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The literature on socio-economic variations in the association between retirement timing and health is inconclusive and largely limited to the moderating role of occupation. By selecting the sample case of Mexico where a sizeable number of older adults have no or very little formal education, this study allows the moderating role of education to be tested properly. Drawing on panel data for 2,430 individuals age 50 and over from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) and combining propensity score matching models with fixed-effects regressions, this article investigates differences in the health effects of retirement timing between older adults with varying years of education. Subjective health is measured using a self-reported assessment of respondents’ overall health and physical health as a reverse count of doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases. The results indicate that early transitions into retirement are associated with worse health outcomes, but education fully compensates for the detrimental association with subjective and physical health, while adjusting for baseline health, demographics and socio-economic characteristics. In conclusion, formal education during childhood and adolescence is associated with a long-term protective effect on health. It attenuates negative health consequences of early retirement transitions. Policies and programmes promoting healthy and active ageing would benefit from considering the influence of formal education in shaping older adults’ health after the transition into retirement.
A carbide cutting tool is widely used in machining process due to its availability and being cheaper than a better performance cutting tool, such as cubic boron nitride. The carbide cutting tool also has substantial hardness and toughness that is suitable to be applied in intermittent cutting. This paper presents the case study of a wear mechanism experienced on the cutting edge of the coated and uncoated carbide tools in turning and milling processes. The wear mechanisms of carbide cutting tools were investigated in machining Inconel 718, titanium alloy Ti–6Al–4V extra-low interstitial, and aluminum metal matrix composite (AlSi/AlN MMC) at their high cutting speed regime. The tools failed primarily due to wear on the flank and rake faces. The failure mode of the carbide cutting tools was similar regardless of the machining operations and coating is believed to enhance the tool life, but once removed, the tool fails similar to that with the uncoated tool.
Tribology is a phenomenon concerning the relative motion between at least two amalgamating surfaces. In the machining process, surface roughness is the most important element for studying this occurrence, which contributes to the evaluation of part quality. This paper will provide detailed analysis for better understanding of tribological during the machining process of Inconel 718 alloy using a multi-layer TiAlN/AlCrN-coated carbide ball end inserted in dry cutting condition. The analysis focused on the relationship of tool wear with cutting temperature, cutting force, and surface integrity. Results found that the cutting temperature increased around 7.5% and surface roughness of machined surface improved about 10.3% when the cutting speed increased. Flaking at the rake face and notching at the flank face were determined as the main tool failures during milling Inconel 718. Furthermore, high friction between the tool–workpiece interfaces during machining was due to the build-up edge (BUE) formation that causes an alteration in microstructure at machine surface.
Five percent of transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients have a subsequent stroke within 7 days. The Canadian TIA Score uses clinical findings to calculate the subsequent stroke risk within 7 days. Our objectives were to assess 1) anticipated use; 2) component face validity; 3) risk strata for stroke within 7 days; and 4) actions required, for a given risk for subsequent stroke.
After a rigorous development process, a survey questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 300 emergency physicians selected from those registered in a national medical directory. The surveys were distributed using a modified Dillman technique.
From a total of 271 eligible surveys, we received 131 (48.3%) completed surveys; 96.2% of emergency physicians would use a validated Canadian TIA Score; 8 of 13 components comprising the Canadian TIA Score were rated as Very Important or Important by survey respondents. Risk categories for subsequent stroke were defined as minimal-risk: <1%; low-risk: 1%–4.9%; high-risk 5%–10%; critical-risk: > 10% risk of subsequent stroke within 7 days.
A validated Canadian TIA Score will likely be used by emergency physicians. Most components of the TIA Score have high face validity. Risk strata are definable, which may allow physicians to determine immediate actions, based on subsequent stroke risk, in the emergency department.
There are a number of screening tools to predict return to the emergency department (ED) in elderly trauma patients, but none exist to specifically screen for functional decline after a minor injury. The objective of this study was to identify outcome measures for a possible future clinical decision rule to be used in the ED to identify previously independent patients at high risk of functional decline at six months post minor injury.
After a rigorous development process, a survey instrument was administered to a random sample of 178 emergency physicians using the Dillman’s Tailored Design Method.
Of 156 eligible surveys, we received 81 completed surveys (response rate 51.9%). Considering all 14 activities of daily living (ADL) items, 90% of physicians deemed a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in function to be at least three points on the 28-point Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) ADL Scale as clinically significant. A tool with a sensitivity of 93% to detect patients at risk of functional decline at six months post injury would meet or exceed the sensitivity deemed to be required by 90% of physicians. The majority of emergency physicians do not assess elderly injured patients for the majority of the tasks.
A drop of three points on the 28-point OARS ADL Scale would be deemed clinically important by the vast majority of emergency physicians. Further, a sensitivity of 93% for a clinical decision tool would satisfy the MCID requirements of the vast majority of emergency physicians. There appears to be a gap between physician knowledge and actual practice. We intend to use these findings in the development of a clinical decision rule to identify high-risk elderly trauma patients.
This paper proposes a novel and simple expression for effective radius of annular-ring microstrip antennas (ARMAs) obtained using a recently emerged optimization algorithm of artificial bee colony (ABC) in calculating the resonant frequency at dominant mode (TM11). A total of 80 ARMAs having different parameters related to antenna dimensions and dielectric constants was simulated in terms of the resonant frequency with the help of an electromagnetic simulation software called IE3D™ based on method of moment. The effective radius expression was constructed and the unknown coefficients belonging to the expression were then optimally determined with the use of ABC algorithm. The proposed expression was verified through comparisons with the methods of resonant frequency calculation reported elsewhere. Also, it was further validated on an ARMA fabricated in this study. The superiority of the presented approach over the other methods proposed in the literature is that it does not need any sophisticated computations while achieving the most accurate results in the resonant frequency calculation of ARMAs.
The UK social security safety net for those who are out of work due to ill health or disability has experienced significant change, most notably the abolition of Incapacity Benefit (IB) and the introduction of Employment and Support Allowance (ESA). These changes have been underpinned by the assumption that many recipients are not sufficiently sick or disabled to ‘deserve’ welfare benefits – claims that have been made in the absence of empirical data on the health of recipients. Employing a unique longitudinal and mixed-methods approach, this paper explores the health of a cohort of 229 long-term IB recipients in the North East of England over an eighteen-month period, during a time of significant changes to the UK welfare state. In-depth interviews with twenty-five of the survey cohort are also presented to illustrate the lived experiences of recipients. Contributing to debates surrounding the conceptualisation of work-readiness for sick and disabled people, findings indicate IB recipients had significantly worse health than the general population, with little change in their health state over the eighteen-month study period. Qualitative data reinforced the constancy of ill health for IB recipients. Finally, the paper discusses the implications for social policy, noting how the changing nature of administrative definitions and redefinitions of illness and capacity to work can impact upon the lives of sick and disabled people.
The Persian chronicler Ferishta (1560–1620) composed his great work, published in this four-volume English translation in 1829, at the court of Bijapur - where he spent most of his life - under the patronage of King Ibrahim Adil Shah II. It covers Muslim India from around 975 to 1612 and is notable for its balance, despite Ferishta's close involvement with some of the events and people he records. Valuable additions to the text made by the translator, East India Company officer John Briggs (1785–1875), include genealogical tables and notes, as well as a comparative chronology of events in Europe and India. Volume 4 covers the kings of Gujarat, Malwa, Khandesh, Bengal and Bihar, Jaunpur, and Multan. There are also histories of Sindh and Kashmir. A comparative chronology of the minor kingdoms that eventually became part of the Mughal empire is included, and Briggs' appendices provide glossaries of names and places.