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The scholarship on political skill documents that it is a social savvy, personal style construct, associated with positive personal and organizational outcomes. However, this study takes a counterintuitive view and demonstrates that despite being a positive resource, political skill also has the potential to be used as a self-serving device to achieve one's personal agendas in the form of self-serving counterproductive work behaviors. Borrowing insights from the trait activation theory, this study demonstrates that a context, high in political perceptions, acts as an incentivized condition for politically skilled people to execute its dark side. The results supported the hypothesis and revealed that under high perceptions of organizational politics, political skill will have a significant, positive relation with self-serving counterproductive work behaviors. The study discusses important theoretical and practical implications of these results and extends the domains of political skill and counterproductive work behaviors.
In the present work, mechanical, tribological, and electrochemical behaviors of Al Alloy 6061–(0–10) % B4C–(0.25–1.2) % graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) composites, prepared by a combination of solution mixing and powder metallurgy, were investigated. Properties such as hardness, compressive strength, wear rates, and coefficient of friction (COF) were used to investigate the effects of GNPs on mechanical and self-lubricating tribological behavior. The corrosion resistance of composites was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and EDS mapping were employed to study the distribution, the fracture profile, and wear mechanism. The AA 6061–10% B4C–0.6% GNPs composites exhibited sharp increase in hardness and compressive strength and significant decrease in wear rates and COF. However, for GNPs contents exceeding over 0.6 wt%, mechanical properties and wear performances deteriorated. Pulling out of sheared pultruded GNPs was observed during the fracture of composites. Worn surfaces of GNPs-containing composites showed the smeared graphene layer with some macro-cracks exhibiting delamination wear. It was found that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of GNPs was more pronounced in H3BO3 environment than in NaCl solution.
Identification of influential nodes is an important step in understanding and controlling the dynamics of information, traffic, and spreading processes in networks. As a result, a number of centrality measures have been proposed and used across different application domains. At the heart of many of these measures lies an assumption describing the manner in which traffic (of information, social actors, particles, etc.) flows through the network. For example, some measures only count shortest paths while others consider random walks. This paper considers a spreading process in which a resource necessary for transit is partially consumed along the way while being refilled at special nodes on the network. Examples include fuel consumption of vehicles together with refueling stations, information loss during dissemination with error-correcting nodes, and consumption of ammunition of military troops while moving. We propose generalizations of the well-known measures of betweenness, random-walk betweenness, and Katz centralities to take such a spreading process with consumable resources into account. In order to validate the results, experiments on real-world networks are carried out by developing simulations based on well-known models such as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered and congestion with respect to particle hopping from vehicular flow theory. The simulation-based models are shown to be highly correlated with the proposed centrality measures.
S. Akbar Zaidi (2014) advocates a need for a critical reappraisal of the most influential works of Hamza Alavi on the postcolonial state of Pakistan. Alavi is significant because most of the critical political economic literature on Pakistan can trace back its roots from the original works of Alavi (Zaidi 2014:48). To understand Alavi's work, it is necessary to be cognizant of the following three broad conjectures: the historical legacy of colonialism, internal class formations of the postcolonial society and the relationship of the postcolonial state with the external world (core countries of the Global North). This chapter primarily focuses on the first two conjectures.
This chapter builds on recent scholarship (see Akhtar 2018; Zaidi 2014) and presents a new understanding of the postcolonial state-society in Pakistan by drawing from Lefebvre's (2009) work on state-spatiality and the Marxian circuit of capital framework. It is argued in this chapter that the postcolonial state of Pakistan can be best characterised by uneven state spatiality. The dynamics of state-spatiality have been largely overlooked in the existing literature2 on postcolonial Pakistan. It is time to draw from this rich strand of literature to delineate the inherent contradictions of the postcolonial state and society of Pakistan. Zaidi (2014) marks a major departure from Alavi's class formulation by arguing that institutions are more significant as compared to class in understanding dynamics of postcolonial Pakistan. This chapter adds to the class versus institutions debate by using the Marxian circuit of capital framework. It is argued here that both class and institutions are dialectically interlinked and they mutually co-determine the underlying political economic dynamics of postcolonial capitalism in Pakistan.
The rest of this chapter is structured as follows. The second section introduces the processual concept of the state. The third section presents the notion of state spatiality and socio-spatial dialectic and the next section juxtaposes the concept of processual state and state-spatiality in the context of the postcolonial state of Pakistan. In the fifth section, the political economy of informalisation in Pakistan is discussed in the context of the heterogeneity and fractured nature of the postcolonial state. The sixth section discusses the importance of using the Marxian circuit of capital framework to conceptualise the political economic processes as a dialectical interplay of class and institution in the context of the postcolonial state of Pakistan. The final section provides a conclusion to the chapter.
The environmental and economic realities of Arctic climate change present novel problems for international law. Arctic warming and pollution raise important questions about responsibilities and accountabilities across borders, as they result from anthropogenic activities both within and outside the Arctic region, from the Global North and the Global South. Environmental interdependencies and economic development prospects connect in a nexus of risk and opportunity that raises difficult normative questions pertaining to Arctic governance and sovereignty. This article looks at how the Arctic has been produced in international legal spaces. It addresses the implication of states and Indigenous peoples in processes of Arctic governance. Looking at specific international legal instruments relevant to Arctic climate change and development, the author attempts to tease out the relationship between the concepts of Indigenous rights and state sovereignty that underlie these international legal realms. What do these international legal regimes tell us with respect to the role of Arctic Indigenous peoples and the role of states in governing the ‘global’ Arctic? It is argued that while international law has come a long way in recognizing the special status of Indigenous peoples in the international system, it still hesitates to recognize Indigenous groups as international law makers. Comparing the status of Indigenous peoples under specific international regimes to their role within the Arctic Council, it becomes evident that more participatory forms of global governance are entirely possible and long overdue.
Projections of a burgeoning population coupled with global environmental change offer an increasingly dire picture of the state of the world's food security in the not-too-distant future. But how can we transform the current food system to become more sustainable, more equitable and more just? We identify kitchens as sites of transformative innovation in the food system where cooks and chefs can leverage traditional food knowledge about local food species to create delicious and nutritious dishes. Achieving a sustainable food system is a grand challenge, one where cooks in particular are stepping forward as innovators to find solutions.
As image analysis expands into clinical and basic applications it is important that users be aware of opportunities and limitations. A common image analysis workflow involves the digitization of stained tissue sections into a red-green-blue (RGB) colour model for quantitative interpretation. Upstream of the digital image, quality and variability can be degraded at each step (tissue handling, fixation, sectioning, staining, image acquisition). Digital image analysis presents additional steps where variables can affect data quality. Image analysis platforms are not uniform. Aside from interface preferences, some introduce unintended variability due to their processing architecture that may not be obvious to the end-user. One important component of this is colour space representation: hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) vs. colour deconvolution (CD). A potential weakness of analyses within the HSI colour space is the mis-identification of darkly stained pixels, particularly when more than one stain is present. We were interested to discover whether HSI or CD provided greater fidelity in a typical immunoperoxidase/hematoxylin dataset.
Fifty-nine samples were processed using HSI- and CD-based analyses. Processed image pairs were compared with the original sample to determine which processed image provided a more accurate representation. CD proved superior to HSI in 94.9% of the analyzed image pairs. Where the option exists, CD-based image analysis is strongly recommended.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.To describe differences between HSI and CD colour spaces
2.To explain limitations in the use of HSI-based analyses
3.To be aware of recent developments in CD-based platforms
As many as 70% of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors suffer from long-term physical, cognitive, and psychological impairments known as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). We describe how the first ICU survivor clinic in the United States, the Critical Care Recovery Center (CCRC), was designed to address PICS using the principles of Agile Implementation (AI).
The CCRC was designed using an eight-step process known as the AI Science Playbook. Patients who required mechanical ventilation or were delirious ≥48 hours during their ICU stay were enrolled in the CCRC. One hundred twenty subjects who completed baseline HABC-M CG assessments and had demographics collected were included in the analysis to identify baseline characteristics that correlated with higher HABC-M CG scores. A subset of patients and caregivers also participated in focus group interviews to describe their perceptions of PICS.
Quantitative analyses showed that the cognitive impairment was a major concern of caregivers. Focus group data also confirmed that caregivers of ICU survivors (n = 8) were more likely to perceive cognitive and mental health symptoms than ICU survivors (n = 10). Caregivers also described a need for ongoing psychoeducation about PICS, particularly cognitive and mental health symptoms, and for ongoing support from other caregivers with similar experiences.
Our study demonstrated how the AI Science Playbook was used to build the first ICU survivor clinic in the United States. Caregivers of ICU survivors continue to struggle with PICS, particularly cognitive impairment, months to years after discharge. Future studies will need to examine whether the CCRC model of care can be adapted to other complex patient populations seen by health-care professionals.
Refugees are confronted with the task of adapting to the long-term erosion of psychosocial systems and institutions that in stable societies support psychological well-being and mental health. We provide an overview of the theoretical principles and practical steps taken to develop a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Integrative Adapt Therapy (IAT), which aims to assist refugees to adapt to these changes. This paper offers the background informing ongoing trials of IAT amongst refugees from Myanmar.
A systematic process was followed in formulating the therapy and devising a treatment manual consistent with the principles of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model. The process of development and refinement was based on qualitative research amongst 70 refugees (ten from West Papua and 60 Rohingya from Myanmar). The therapeutic process was then piloted by trained interventionists amongst a purposively selected sample of 20 Rohingya refugees in Malaysia.
The final formulation of IAT represented an integration of the principles of the ADAPT model and evidence-based techniques of modern therapies in the field, including a transdiagnostic approach and the selective use of cognitive behavioural treatment elements such as problem-solving and emotional regulation techniques. The steps outlined in refining the manual are outlined in relation to work amongst West Papuan refugees, and the process of cultural and contextual modifications described during early piloting with Rohingya refugees in Malaysia.
IAT integrates universal principles of the ADAPT model with the particularities of the culture, history of conflict and living context of each refugee community; this synthesis of knowledge forms the basis for participants gaining insights into their personal patterns of psychosocial adaptation to the refugee experience. Participants then apply evidence-based techniques to improve their capacity to adapt to the serial psychosocial changes they have encountered in their lives as refugees. The overarching goal of IAT is to provide refugees with a coherent framework that assists in making sense of their experiences and their emotional and interpersonal reactions to the challenges they confront within the family and community context. As such, the principles of a general model (ADAPT) are used as a springboard for making concrete, manageable and meaningful life changes at the individual level, a potentially novel approach for psychosocial interventions in the field.
An improved understanding of diagnostic and treatment practices for patients with rare primary mitochondrial disorders can support benchmarking against guidelines and establish priorities for evaluative research. We aimed to describe physician care for patients with mitochondrial diseases in Canada, including variation in care.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians involved in the diagnosis and/or ongoing care of patients with mitochondrial diseases. We used snowball sampling to identify potentially eligible participants, who were contacted by mail up to five times and invited to complete a questionnaire by mail or internet. The questionnaire addressed: personal experience in providing care for mitochondrial disorders; diagnostic and treatment practices; challenges in accessing tests or treatments; and views regarding research priorities.
We received 58 survey responses (52% response rate). Most respondents (83%) reported spending 20% or less of their clinical practice time caring for patients with mitochondrial disorders. We identified important variation in diagnostic care, although assessments frequently reported as diagnostically helpful (e.g., brain magnetic resonance imaging, MRI/MR spectroscopy) were also recommended in published guidelines. Approximately half (49%) of participants would recommend “mitochondrial cocktails” for all or most patients, but we identified variation in responses regarding specific vitamins and cofactors. A majority of physicians recommended studies on the development of effective therapies as the top research priority.
While Canadian physicians’ views about diagnostic care and disease management are aligned with published recommendations, important variations in care reflect persistent areas of uncertainty and a need for empirical evidence to support and update standard protocols.
In this article, by studying the candidate-nomination process of the two major political parties, I show how power is distributed within the political party in Bangladesh. I show that the general acceptance by scholars that political power lies in the hands of the innermost circle of the political-party leadership in Bangladesh is too simplistic. A more nuanced observation of power and influence within the party structure shows that, in the context of Bangladesh's clientelistic political system, which is based on reciprocity between patrons and clients and relies on the ability of middlemen to organize and mobilize (in order to disrupt through hartals and strikes), power is often in the hands of those mid-level leaders who are in charge of mobilizing because their demands cannot be ignored by the topmost leadership. Through studying the candidate-nomination process of the major political parties and using the Narayanganj mayoral election of 2011 as a case study, I answer questions such as whose interests political parties are representing, what channels of influence are being used, and why these channels exist.
The main objective of this study is to assure the quality of cervical cancer treatment plans using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in RapidArc techniques.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen cases of cervical cancer patients undergoing RapidArc technique were selected to evaluate the quality assurance (QA) of their treatment. The computed tomography (CT) of each patient was obtained with 3-mm-slice thickness and transferred to the Eclipse treatment planning system. The prescribed dose (PD) of 50·4 Gy with 1·8 Gy per fraction to planning target volume (PTV) was used for each patient. The aim of treatment planning was to achieve 95% of PD to cover 97%, and dose to the PTV should not receive 105% of the PD. All RapidArc plans were created using the AAA algorithm and treated on Varian DHX using 6 MV photon beam, with two full arcs. Gamma analysis was used to evaluate the quality of the treatment plans with accepting criteria of 95% at 3%/3 mm.
In this study, maximum and average gamma values were 2·53 ± 0·409 and 0·195 ± 0·059 showing very small deviation and indicating the smaller difference between both predicted and portal doses. Gamma Area changes from > 0·8 to > 1·2. SD increased to 5·4% and mean standard error increased to 4·67%.
On the basis of these outcomes, we can summarise that the EPID is a useful tool for QA in standardising and evaluating RapidArc treatment plans of cervical cancer in routine clinical practice.
The PRogramme for Improving Mental health care (PRIME) designed, implemented and evaluated a comprehensive mental healthcare plan (MHCP) for Sehore district, Madhya Pradesh, India.
To provide quantitative measures of outputs related to implementation processes, describe the role of contextual factors that facilitated and impeded implementation processes, and discuss what has been learned from the MHCP implementation.
A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. The quantitative strand consisted of process data on mental health indicators whereas the qualitative strand consisted of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key stakeholders involved in PRIME implementation.
The implementation of the MHCP in Sehore district in Madhya Pradesh, India, demonstrated that it is feasible to establish structures (for example Mann-Kaksha) and operationalise processes to integrate mental health services in a ‘real-world’ low-resource primary care setting. The key lessons can be summarised as: (a) clear ‘process maps’ of clinical interventions and implementation steps are helpful in monitoring/tracking the progress; (b) implementation support from an external team, in addition to training of service providers, is essential to provide clinical supervision and address the implementation barriers; (c) the enabling packages of the MHCP play a crucial role in strengthening the health system and improving the context/settings for implementation; and (d) engagement with key community stakeholders and incentives for community health workers are necessary to deliver services at the community-platform level.
The PRIME implementation model could be used to scale-up mental health services across India and similar low-resource settings.
We investigate the frequency diverse array (FDA) for joint radar and communication systems. The basic idea is to use the transmitter/receiver modules of the radar system for communication purpose during listening mode as a secondary function. The radar will be performing its routine functions during the active mode as a primary function. An FDA at the transmitter side will be used to produce an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal, which is proposed for the communication system. The directivity of the radar antenna, FDA in this case, provides an additional advantage to mitigate the interferences other than the Direction of Interest (DoI). The proposed technique allows two beampatterns to be transmitted sequentially from the same FDA structure. Due to the communication signal transmission in the mainlobe of the second beampattern, the bit error rate achieved in the mainlobe is better than the existing techniques using the sidelobe transmission for communications. At the receiver, both incoming signals of radar and communication will share a different spatial angle. Simulation results indicate the novelty of the idea to suppress the interferences in terms of DoI. Furthermore, we analyzed the signal-to-interference ratio and Cramer–Rao lower bounds for angle and range estimation for the proposed technique.
The present study investigated the risks and benefits of routine Fe–folic acid (IFA) supplementation in pregnant women living in low- and high-groundwater-Fe areas in Bangladesh.
A case-controlled prospective longitudinal study design was used to compare the effect of daily Fe (60 mg) and folic acid (400 μg) supplementation for 3·5 months.
A rural community in Bangladesh.
Pregnant women living in low-groundwater-Fe areas (n 260) and high-groundwater-Fe areas (n 262).
Mean Hb and serum ferritin concentrations at baseline were significantly higher in pregnant women in the high-groundwater-Fe areas. After supplementation, the mean change in Hb concentration in the women in the low-groundwater-Fe areas (0·10 mg/dl) was higher than that in the pregnant women in the high-groundwater-Fe areas (–0·08 mg/dl; P = 0·052). No significant changes in the prevalence of anaemia or Fe deficiency (ID) in either group were observed after IFA supplementation; however, the prevalence of Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) decreased significantly in the women in the low-groundwater-Fe areas. The risk of anaemia, ID and IDA after supplementation did not differ significantly between the groups. None of the participants had Fe overload. However, a significant proportion of the women in the high- and low-groundwater-Fe areas remained anaemic and Fe-deficient after supplementation.
IFA supplementation significantly increased the Hb concentration in pregnant women living in the low-groundwater-Fe areas. Routine supplementation with 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid does not pose any significant risk of haemoconcentration or Fe overload. Further research to identify other nutritional and non-nutritional contributors to anaemia is warranted to prevent and treat anaemia.
As design and design thinking become increasingly important competencies for a modern workforce, the burden of assessing these fuzzy skills creates a scalability bottleneck. Toward addressing this need, this paper presents an exploratory study into a scalable computational approach for design thinking assessment. In this study, student responses to a variety of contextualized design questions – gathered both before and after participation in a design thinking training course – are analyzed. Specifically, a variety of text features are engineered, tested, and interpreted within a design thinking framework in order to identify specific markers of design thinking skill acquisition. Key findings of this work include identification of text features that may enable scalable measurement of (1) user-centric language and (2) design thinking concept acquisition. These results contribute toward the creation of computational tools to ease the burden of providing feedback about design thinking skills to a wide audience.
Communication is essential during public health emergencies and incidents. This research aimed to understand current uses and challenges for public health agencies using social media during these incidents.
An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted using the structured interview matrix facilitation technique. Focus groups were held with professionals from local public health agencies across Ontario, Canada. Representation from different geographic regions was sought to capture differences in participant experience. An inductive approach to content analysis was used to identify emergent themes.
A diverse group of public health professionals (n = 36) participated. Six themes were identified. Social media is identified as a communication tool used to expand reach of messages, to engage in dialogue with the public, and to inform the scope of potential incidents. Barriers to its use include hesitancy to adapt, lack of trust and credibility, and organizational structure and capacity constraints. Key strategies proposed to promote social media use and address barriers resulted from participant discussions and are presented.
Social media use is highly variable across public health agencies in Ontario. This study identifies and provides strategies to address barriers and practice gaps related to public health agencies’ use of social media during emergencies.
A hybrid thin film multilayer antenna for automotive radar is presented in this work. A 2 × 8 aperture coupled stacked patch antenna array is realized on a single layer printed circuit board (PCB) using a novel thin film-based approach. Using a compact 180° phase difference power divider, inter-element spacing in a 2×2 sub-array is reduced. Measurement results show a 19% (67.9–82.5 GHz) impedance bandwidth and a wideband broadside radiation pattern, with a maximum gain of 15.4 dBi realized gain at 72 GHz. The presented antenna compares favorably with other multilayer PCB antennas in terms of performance, with the advantage of simpler manufacturing and robust design. The antenna can be employed in mid-range automotive radar applications.