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Norway authorised out-patient commitment in 1961, but there is a lack of representative and complete data on the use of out-patient commitment orders.
To establish the incidence and prevalence rates on the use of out-patient commitment in Norway, and how these vary across service areas. Further, to study variations in out-patient commitment across service areas, and use of in-patient services before and after implementation of out-patient commitment orders. Finally, to identify determinants for the duration of out-patient commitment orders and time to readmission.
Retrospective case register study based on medical files of all patients with an out-patient commitment order in 2008–2012 in six catchment areas in Norway, covering one-third of the Norwegian population aged 18 years or more. For a subsample of patients, we recorded use of in-patient care 3 years before and after their first-ever out-patient commitment.
Annual incidence varied between 20.7 and 28.4, and prevalence between 36.5 and 48.9, per 100 000 population aged 18 years or above. Rates differed significantly between catchment areas. Mean out-patient commitment duration was 727 days (s.d. = 889). Use of in-patient care decreased significantly in the 3 years after out-patient commitment compared with the 3 years before. Use of antipsychotic medication through the whole out-patient commitment period and fewer in-patient episodes in the 3 years before out-patient commitment predicted longer time to readmission.
Mechanisms behind the pronounced variations in use of out-patient commitment between sites call for further studies. Use of in-patient care was significantly reduced in the 3 years after a first-ever out-patient commitment order was made.
Non-tuberculous mycobacterium encephalitis is rare. Since 2013, a global outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera infection has been attributed to point-source contamination of heater cooler units used in cardiac surgery. Disseminated M. chimaera infection has presented many unique challenges, including non-specific clinical presentations with delays in diagnosis, and a high mortality rate among predominantly immunocompetent adults. Here, we describe three patients with fatal disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infection showing initially non-specific, progressively worsening neurocognitive decline, including confusion, delirium, depression and apathy. Autopsy revealed widespread granulomatous encephalitis of the cerebrum, brain stem and spinal cord, along with granulomatous chorioretinitis. Cerebral involvement and differentiation between mycobacterial granulomas and microangiopathic changes can be assessed best on MRI with contrast enhancement. The prognosis of M. chimaera encephalitis appears to be very poor, but might be improved by increased awareness of this new syndrome and timely antimicrobial treatment.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Describe the clinical, radiological and neuropathological findings of Mycobacterium chimaera encephalitis
2.Be aware of this rare form of encephalitis, and explain its diagnosis, prognosis and management
Uranium isotopes (238U/235U) have emerged as a proxy to reconstruct the redox conditions of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere based upon the large isotopic fractionation between reduced U(IV) and oxidized U(VI). Variations in 238U/235U, particularly when recorded in carbonate sediments, can track global trends in marine oxygenation and de-oxygenation. It is unique from other proxies because reduction primarily occurs at the sediment-water interface, and this sensitivity makes U isotopes especially relevant for the habitability of benthic animals. This Element covers the background, methods, and case studies of this promising tool for understanding Earth's environmental transitions, as rapid development continues to refine the accuracy of interpretations of 238U/235U records.
Education generates human capital and competitive advantages of nations, including the logistics and supply chain sectors. In order to meet everchanging logistics business environment, the logistics education in Hong Kong has undergone significant changes in the postmodern era. In this chapter, we will achieve the following objectives:
• provide an overview of Hong Kong's logistics education;
• evaluate the impact of the 334- education reform on the development of Hong Kong's logistics education; and
• summarize the restructuring of logistics education in Hong Kong.
Logistics industry is traditionally one of the four economic pillars of Hong Kong (The Census and Statistics Department, 2016). Within service, the logistics industry has generated 6 percent of Hong Kong's total GDP in 2015. Thanks to the domestic demand and investments, Hong Kong's annual growth rate (in terms of GDP) has recorded an average of 5.38 percent between 1974 and 2015 (The Census and Statistics Department, 2016). Recently, Hong Kong has become an international hub for trade, business and finance, notably, with Mainland China entering the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, the introduction of Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) in 2003 and the introduction of the “Belt and Road” initiative in 2015. As such, the logistics industry has made significant economic contributions to the ever- changing global environment. However, Hong Kong's logistics industry has faced keen competition with neighboring countries in the Asia- Pacific regions. To further strengthen and consolidate the competitiveness of Hong Kong's logistics industry in the world, it would be crucial to develop a comprehensive logistics education. In today's global and dynamic environment, there has been increasing concern that professional education could be an effective approach to improve productivity, and employees of the highest quality have the quality and competency to respond effectively to continuous changes (Becker, 1993). Recently, there has been a tremendous growth in academic institutions considering apprentice- style, non academic learning approaches to add on their “professional” and “practicebased” programs (Bourner et al., 2001).
Supply chain management is a cornerstone of the competitive strategies of many present-day organizations and has evolved from the operational to the strategic level. Understanding this, ‘Managing Global Supply Chains’ offers a comprehensive insight into the global supply chain sector – analysing the strategic, operational and financial aspects of the industry, and addressing the key elements in the management of global supply chains. The book is based on four principles, namely, clarity (which makes it simple for readers to comprehend); richness (which identifies questions from various academic experiences and disciplines to encourage readers to find out possible unexplored research or key issues); innovations (which prompts readers to reflect on changing traditional, day-to-day operations for enhancement); and practicality (which equips learners with the skills and knowledge to work in the real world).
Due to capacity expansion, environmental considerations, community restrictions and complex supply chain management, an inland port has emerged as a notable actor to connect a hub port and hinterland area. Mexico has demonstrated illustrative examples of inland ports in global supply chains. In this chapter, we will achieve the following objectives:
• understand a movement from a traditional supply chain with a lot of middlemen to a cheaper supply chain that is reliable and agile, without middlemen, to achieve direct benefits for Mexican producers;
• explore different types of inland ports around the world;
• analyze investment that recognizes the affordability issue of the current fresh produce supply chain system, its markets and warehouse storage, and how it does not displace that system with unaffordable rental levels;
• create new value chains through the introduction of business processing and technical business support facilities; and
• underpin the development of free trade negotiations (consortium) by delivering safer, low cost and higher quality products and promote supply chain infrastructure and use of the Centre Port partners.
A supply chain is a series of organizations that interact with one another in order to bring products (goods or services) to the final consumer. Typically a supply chain includes customer or consumer, retail or retail stages, merchants or distributors, manufacturers or manufacturers and suppliers, among others (Chan et al., 2012; Tang and Lau, 2013; Lau et al., 2018).
One of the main purposes of managing supply chains is the coordination and improvement of interorganizational processes. The world's bestrecognized definitions come from the Council of Professional Supply Chain Management, formerly known as the Council of Logistics Management.
Before the 1990s, companies were oriented to managing their internal processes, but as the approach to supply chain management emerged, the emphasis shifted to managing interorganizational processes, which went beyond the boundaries of one's own institution.
In an integrated supply chain approach, organizations realize that they need to include not only their suppliers and customers, but also third- party service providers (intermediary and service providers) to identify and improve their critical processes, in such a way that can be gained collaboratively through synergies, in order to meet customer requirements at a lower cost, with greater quality and speed (Figure 6.1).
Supply chain management is an applied subject. In order to facilitate the learners on how to apply the different learning knowledge and concepts into a practical workplace and dynamic business environment, various case exercises in global supply chains are provided in this chapter. In this chapter, we will achieve the following objectives:
• foster supply chain management subjects delivery as an additional learning tool to supplement textbooks and
• encourage learners to achieve the expected learning outcomes by providing them with supplementary exercises and case studies.
Assume that you are the business development manager of ABC Liner Shipping Company. Recently, ABC Liner Shipping Company launched a new shipping routing in order to create a new logistics business. The new shipping routing will pass through key container ports including Qingdao, Ningbo, Savannah, Charleston, Boston and New York. You need to select ONE container port to provide the recommendations on how to develop a specialized warehouse.
Note 1: Specialized warehouse is served for special handling commodities, for instance, cold storage, hazardous material, household goods, agricultural products, bulk petroleum and chemical storage, document storage, whiskey, bulk lumber and so on.
Note 2: The characteristics of liner shipping include (1) common carrier, (2) fixed schedule, (3) fixed route and (4) regularity
The Belt and Road Initiative in Maritime Transport Networks
The Belt and Road Initiative refers to the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, a significant development strategy launched by the Chinese government with the intention of promoting economic cooperation among countries along the proposed Belt and Road routes. The initiative has been designed to enhance the orderly free- flow of economic factors and the efficient allocation of resources. It is also intended to further market integration and create a regional economic cooperation framework of benefit to all. Assume that you are the vessel planning manager of a liner shipping company. You need to manage four 2,000 TEU container ships, four 6,000 TEU container ships and four 10,000 TEU container ships for a 60- day sailing schedule. You are requested to design the ship routings for Intra- Asian regions and the Belt and Road Initiative countries. Also, you need to plan which container port(s) is/ are the hub port(s) and feeder port(s).
A consortium is a group made up of two or more individuals, companies or governments that work together toward achieving a chosen objective. Entities participating in a consortium will pool resources but otherwise are only responsible to the group in respect to the obligations that are set out in the consortium's agreement. Therefore, every entity that is under the consortium remains independent with regard to their normal business operations and has no say over another member's operations that are not related to the consortium. (Source: Investopedia.com)
A concession agreement is a negotiated contract between a company and a government that gives the company the right to operate a specific business within the government's jurisdiction, subject to certain conditions. Concession agreements may also refer to agreements between the owner of a facility and the concession owners or concessionaires that grant the latter exclusive rights to operate a specific business in the facility under specified conditions. (Source: Investopedia.com)
up to this time; until now: a fact hitherto unknown to here. (Source: Dictionary. com)
Reverse logistics is the process of moving goods from their typical final destination for the purpose of capturing value, or proper disposal. Remanufacturing and refurbishing activities may also be included in the definition of reverse logistics. In this chapter, we will achieve the following objectives:
• provide an overview of key issues of reverse logistics;
• discuss reverse logistics management;
• describe reverse logistics management activities; and
• illustrate typical examples in reverse logistics management.
Only a few decades ago, the world spoke about “quality” as a concept to add value in products and services; then the “just in time” concept appeared some years after. At that time, engineers, administrators and logistics strategists focused on designing intelligent and reliable strategies that would boost the concept of “supply chain” and guarantee greater efficiency in the delivery of products and services on time. It was essential to do what was necessary to achieve such, the production lines did not stop for any reason and added to the previous concept of quality and the consumers satisfied their need, taste or desire as soon as possible.
Quality refers to the ability of an object to meet implicit or explicit needs according to a parameter, a fulfillment of quality requirements (Figure 9.1). It is a subjective concept related to the perceptions of each individual to compare the thing with any other of the same species, and various factors such as culture, product or service, needs and expectations directly influence this definition.
The term quality of Latin is “qualitative.” A current view of the concept of quality in marketing indicates that quality is not delivering to the customer what they want, but delivering what they had never imagined they were looking for and that once they get it, realize it is what they have always wanted.
There is also quality control, quality assurance and quality management concepts that are related to quality in industries and services.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the understanding of global supply chains. In the twenty- first century, firms encounter untold pressures including market expansion, globalization, keen competition and increasing customer expectations in a dynamic business environment, where competitors continuously upgrade capabilities so as to remain competitive. This encourages firms to provide superior customer service and reduce total cost via upgrading logistics capabilities. Firms such as General Electric, Wal- Mart, Dell, Cisco and Southern Book Company are able to control supply chains and root out volatilities. Indeed, a competitive supply chain is the key driver for firms to accomplish a competitive edge by improving productivity, decreasing operating cost, keeping strong partnership, increasing revenue and improving customer services (Chan et al., 2012). Hence, today business competition often is “a supply chain against another supply chain” rather than a company against another company (Bowersox et al., 2013). In this regard, the boundary between logistics and supply chain management (SCM) is often confused. The former is a subgroup of SCM that covers additional issues beyond the flow of products and services and incorporates logistics into a core supply chain focused function (Tang and Lau, 2013). The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (2007) distinguishes logistics management from SCM. Logistics management is defined as “part of supply chain management that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customers’ requirements.” SCM, however, “encompasses the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all logistics management activities. Importantly, it also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers, and customers. In essence, supply chain management integrates supply and demand management within and across companies.” Logistics includes all relevant processes pertaining to warehouse, materials handling, packaging, transport, distribution, reception, customer relationship management, demand forecasting, inventory management, procurement and reverse logistics, to name but a few.