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In this chapter, we review the literature on leadership and emotion. Progress in understanding the junction of these two ideas has been steady but slow. To address this concern, at the conclusion of this chapter, we briefly discuss two theoretical obstacles that, in our view, have slowed progress. However, we begin with the larger substance of our chapter, which focuses on leaders’ affect at three levels of analysis – the overall climate, the work team, and, finally, the leader himself or herself. We show that leader emotion can be important at all three levels of analysis. At the highest level of analysis, leaders create emotional climate through personnel practices, by rewarding (or punishing) culturally appropriate emotion displays, and by their treatment of individual employees. Moving to teams and dyads, we will see that emotions can influence followers through contagion or emotional correspondence. Finally, looking within the leader, our review underscores how emotional intelligence is crucial for effective leadership.
To identify factors associated with food purchasing decisions and expenditure of South African supermarket shoppers across income levels.
Intercept surveys were conducted, grocery receipts collated and expenditure coded into categories, with each category calculated as percentage of the total expenditure. In-supermarket food quality audit and shelf space measurements of foods such as fruits and vegetables (F&V) (healthy foods), snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) (unhealthy foods) were also assessed. Shoppers and supermarkets were classified by high-, middle- and low-income socio-economic areas (SEA) of residential area and location, respectively. Shoppers were also classified as “out-shoppers” (persons shopping outside their residential SEA) and “in-shoppers” (persons shopping in their residential SEA). Data were analysed using descriptive analysis and ANOVA.
Supermarkets located in different SEA in urban Cape Town.
Three hundred ninety-five shoppers from eleven purposively selected supermarkets.
Shelf space ratio of total healthy foods v. unhealthy foods in all the supermarkets was low, with supermarkets located in high SEA having the lowest ratio but better quality of fresh F&V. The share expenditure on SSB and snacks was higher than F&V in all SEA. Food secure shoppers spent more on food, but food items purchased frequently did not differ from the food insecure shoppers. Socio-economic status and food security were associated with greater expenditure on food items in supermarkets but not with overall healthier food purchases.
Urban supermarket shoppers in South Africa spent substantially more on unhealthy food items, which were also allocated greater shelf space, compared with healthier foods.
Unlike randomized controlled trials, lack of methodological rigor is a concern about real-world evidence (RWE) studies. The objective of this study was to characterize methodological practices of studies collecting pharmacoeconomic data in a real-world setting for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
A systematic literature review was performed using the PICO framework: population consisted of T2DM patients, interventions and comparators were any intervention for T2DM care or absence of intervention, and outcomes were resource utilization, productivity loss or utility. Only RWE studies were included, defined as studies that were not clinical trials and that collected de novo data (no retrospective analysis).
The literature search identified 1,158 potentially relevant studies, among which sixty were included in the literature review. Many studies showed a lack of transparency by not mentioning the source for outcome and exposure measurement, source for patient selection, number of study sites, recruitment duration, sample size calculation, sampling method, missing data, approbation by an ethics committee, obtaining patient's consent, conflicts of interest, and funding. A significant proportion of studies had poor quality scores and was at high risk of bias.
RWE from T2DM studies lacks transparency and credibility. There is a need for good procedural practices that can increase confidence in RWE studies. Standardized methodologies specifically adapted for RWE studies collecting pharmacoeconomic data for the management of T2DM could help future reimbursement decision making in this major public health problem.
Japanese stiltgrass is regarded as one of the most troublesome invasive species in the United States. It is commonly found invading forested areas; however, more recently it has been noted to be invading golf course roughs and out-of-play areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate POST herbicide control of Japanese stiltgrass in golf course and highly maintained turfgrass facilities. None of the treatments provided >80% Japanese stiltgrass control 2 wk after treatment (WAT). At 4 WAT >80% Japanese stiltgrass control was observed with MSMA, MSMA + metribuzin, amicarbazone, and sethoxydim, whereas metsulfuron, pinoxaden, and imazapic provided minimum control. By 8 WAT, MSMA, MSMA + metribuzin, amicarbazone, and sethoxydim provided >98% control, whereas quinclorac, metsulfuron, pinoxaden, and imazapic provided no visible control. Thiencarbazone-methyl + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron-methyl, and sulfentrazone provided limited (≤60%) control. This study indicates that POST control of Japanese stiltgrass can be achieved with MSMA, MSMA + metribuzin, amicarbazone, and sethoxydim. Future research should include long-term control over multiple growing seasons, repeat applications of herbicides, and evaluation of herbicides in combination for increased and longer-term Japanese stiltgrass control.
Given the hierarchical nature and structure of field schools, enrolled students are particularly susceptible to harassment and assault. In 2018, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) released recommendations to help prevent sexual harassment and assault of women in academia. Although these recommendations are specific to higher education and exclusive to women, some can be modified and applied to the context of archaeological field schools. We review the NASEM's recommendations, with particular attention to those applicable to the field school setting, and provide suggestions for making field schools safer and more inclusive learning environments for all students. Although we present recommendations for practices that can be implemented at field schools, additional research is needed to understand how sexual harassment occurs at field schools and how the implementation of these recommendations can make learning safer.
To assess the prevalence and correlates of childhood and adolescence sexual and/or physical abuse (SPA) in bipolar I disorder (BD) patients treated for a first episode of psychotic mania.
The Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC) admitted 786 first episode psychosis (FEP) patients between 1998 and 2000. Data were collected from patients’ files using a standardized questionnaire. 704 files were available, 43 were excluded because of a non-psychotic diagnosis at endpoint and 3 due to missing data regarding past stressful events. Among 658 patients with available data, 118 received a final diagnosis of BD and were entered in this study.
80% of patients had been exposed to stressful life events during childhood and adolescence and 24.9% to SPA: in particular, 29.8% of female patients had been exposed to sexual abuse. Patients who were exposed to SPA had poorer pre-morbid functioning, higher rates of forensic history, were less likely to live with family during treatment period and were more likely to disengage from treatment
Sexual and/or physical abuse is highly prevalent in BD patients presenting with a first episode of psychotic mania; exposed patients have lower pre-morbid functional levels and poorer engagement with treatment. The context in which such traumas occur must be explored in order to define if early intervention strategies may contribute to diminish their prevalence. Specific psychological interventions must also be developed.
Plusieurs études montrent l’intérêt des programmes de remédiation cognitive et de psychoéducation dans la prise en charge des patients souffrant de schizophrénie dans le cadre de soins de réhabilitation psycho-sociale . Ces programmes dispensés de façon isolée sont moins efficaces que ceux effectués dans une démarche de soins intégrative [2,3] et en impliquant l’ensemble des acteurs de soins et de réhabilitation (sanitaire, MDPH, médico-social, milieu professionnel). Depuis 2009, le centre intersectoriel Crisalid (pôle FJ5, CHI de Clermont de l’Oise, Picardie) propose un programme intégratif et personnalisé, appelé COMBIMOD (combinaison de modules de remédiation cognitive et d’éducation thérapeutique) destiné aux personnes souffrant de schizophrénie et à leurs proches habitant dans l’Oise, suivi par le sanitaire, le privé et le médico-social. Ce programme combine des modules de remédiation cognitive francophones validés à des modules d’éducation thérapeutique spécifiques construits autour des déficits cognitifs. L’objectif de ce poster est :
– de décrire au travers du parcours de soins de 3 personnes souffrant de schizophrénie la mise en place du programme COMBIMOD (de l’importance de : l’entretien motivationnel, l’évaluation globale [clinique, thérapeutique, neurocognitive, cognition sociale, fonctionnelle], la restitution du bilan, la mise en place d’un programme personnalisé et intégratif) jusqu’à la réalisation des objectifs professionnels ;
– montrer l’importance de l’articulation entre le sanitaire, le privé, le médico-social et le milieu professionnel.
Au terme du programme et grâce à un travail d’articulation entre le sanitaire (secteur : CMP, hôpital de jour, CATTP), la MDPH, le médico-social (centre de réadaptation professionnelle et de formation, ESAT de transition) les 3 patients se sont réinsérer professionnellement en milieu ordinaire.
To examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a lifestyle-based approach to treating anxiety and Panic Disorder in Primary Care. To present evidence from an explanatory model.
A Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Trial was conducted comparing a lifestyle intervention with routine GP care. The lifestyle intervention used patient diary data focusing on diet, fluid intake, habitual lifestyle drug use (alcohol, nicotine and caffeine) and exercise, to influence mood and behaviour change. Following the MRC (2008) recommendation on developing and evaluating complex interventions, an explanatory model was developed.
31 Lifestyle arm and 36 GP care arm patients completed to analysis. A significant improvement in Beck Anxiety Inventory scores was observed at end of treatment (Lifestyle 29.5 to 9.2; GP 29.4 to 17.2; p< 0.001) although non-significant at 10 month follow-up (Lifestyle 13.3: GP 16.4; p=0.167). Results were comparable with full CBT and improved compared with medication. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed that If maximum willingness to pay peradditional QALY is £30,000, this represents an 86% chance that a lifestyle intervention provides value for money over 10 months. Modeling shows a broad range of factors influencing anxiety and panic responses, indicating that lifestyle interventions impact at a different point in the system to medication and psychological approaches.
Evidence shows that a lifestyle-based intervention provides an additional, cost-effective intervention and significantly improved symptom profile for anxiety and panic disorder compared with routine GP care. It impacts on both physiological and cognitive symptoms. Modeling suggests broader application to other mental health problems.
There is widespread evidence that schizophrenic symptomatology is best represented by three syndromes (positive, negative, disorganized). Both the disorganized and negative syndrome have been found to correlate with several neurocognitive dysfunctions. However, previous studies investigated samples predominantly treated with typical neuroleptics, which frequently induce parkinsonian symptoms that are hard to disentangle from primary negative symptoms and may have inflated correlations with neurocognition. A newly developed psychopathological instrument called the Positive and Negative and Disorganized Symptoms Scale (PANADSS) was evaluated in 60 schizophrenic patients. Forty-seven participants treated with atypical neuroleptics performed several neurocognitive tasks.
A three-factor solution of schizophrenic symptomatology emerged. Negative symptomatology was associated with diminished creative verbal fluency and digit span backward, whereas disorganization was significantly correlated with impaired Stroop, WCST and Trail-Making Test B performance.
Data suggest that disorganization is associated with tasks that demand executive functioning. Previous findings reporting correlations between negative symptomatology and neurocognition may have been confounded by the adverse consequences of typical neuroleptics.
Age at onset of psychosis (AAO) may be younger in patients with cannabis use disorders (CUD) compared to those without CUD (NCUD). Most previous studies did not control for potential confounders, did not report effect sizes and included mostly adult patients from non-representative samples.
Controlling for relevant confounders, differences in AAO between patients with and without lifetime CUD were analysed in a large epidemiologically based cohort of 606 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients (age 14 to 29 years) admitted within three years to the Melbourne Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre. Data were collected from medical files using a standardized scale.
Overall, AAO was not significantly different in CUD (n = 449; 74.1%) compared to NCUD, neither univariate nor when controlling for gender and premorbid functioning. However, AAO was younger in those with early CUD (starting before age 14) compared to NCUD (F(1) = 11.3; p = 0.001; partial η2 = 0.042). When considering the subgroups of early versus late onset psychosis, AAO was even later in early onset psychosis patients with CUD compared to those with NCUD (F(1) = 8.4; p = 0.004; partial η2 = 0.072). These findings were consistent for patients with non-affective psychoses, in those with CUD without other substance use disorders and in those with CUD explicitly starting in the pre-psychotic phase. Notably, 89.1% started cannabis before the onset of psychotic symptoms.
CUD starting before age 14 was associated with an earlier AAO at a small effect size, but only in adult onset FEP patients.
Although no pharmacological treatment has proved to be highly effective for reducing cocaine dependence, several medications have been tested over the last decade and have shown promising efficacy. Modafinil (Provigil), known as a treatment for day time sleepiness, and Topiramate (Topamax), an anti-epileptic medication also prescribed for migraine, have been shown to be effective in controlled clinical trials. We have recently started a major study utilizing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) brain imaging to monitor the progress of pharmacotherapy with modafinil or topiramate in cocaine-dependent and methadone-maintained cocaine-dependent patients. Patients will be assessed before treatment, and again after 4 weeks of pharmacotherapy. The aims of the project are to study effects of the two medications on cocaine dependence and craving, and on dopamine binding in the brain. At each assessment session, patients will undergo PET with [11C] raclopride to image the dopamine receptor DRD2. To trigger craving, patients will then be exposed to a videotape showing cocaine use; a questionnaire will be used to record their subjective responses, and a second PET scan will be performed with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to image cerebral glucose metabolism during craving. This protocol was designed to enable us to study changes resulting from pharmacotherapy on dopamine binding in the brain, and on craving as reflected both in subjective measures and regional cerebral glucose metabolism. In addition, we will investigate the association between subjective measures of craving for cocaine and the level of dopamine DRD2 receptor occupancy in the brain before and after treatment. Notwithstanding the complexity of the clinical and therapeutic reality characterizing cocaine dependence, we hope to present preliminary evidence for the relative efficacy of these two promising medications in treatment for cocaine. dependence. This evidence could also elucidate the brain mechanisms underlying cocaine craving and dependence in cocaine-dependent patients.
An interim analysis of 1 year outcomes in schizophrenia patients enrolled in e-STAR in Australia and treated with RLAI continuously for 12 months.
e-STAR is a secure web-based, international, long-term (1 year retrospective, 2 years prospective) observational study of schizophrenia patients who initiate a new antipsychotic drug during their routine clinical management.
Currently, 315 patients have received RLAI continuously for 12 months; mean age 39.6 years, 68.9% male, mean duration of illness at baseline 11.8 years. Mean Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) scores at baseline (4.6) decreased significantly at 3, 6 and 12 months (n=284) (4.0, 3.7, 3.7, respectively; all p<0.001 vs baseline) indicating a reduction in illness severity from moderately-marked to mildly-moderate at month 3 and maintained to 1 year. The proportion of patients with CGI-S scores of 1–3 (not ill to mild severity) increased from 12.7% at baseline to 40.8% at 12 months (p<0.0001). Mean Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale scores improved from 41.7 at baseline (serious impairment) to 56.7 (moderate impairment) at 12 months with improvements evident from month 3 after the start of RLAI (p<0.001 for both timepoints). Other significant improvements included fewer hospital stays (p<0.001) and rehospitalisations (p<0.001), reduced suicidal ideation (p=0.008) and violent behaviour (p=0.03), and decreased use of concomitant psychiatric medication.
These interim data show that a significant degree of clinical improvement and reduction in hospitalisation occurs early at 3 months in patients treated with RLAI and is maintained with continued treatment over 12 months.
(1) determine which antipsychotic side effects (SE) schizophrenic patients consider the most distressing during treatment with typical antipsychotics, (2) measure the impact of actual and past SE on patients' attitude toward antipsychotics and (3) assess the influence of both on adherence.
The 213 schizophrenics, treated with conventional antipsychotics, were recruited in two psychiatric hospitals in Hamburg. Subjects were assessed about type and severity of present and past side effects and their attitude and adherence to antipsychotic treatment.
The 82 (39%) patients presented present SE while 131 (61%) did not. Sexual dysfunctions (P<0.001), extrapyramidal (P<0.05) and psychic side effects (P<0.05) were rated as significantly subjectively more distressing than sedation or vegetative side effects. Patients presenting with present SE compared with patients without present SE had a significantly more negative general attitude toward antipsychotics (P<0.05), were more doubtful about their efficacy (P<0.01) and were less likely to encourage a relative to take such a medication in case of need (P<0.001). A regression analysis indicated that nonadherence was mainly influenced by negative general and efficacy attitudes toward antipsychotics and the experience of past or present antipsychotic side effects.
All antipsychotic side effects, present or past, can have a durable negative impact on patient's attitude toward antipsychotic treatment and adherence. Non-adherence is mainly determined, among other factors, by these negative attitudes, which are partly influenced by the experience of past or present antipsychotic-induced side effects.
Cognitive impairments in schizophrenics have been found to precede tardive dyskinesia and to co-exist with other motor deficits. However, little is yet known about the prevalence of cognitive disturbances in patients with neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. From the literature on idiopathic parkinson, it was inferred that extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) are accompanied by cognitive dysfunction. 85 schizophrenic in-patients were divided into EPS high and low scorers according to an established criterion (Simpson Angus Scale, cut-off score: 0.4). Cognitive impairments were assessed using a self-rating instrument measuring disturbances of information processing.
Patients with high EPS exhibited significantly elevated scores in six of ten cognitive and perceptual subscales (t = 2.1—3.1) as compared to low EPS patients. It is concluded that high EPS patients suffer from cognitive disturbances which are assumed to possess high relevance for both psycho-social and medical treatment. Cognitive problems may, when not considered, disturb compliance, insight of illness and transfer of learnt skills into everyday life.
To measure symptomatic and functional remission in patients treated with risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI).
Stable patients with psychotic disorders requiring medication change were switched to open-label RLAI in the switch to risperidone microspheres (StoRMi) trial. In this post-hoc analysis of the trial extension, follow-up was ≤18 months. Symptomatic remission was based on improvement in positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores and global remission (best outcome) was based on symptomatic remission, functional level, and mental-health quality of life. Predictive factors were evaluated.
Among 529 patients from seven European countries, mean participation duration was 358.7 ± 232.4 days, with 18 months completed by 39.9% of patients. Symptomatic remission lasting ≥6 months occurred at some point during treatment in 33% of patients; predictors included comorbid disease, country, baseline symptom severity, baseline functioning, type of antipsychotic before switching, and duration of untreated psychosis. Best outcome occurred in 21% of patients; predictors included baseline symptom severity, baseline functioning, country, schizophrenia type, and early positive treatment course.
One in three patients with stable schizophrenia switching to RLAI experienced symptomatic remission, with combined symptomatic, functional, and quality-of-life remission in one in five patients. Symptomatic remission was predicted by better baseline symptom severity and country of origin, with a significantly greater likelihood of remission occurring among patients in Estonia/Slovenia compared with Portugal. Relapse was predicted by higher mode doses of RLAI, additional use of psychoactive medications, male gender, and country of origin, with relapse occurring most frequently in France and least frequently in Portugal. RLAI dose, additional use of psychoactive medications, and country of origin predicted best outcome, with best outcome occurring most frequently in Estonia/Slovenia and least frequently in Portugal.
Previous studies on the impact of cannabis use disorders (CU) on outcome in psychosis were mostly based on non-representative samples, have often not controlled for confounders and rarely focused on adolescents. Thus, the aims of the present study were to assess;
(i) prevalence of CU;
(ii) pre-treatment and baseline differences between CU and those without CU (NCU); and
(iii) the impact of baseline and course of CU on 18-month outcomes in a representative cohort of adolescents with early onset first episode psychosis (EOP).
The sample comprised 99 adolescents (age 14 to 18) with EOP (onset age 14 to 17), admitted to the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre in Australia. Data were collected from medical files using a standardized questionnaire.
Prevalence of lifetime CU was 65.7%, baseline CU 53.5%, and persistent CU 26.3%. Baseline CU compared to NCU was associated with higher illness-severity, lower functioning, less insight, lower premorbid functioning and longer duration of untreated psychosis. Compared to both NCU and those who decreased or stopped CU during treatment, only persistent CU was linked to worse outcomes and more service disengagement. Effect sizes were medium controlling for relevant confounders. Medication non-adherence did not explain the link between persistent CU and worse outcome.
The prevalence of CU in adolescents with EOP is high, while only persistent CU use was associated with worse outcome with medium effect sizes. Specific needs of adolescent patients with respect to cannabis interventions within integrated care settings should be addressed in future studies.