allowed the determination of CaO, Al2O3 and SiO2 with an average deviation of less than 0.2% (absolute) from the provisional values furnished with the standard samples.
Objective: Few studies have investigated the assessment and functional impact of egocentric and allocentric neglect among stroke patients. This pilot study aimed to determine (1) whether allocentric and egocentric neglect could be dissociated among a sample of stroke patients using eye tracking; (2) the specific patterns of attention associated with each subtype; and (3) the nature of the relationship between neglect subtype and functional outcome. Method: Twenty acute stroke patients were administered neuropsychological assessment batteries, a pencil-and-paper Apples Test to measure neglect subtype, and an adaptation of the Apples Test with an eye tracking measure. To test clinical discriminability, twenty age- and education-matched control participants were administered the eye tracking measure of neglect. Results: The eye tracking measure identified a greater number of individuals as having egocentric and/or allocentric neglect than the pencil-and-paper Apples Test. Classification of neglect subtype based on eye tracking performance was a significant predictor of functional outcome beyond that accounted for by the neuropsychological test performance and Apples Test neglect classification. Preliminary evidence suggests that patients with no neglect symptoms had superior functional outcomes compared with patients with neglect. Patients with combined egocentric and allocentric neglect had poorer functional outcomes than those with either subtype. Functional outcomes of patients with either allocentric or egocentric neglect did not differ significantly. The applications of our findings, to improve neglect detection, are discussed. Conclusion: Results highlight the potential clinical utility of eye tracking for the assessment and identification of neglect subtype among stroke patients to predict functional outcomes. (JINS, 2019, 25, 479–489)
TNM™ alloys are novel γ-TiAl based alloys which exhibit a high concentration of β-stabilizing elements such as Nb and Mo. Due to the high volume fraction of disordered β-phase these alloys can be hot-die forged under near conventional conditions. In this study, solid-state phase transformations and phase transition temperatures in Ti-(41-45)Al-4Nb-1Mo-0.1B (in at%) alloys were analyzed experimentally and compared to thermodynamic calculations. Results from scanning electron microscopy, conventional and high-energy X-ray diffraction as well as differential scanning calorimetry were used for the characterization of the prevailing phases and phase transformations. For the prediction of phase stabilities and phase transition temperatures thermodynamic calculations were conducted. ThermoCalc® was applied using a commercially available TiAl database. Combining all results a stable as well as a metastable phase diagram for Ti-(41-45)Al-4Nb-1Mo-0.1B alloys is proposed.
Structural instabilities of nanocrystalline and ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials have been recognized as a major challenge during cyclic loading, especially in the low cycle fatigue regime. Although a severe deterioration of the mechanical properties has been reported during cyclic deformation, quantification of the softening portion solely due to grain coarsening was not possible. It will be demonstrated that cyclic high pressure torsion (CHPT) is a versatile method to enable direct measurement of the impact of grain coarsening on cyclic softening, as failure of the sample is prevented. Here, CHPT experiments have been performed on 99.99% UFG nickel. Grain coarsening similar to conventional uniaxial fatigue experiments was observed and could be studied up to large cyclic accumulated macro strains of 50. The correlation of electron back scatter diffraction images with microhardness measurements facilitated quantification of the cyclic softening as a consequence of grain growth for the very first time. Further, structural investigations revealed distinctly enhanced grain coarsening within shear bands. Thus, the cyclic strain seems to be the most important parameter controlling mechanically driven boundary migration during cyclic loading at low homologous temperatures.
We studied the mammary immune response to different mammary pathogenic Escherichia coli (MPEC) strains in cows, hypothesising that the dynamics of response would differ. E. coli is a major aetiologic agent of acute clinical bovine mastitis of various degrees of severity with specific strains being associated with persistent infections. We compared challenge with three distinct pathogenic MPEC strains (VL2874, VL2732 and P4), isolated from different forms of mastitis (per-acute, persistent and acute, respectively). A secondary objective was to verify the lack of mammary pathogenicity of an environmental isolate (K71) that is used for comparison against MPEC in genomic and phenotypic studies. Twelve cows were challenged by intra-mammary infusion with one of the strains. Cellular and chemokine responses and bacterial culture follow-up were performed for 35 d. All cows challenged by any of the MPEC strains developed clinical mastitis. Differences were found in the intensity and duration of response, in somatic cell count, secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17) and levels of milk leucocyte membrane Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). A sharp decrease of TLR4 on leucocytes was observed concomitantly to peak bacterial counts in milk. Intra-mammary infusion of strain K71 did not elicit inflammation and bacteria were not recovered from milk. Results suggest some differences in the mammary immune response to distinct MPEC strains that could be correlated to their previously observed pathogenic traits. This is also the first report of an E. coli strain that is non-pathogenic to the bovine mammary gland.
Arabic has a long history of contact with languages outside the Middle East (Lapidus, 2015; Beg, 1979). In Asia, the spread of Arabic began with the trade network that connected the Middle East with South Asia, South-East, East Asia and East Africa from the fifth century. It intensified with the rise of Islam from the seventh century onwards (Morgan & Reid, 2010; Azirah & Leitner, 2016). In this paper we investigate the impact of Arabic on today's English in the context of Asian Englishes. More specifically we ask if the contact of Arabic with English in Asia has led to the creation of an Arabic-Islamic layer of English in countries that have a majority or a significant minority of Muslims. Would such a layer add a new dimension to the texture of English and be integrative across national Englishes? Or would it be divisive inside individual countries? In order to explore such issues we created a corpus of Arabic loanwords in Asian Englishes. Such a database will contribute to a better coverage of the impact of Arabic in dictionaries and to the study of English as a (multiple) national, regional and global language.
How does one communicate in a multilingual society with staggering linguistic diversity? To best characterize the multifaceted dimensions of multilingual communication in India, this chapter will focus on the contemporary and historical study of Hindi–Urdu and Indian English, and their spread in intranational diasporic contexts (e.g., from North to South India) and international diasporic contexts (particularly in South-East Asia). The chapter argues that multilingualism in India is shaped primarily by natural forces of networking and communication (e.g., media, literature, trade, multiple identities, etc.) rather than being the result of exclusive and externally imposed models based on government planning. Shaped by such natural forces, linguistic accommodation with multiple dimensions plays a key role in the formation of the linguistic and transactional characteristics of Hindi–Urdu in intranational and international contexts (as well as English).
This chapter argues that ‘communicating with Asia’ requires intercultural competence. Such competence will not only imply awareness but also understanding of cultural differences. Traditional descriptivist approaches in sociolinguistics, arguably, do not or only insufficiently capture this cultural dimension. Using Hong Kong English as an example, the chapter will attempt to show how the newly emerging paradigms of Cognitive Sociolinguistics and Cultural Linguistics can contribute to a more comprehensive linguistic description and hence to intercultural understanding. The chapter will be divided into three parts: The first part will stress the hermeneutic nature of intercultural communication in English. The second part will demonstrate how cultural patterns expressed in Hong Kong English − specifically conceptualizations pertaining to ghosts1 and related concepts – can be systematically elicited and analyzed. The third part will introduce a concrete lexicographic application of the insights discussed in the preceding parts, as realized in A Dictionary of Hong Kong English (Cummings and Wolf 2011).
This chapter traces the history of the privileged role of English in the domains of power in Pakistan. English entered these domains and became a marker of the elite culture in South Asia. Its presence in the education sector, which is the supplier of people skilled in English to all other domains, is given special attention. As English became a second language, it became a non-native variety in its own right as it did in African and other Asian countries. This variety is called Pakistani English (PakE) and some aspects of it are described synoptically. Moreover, the way English is used informally, and sometimes even in formal written discourses, involves the use of expressions from indigenous languages. Code-switching is regarded as a form of linguistic corruption or incompetence by some, but, among other things, is a device for signalling power-relations or class. It may serve the function of crossing into the desiderated class of fluent English speakers. In order to illustrate that code-switching is not English-induced, samples of it in Persian and Urdu from the Medieval Period will be provided; they show that code-switching is not a corruption of English but is both local and recognized in high literature. By presenting historical and sociolinguistic background, this chapter will provide a more holistic understanding of the interaction of English with the history of South Asia in general and that of Pakistan in particular.
Language contact is a key component in language, social and cultural change. Contact is reciprocal although it has typically been studied from the angle of contact of English with local languages such as Malay, Mandarin, Hindi, Urdu or Tamil in South and South-East Asia. Up to the 1960s, contact outcomes were often seen as signs of the enrichment of the English language as such and were recorded in dictionaries. More recent outcomes have been seen as evidence of the localization of English and the growth of ‘Englishes’. Contact with Arabic is a different case. In Asia, Arabic has been deeply embedded in various languages habitats as a trade and religious language. It has influenced many languages which acted as carriers of Arabic influences into local languages such as Malay but also into English or Dutch. This chapter will address such issues and focus on loan words in English and Malay in Malaysia’s print media. We mention contact history but our principal interest will be contemporary outcomes. Does Arabic provide a religious-based linguistic layer in Malaysia and maybe other Islamic nations? As the role of Arabic is a neglected field of research, our chapter will add a new dimension to the study of varieties of English but also contribute to that of Malay in the region and connect outcomes with the political domain.