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Relationship maintenance encompasses a wide range of activities that partners use to preserve their relationships. Despite the importance of these efforts, considerably more empirical focus has been devoted to starting (i.e. initiation) and ending (i.e. dissolution) relationships than on maintaining them. In this volume, internationally renowned scholars from a variety of disciplines describe diverse sets of relationship maintenance efforts in order to show why some relationships endure, whereas others falter. By focusing on 'what to do' rather than 'what not to do' in relationships, this book paints a more comprehensive picture of the forms, functions, and contexts of relationship maintenance. It is essential reading for scholars and students in psychology, communication, human development and family science, sociology, and couple/marriage and family therapy.
Barbed pharyngoplasty aims to reduce lateral retropalatal obstruction by pulling up the soft palate anterolaterally. However, barbed pharyngoplasty can be less efficient in some cases of obstructive sleep apnoea, especially in the presence of an elongated uvula with redundant tissues over it. This paper describes an attempt to overcome this drawback by modifying barbed pharyngoplasty, using a single continuous suture technique.
Thirty-four patients were assigned to two groups based on the surgical procedure performed. Those with an elongated uvula were treated with modified barbed pharyngoplasty (n = 17); the others were treated with barbed pharyngoplasty (n = 17). Pre- and post-operative quality of life questionnaires, and questionnaires concerning diet, pain and return to activity, were completed. Pre- and post-operative polysomnography was performed as an objective measurement.
There was no significant difference between barbed pharyngoplasty and modified barbed pharyngoplasty in terms of outcomes. However, reductions in the apnoea/hypopnea index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and snoring visual analogue scale scores were greater in the modified barbed pharyngoplasty group.
Modified barbed pharyngoplasty is a safe and feasible method, and eliminates the need for surgical resection of the redundant soft tissues around the uvula while lifting up the uvula base.
Due to the lack of the stability of amine films, a promising transducer, quartz-tuning fork (QTF) prongs were modified by a bi-layer film of plasma-polymerized n-heptane (hep) and then by ethylenediamine (EDA), respectively. For this purpose, the authors investigate the stability of amine-rich thin films both in air and aqueous medium. EDA films were deposited on QTF substrates by using an RF plasma system. The final amine-rich thin film was used to immobilize biologic recognition element. Model protein studies were showed that selected thin films could be adapted to QTF transducers to be used as a biosensor template.
The purpose of this study was to estimate technical treatment accuracy in fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS) using the Extend™ system (ES) of Gamma Knife (GK).
Methods and materials:
The fSRS with GK relies on a re-locatable ES where the reference treatment position is estimated using repositioning check tool (RCT). A patient surveillance unit (PSU) monitors the head and neck movement of the patient during treatment and imaging. The quality assurance test of RCT was performed to evaluate a standard error (SE) associated with a measurement tool called digital probe. A ‘4-mm collimator shot’ dose plan for a head–neck phantom was investigated using EBT3 films. CT and MR distortion measurement studies were combined to evaluate SEimaging. The combined uncertainty from all measurements was evaluated using statistical methods, and the resultant treatment accuracy was investigated for the ES.
Four sets of RCT measurements and 20 observations of associated digital probe showed SERCT of ±0·0186 mm and SEdigital probe of ±0·0002 mm. The mean positional shift of 0·2752 mm (σ = 0·0696 mm) was observed for 20 treatment settings of the phantom. The differences between radiological and predefined isocentres were 0·4650 and 0·4270 mm for two independent experiments. SEimaging and SEdiode tool were evaluated as ±0·1055 and ±0·0096 mm, respectively. An expanded uncertainty of ±0·2371 mm (at 95% confidence level) was observed with our system.
The combined result of the positional shift and expanded uncertainty showed close agreement with film investigations.
Combined archaeological, ecological, and geologic research on Chuginadak and Carlisle Islands in the Islands of Four Mountains (IFM) probed questions about the sustainability of human settlements over the past 4000 years in the face of geologic, ecological, and social hazards. We use a human ecodynamics approach to frame the investigation and present original archaeological evidence from this poorly known region of the remote Aleutian Islands. Several village sites occupied during the last four millennia are clustered in locations that were not damaged by earthquake-induced tsunamis; however, new geologic evidence indicates that at least one volcanic eruption forced humans to abandon one or more prehistoric village sites. Combined archaeological, ecological, and geologic analyses demonstrate resilient Unangax̂ occupations of the IFM through long-term climate change as well as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions with occasional community vulnerability to volcanic eruptions.
A novel Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) based ‘Turn-ON’ biosensor has been developed using fluorescent ZnO/APTMS-FITC (ZFA) nanoflakes as sensing probe. In this biosensor, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the detection of L-lactate, a diagnostic marker for abnormal physiological conditions like muscular dystrophy, myocardial infraction, abnormal tissue formation and tissue damage. Lactate Dehydrogeanse (LDH) catalyses the conversion of L-Lactate to L-Pyruvate, in presence of β-NAD reducing to β-NADH. We tried to explore this mechanism with FRET based system for highly sensitive detection of L-Lactate. The fluorescence of these nanoflakes can be reversibly quenched in the presence of β-NAD.
The Islands of Four Mountains island group of the Aleutian island arc is remote and difficult to access. Consequently, little fieldwork has focused on geomorphic processes and their relationship to island morphology, climatic change, and human settlement. We investigated glacial, fluvial, and slope processes on the morphologically different Carlisle, Cleveland, and Tana volcanoes. The islands were extensively glaciated at the last glacial maximum (LGM), and there is evidence for a Neoglacial advance. On the highly dissected Tana volcano, a large basin is likely the result of a pre-LGM sector collapse and subsequent glacial erosion into weak hydrothermally altered rock. Valley and moraine morphology is also influenced by hydrothermal alteration. On both Tana and Carlisle, there are sediment fans composed dominantly of thick debris flow deposits mantled by ~3 m of layered tephras, fine-grained alluvium, and anthropogenic deposits. Debris flow deposition was favored during the unstable paraglacial landscape of the early Holocene–latest Pleistocene. The earliest direct archaeological evidence for settlement is 3.8 cal ka BP, but soil geochemical evidence suggests that the islands were inhabited by 7.3 cal ka BP. This discrepancy in the archaeological record may be explained by geomorphic processes including coastal erosion and unstable geomorphic surfaces.
Diversity changes can be evaluated at various spatial scales, and the relationship between changes in diversity at the local, landscape and regional scales is not evident. The overall patterns of functional and beta diversity of bird assemblages were evaluated along a five-stage urbanization gradient, censused over the months of January to April in the years 2010–2013, in and around Amravati city, Deccan Plateau, Central India. We expected the abundance of large and predatory species to decline along the gradient, and urbanization to homogenize species richness at the landscape level. Overall, 112,829 birds belonging to 89 species were identified in the region, and species richness decreased from the rural forest (73 species) to more urbanized areas (lowest at the centre of Amravaty city with 29 species). Along the urbanization gradient, bird assemblages contained more small species, and the share of frugivorous and omnivorous species also increased, while that of insectivorous species decreased. Diversity partitioning indicated that of the overall pattern, local (alpha) diversity accounted for 50.1% of the total (gamma) diversity, and urbanization stages another 36.2%; the contribution of within-stage, local diversity was rather small (2.7%), indicating fairly homogeneous assemblages.
The visual system is recognized as an important site of pathology and dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated different visual perceptual functions in patients with psychotic disorders using a potentially clinically applicable task battery and assessed their relationship with symptom severity in patients, and with schizotypal features in healthy participants.
Five different areas of visual functioning were evaluated in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (n = 28) and healthy control subjects (n = 31) using a battery that included visuospatial working memory (VSWM), velocity discrimination (VD), contour integration, visual context processing, and backward masking tasks.
The patient group demonstrated significantly lower performance in VD, contour integration, and VSWM tasks. Performance did not differ between the two groups on the visual context processing task and did not differ across levels of interstimulus intervals in the backward masking task. Performances on VSWM, VD, and contour integration tasks were correlated with negative symptom severity but not with other symptom dimensions in the patient group. VSWM and VD performances were also correlated with negative sychizotypal features in healthy controls.
Taken together, these results demonstrate significant abnormalities in multiple visual processing tasks in patients with psychotic disorders, adding to the literature implicating visual abnormalities in these conditions. Furthermore, our results show that visual processing impairments are associated with the negative symptom dimension in patients as well as healthy individuals.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are nearly universal in dementia, a condition occurring in more than 40 million people worldwide. BPSD present a considerable treatment challenge for prescribers and healthcare professionals. Our purpose was to prioritize existing and emerging treatments for BPSD in Alzheimer's disease (AD) overall, as well as specifically for agitation and psychosis.
International Delphi consensus process. Two rounds of feedback were conducted, followed by an in-person meeting to ratify the outcome of the electronic process.
2015 International Psychogeriatric Association meeting.
Expert panel comprised of 11 international members with clinical and research expertise in BPSD management.
Consensus outcomes showed a clear preference for an escalating approach to the management of BPSD in AD commencing with the identification of underlying causes. For BPSD overall and for agitation, caregiver training, environmental adaptations, person-centered care, and tailored activities were identified as first-line approaches prior to any pharmacologic approaches. If pharmacologic strategies were needed, citalopram and analgesia were prioritized ahead of antipsychotics. In contrast, for psychosis, pharmacologic options, and in particular, risperidone, were prioritized following the assessment of underlying causes. Two tailored non-drug approaches (DICE and music therapy) were agreed upon as the most promising non-pharmacologic treatment approaches for BPSD overall and agitation, with dextromethorphan/quinidine as a promising potential pharmacologic candidate for agitation. Regarding future treatments for psychosis, the greatest priority was placed on pimavanserin.
This international consensus panel provided clear suggestions for potential refinement of current treatment criteria and prioritization of emerging therapies.
Amine-based plasma polymer thin films (NH2-PPTFs) are favorable due to their potential ability for binding a variety of biomolecules, especially in biotechnologic studies. In this context, to understand the effect of different amine sources on quartz tuning forks’ (QTF) surface functionalization and isolation, we prepared PPTFs by single-step plasma polymerization process. The amino-group concentration of PPTF's was proportionally increased by increasing discharge powers, whereas not affected from exposure time. It was observed that the resistivity increased with the increasing molecular weight of the precursor. In conclusion, NH2-PPTF-modified QTFs present as a great candidate for future biotechnologic applications.
We obtained radiocarbon (14C) dates with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of vascular plant samples and a charcoal sample collected from peat deposits near the prehistoric village site informally designated CR-03 on Carlisle Island in the Islands of Four Mountains group, Alaska, to determine the eruption age of the CR-02 tephra. A fine vitric ash erupted from Okmok caldera, Umnak Island (ca. 2 ka BP) was also discovered in the bog. The ages of the CR-02 tephra and Okmok II ash are estimated to be 1050 and 2000 cal BP, respectively. Because both tephras are distinctive and widespread, these are important chronostratigraphic markers for archaeological sites in this island group. The 14C dates obtained from this bog are 800 years younger than the dates of the charcoal fragments from cultural layers in the Unit 3 of prehistoric village site CR-02 (AMK-0003).
Social support has been shown to be an important factor in improving depression symptom outcomes, yet less is known regarding its impact on antidepressant medication adherence. This study sought to evaluate the role of perceived social support on adherence to new antidepressant medication prescriptions in later-life depression.
Data from two prospective observational studies of participants ≥60 years old, diagnosed with depression, and recently prescribed a new antidepressant (N = 452). Perceived social support was measured using a subscale of the Duke Social Support Index and medication adherence was assessed using a validated self-report measure.
At four-month follow up, 68% of patients reported that they were adherent to antidepressant medication. Examining the overall sample, logistic regression analysis demonstrated no significant relationship between perceived social support and medication adherence. However, when stratifying the sample by social support, race, and gender, adherence significantly differed by race and gender in those with inadequate social support: Among those with low social support, African-American females were significantly less likely to adhere to depression treatment than white females (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.14–20.28, p = 0.032) and white males (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.03–11.92, p = 0.045).
There is a significant difference in antidepressant medication adherence by race and gender in those with inadequate social support. Tailored treatment interventions for low social support should be sensitive to racial and gender differences.