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The COVID-19 pandemic has created a high demand on personal protective equipment, including disposable N95 masks. Given the need for mask reuse, we tested the feasibility of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), ultraviolet light (UV), and ethanol decontamination strategies on N95 mask integrity and the ability to remove the infectious potential of SARS-CoV-2.
Disposable N95 masks, including medical grade (1860, 1870+) and industrial grade (8511) masks, were treated by vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), ultraviolet light (UV), and ethanol decontamination. Mask degradation was tested using a quantitative respirator fit testing. Pooled clinical samples of SARS-CoV-2 were applied to mask samples, treated and and then either sent immediately for real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or incubated with Vero E6 cells to assess for viracidal effect.
Both ethanol and UV decontamination showed functional degradation to different degrees while VHP treatment showed no significant change after 2 treatments.We also report a single SARS-CoV-2 virucidal experiment using Vero E6 cell infection in which only ethanol treatment eliminated detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
We hope our data will guide further research for evidenced-based decisions for disposable N95 mask reuse and help protect caregivers from SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens.
On one interpretation, Jaspers’ discussion of imaginative understanding explains how we know causal relations between psychological states. Cognitive neuroscience models of delusions typically aim at characterizing the organic disturbance that underlies the ‘primary delusion’; then, it’s assumed, mentalistic causation takes over and generates the other symptoms. No account is given of the biological underpinning of psychological causation. Imaginative understanding is not well-described by ‘simulation’ models. Simulation theory is predictive and does not attempt to find causation. Imagination here is best understood as correlative with the idea of a psychological process; imaginative understanding of psychological processes drives our ordinary conception of mental causation. We know roughly what a psychological process is and what a biological process is. But there seems to be no presumption we can map one onto the other. I review the options here and something of their implications for how we think about mind and brain in psychiatry.
I very much admire Stephan Heckers’ framing of ‘four forms of scientific reductionism in psychiatry’ and their relation to the autonomy of the patient. Stephan seems to be using ‘reductionism’ in a legitimate, but perhaps non-standard way. ‘Reduction’ in his sense has to do with loss of information. There is, first, the ‘clinical encounter’ in which the patient’s lived experience is translated into the third-person account given by the therapist. Then there is classification, identification of a biological problem, and causal implications. Each of these steps misses out something about the ‘lived experience’ of the patient. I find the discussion somewhat tantalizing, and suggest the real reason for acknowledging autonomy may be the need for a ‘Jaspersian engagement’ with the patient, which identifies the one-off idiosyncracies of the patient’s mental life, rather than merely those aspects that fall under generalizations.
For many decades, there were stock exchanges operating in provincial cities across Britain. We analyze why companies listed on these markets and how this changed over time. We find that the provincial exchanges had traditionally been complementary to London, providing a trading venue for smaller regional companies. However, they gradually lost their uniqueness and were increasingly competing with London by listing similar stocks. Much of this change can be explained by shifts in industrial composition, leading to more companies being headquartered and listed in the capital and many of the remaining regional firms cross-listing in London to achieve certification.
Fiscal and monetary policy are among the most basic tools governments use to manage their economies. These tools have evolved in dramatic fashion during the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. This chapter examines that evolution and its implications for socioeconomic performance. I begin by explaining what these tools are. Second, I discuss the basic debates about how they ought to be used and how the general approach to fiscal and monetary policy evolved from the Keynesian era beginning roughly in the 1930s to the neoliberal era beginning in the late 1970s. My intention is not to delve into the intricacies of economic theory or the minutiae of economic policy but rather to summarize these things with broad strokes.
This paper examines the work of lawyers, judges and country experts involved in asylum and migration litigation. I begin by analysing their work in the wider semi-autonomous asylum field within which a number of powerful institutions operate to shape policy, define the roles of key actors and determine access to legal redress/justice by asylum applicants and migrants. To understand the work of these three legal actors, I analyse four very different types of legal cases involving asylum, foreign adoption and migration law. An analysis of these cases helps to identify the constraints on effective litigation on behalf of refugees and migrants against the British Home Office and it illustrates the fact that it is Home Office policy, and the decisions taken by Home Office officials, that created the injustice for the individuals concerned by blurring the ‘bright line’ differentiating between the rights of nationals and those of ‘foreigners’.
The extent of social isolation experienced by people living with dementia who reside in the community has been well acknowledged, yet little is known about how people living alone with dementia maintain neighbourhood-based connections. The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of people with dementia who live alone, focusing upon how they establish social networks and relationships in a neighbourhood context, and how they are supported to maintain this social context within everyday life. Multiple data collection methods were used including, semi-structured interviews, walking interviews, guided home tours and social network mapping, which were conducted with 14 community-dwelling people living alone with dementia (11 women and three men) situated across the three international study sites in England, Scotland and Sweden. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed four main themes: (a) making the effort to stay connected; (b) befriending by organisations and facilitated friendships; (c) the quiet neighbourhood atmosphere; and (d) changing social connections. The analysis suggests that people with dementia who live alone were active agents who took control to find and maintain relationships and social networks in the neighbourhood. Our findings indicate the need to raise awareness about this specific group in both policy and practice, and to find creative ways to help people connect through everyday activities and by spontaneous encounters in the neighbourhood.
Getting a better understanding of the evolution and nucleosynthetic yields of the most metal-poor stars (Z ≲ 10−5) is critical because they are part of the big picture of the history of the primitive universe. Yet many of the remaining unknowns of stellar evolution lie in the birth, life, and death of these objects. We review stellar evolution of intermediate-mass Z ≤ 10−5 models existing in the literature, with a particular focus on the problem of their final fates. We emphasise the importance of the mixing episodes between the stellar envelope and the nuclearly processed core, which occur after stars exhaust their central He (second dredge-up and dredge-out episodes). The depth and efficiency of these episodes are critical to determine the mass limits for the formation of electron-capture SNe. Our knowledge of these phenomena is not complete because they are strongly affected by the choice of input physics. These uncertainties affect stars in all mass and metallicity ranges. However, difficulties in calibration pose additional challenges in the case of the most metal-poor stars. We also consider the alternative SN I1/2 channel to form SNe out of the most metal-poor intermediate-mass objects. In this case, it is critical to understand the thermally pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch evolution until the late stages. Efficient second dredge-up and, later, third dredge-up episodes could be able to pollute stellar envelopes enough for the stars to undergo thermal pulses in a way very similar to that of higher initial Z objects. Inefficient second and/or third dredge-up may leave an almost pristine envelope, unable to sustain strong stellar winds. This may allow the H-exhausted core to grow to the Chandrasekhar mass before the envelope is completely lost, and thus let the star explode as an SN I1/2. After reviewing the information available on these two possible channels for the formation of SNe, we discuss existing nucleosynthetic yields of stars of metallicity Z ≤ 10−5 and present an example of nucleosynthetic calculations for a thermally pulsing Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch star of Z = 10−5. We compare theoretical predictions with observations of the lowest [Fe/H] objects detected. The review closes by discussing current open questions as well as possible fruitful avenues for future research.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
In their focal article, Aguinis et al. (2017) categorized the 6,654 unique citations, summed across the six introductory industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology texts, in various ways. They then suggested how such data could be used to (a) infer the “state” of the scientist–practitioner divide; (b) document the extent of the movement of I-O psychologists to management schools; (c) evaluate the future prospects of I-O psychology as a field; and (d) provide guidance in how to define, measure, and reward “scholarly impact” (quotation marks added). This crosses the line from interesting to very counterproductive.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Endogenous RT (eRT) is necessary for the function of retrotransposons, elements that replicate via an RNA intermediate. One source of eRT activity is long interspersed elements (LINE). LINEs, of which there are several subgroups (L1, L2, L3), are retrotransposons that regulate cellular growth and gene expression. Given their diverse and important roles, we hypothesized that L1 elements regulate functional responses in megakaryocytes and platelets; a concept not yet examined in the field. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To study eRT in human platelets we used RT activity assays, PCR, and Western blot approaches. Furthermore, we used an RT-inhibitor to dissect the function of eRT, analyzed RT-dependent protein synthetic capacity, and immunoprecipitated RNA-DNA hybrids. RNA-DNA hybrids were also detected by means of ICC and automated analysis using CellProfiler software. RNA-DNA hybrids were validated by PCR and eRT regulated synthesis of target proteins was analyzed using autoradiography and Western blot techniques. Platelets from patients with HIV+ were examined in parallel. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified that highly purified, isolated platelets from healthy subjects possess eRT activity. eRT activity was blocked with the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor nevirapine at concentrations within the therapeutic drug range. L1 elements are bicistronic, containing 2 open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. Thus, we next identified that human platelets express full-length L1 mRNA containing ORF1 and ORF2. In human platelets, eRT activity was localized to L1 protein containing ribonucleo particles. Platelet eRT reverse transcribed exogenous RNAs, a process inhibited by nevirapine, acting in trans using the 3′-UTR of exogenous mRNAs as a template. To dissect the function of eRT in platelets, we next examined cytoskeletal and protein synthetic events in the presence or absence of nevirapine. Inhibition of eRT in isolated platelets led to characteristically beaded platelets in appearance, strongly resembling bone marrow proplatelets. Parallel increases in platelet reactivity were also observed. As these changes occurred over hours, not minutes, we hypothesized that inhibition of eRT would affect platelet protein synthetic events. Consistent with this, RT inhibition resulted in upregulation of global platelet protein synthesis. We validated upregulation of the synthesis of specific proteins (mitofilin, p-selectin, and L26—a component of the 60S ribosomal subunit essential for mRNA translation). RNA-DNA hybrids, noncanonical nucleic acid structures that regulate gene expression, are enriched in regions where L1 is abundant. RNA-DNA hybrids were present in platelets and expression confirmed via differential digestion of RNAs (eg, with RNase A and RNAse I). Next-generation sequencing of pulled down (eg, immunoprecipitated) platelet RNA-DNA hybrids identified numerous differentially expressed transcripts and we focused on MAP1LC3B (LC3B), a primary regulator of autophagy. Hybrid sequencing results for LC3B were validated using qPCR and we confirmed that LC3B RNA binds to L1-encoded RNA binding protein. Platelets treated with nevirapine had increased total LC3B protein expression. As RT inhibition is an important mechanism to control HIV infection, we examined platelet morphology, activation, and LC3B expression in platelets from HIV+ subjects treated with nevirapine. HIV+ patients treated with RT inhibitors had higher numbers of platelets that were beaded in appearance at baseline, increased platelet reactivity, and differential LC3B expression compared with healthy controls. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Taken together, these results demonstrate that platelets possess eRT activity that regulates platelet morphology, platelet hyperreactivity, and protein synthetic events. We postulate that eRT activity in platelets may be a new post-transcriptional regulatory checkpoint. Moreover, our findings have implications in HIV+ patients treated with RT inhibitors, where off-target effects may contribute to platelet activation and an increased risk of thrombosis.
The focal article (LCIOP Joint Task Force, 2017) is a painstakingly thorough discussion of licensing issues regarding I-O psychology as they have evolved over the last 40–50 years. There is also a very large literature produced by Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) members, and cited in the focal article, that discusses many of these issues in some detail (e.g., Campbell, Levy, Murphy, Schmitt, & Weiss, 2009). The focal article makes a very useful distinction between health service providers (HSP) and general applied psychologists (GAP). The position of SIOP for some time has been that licensure should be required for the former, but not for the latter, although a path to licensure should be provided for those who need it. I would certainly agree. Also, the Society of Consulting Psychology (SCP) is much more infused with applied clinical psychology than is SIOP. Consequently, the licensing needs of most SIOP members and most SCP members are most likely not quite the same.
In this paper, we report progress on “Neighborhoods: our people, our places” an international study about how people living with dementia interact with their neighborhoods. The ideas of social health and citizenship are drawn upon to contextualize the data and make a case for recognizing and understanding the strengths and agency of people with dementia. In particular, we address the lived experience of the environment as a route to better understanding the capabilities, capacities, and competencies of people living with dementia. In doing this, our aim is to demonstrate the contribution of social engagement and environmental support to social health.
The study aims to “map” local spaces and networks across three field sites (Manchester, Central Scotland and Linkoping, Sweden). It employs a mix of qualitative and participatory approaches that include mobile and visual methods intended to create knowledge that will inform the design and piloting of a neighborhood-based intervention.
Our research shows that the neighborhood plays an active role in the lives of people with dementia, setting limits, and constraints but also offering significant opportunities, encompassing forms of help and support as yet rarely discussed in the field of dementia studies. The paper presents new and distinctive insights into the relationship between neighborhoods and everyday life for people with dementia that have important implications for the debate on social health and policy concerning dementia friendly communities.
We end by reflecting on the messages for policy and practice that are beginning to emerge from this on-going study.