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Simulation-based training has a fundamental role in medical education as it allows the learner to gain experience managing emergencies in a safe, controlled environment.
This 1-day course consisted of eight high-fidelity simulation scenarios, followed by a video-assisted debrief focusing on the technical and non-technical (communication skills, teamwork, leadership and situational awareness) aspects of managing ENT and head and neck emergencies.
Eight courses have run since June 2014. Post-course questionnaires demonstrated that candidates’ confidence scores in managing airway and head and neck emergencies increased following completion of the course (p < 0.0001).
This was the first fully immersive ENT simulation course developed in the region. The learning objectives for each scenario were mapped to the ENT Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme. Feedback from the course indicated a continued demand for this style of training, leading to its inclusion in the training calendar.
Lipoid proteinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene. It is characterised by deposition of hyaline material in the skin and mucous membranes. This paper describes the management of two cases with laryngopharyngeal disease.
Two patients with a biopsy diagnosis of lipoid proteinosis were identified from the surgical pathology archive covering the period 2004–2016. Their notes were reviewed.
An adult male and an adult female were identified. Both had dysphonia and laryngopharyngeal lesions. The patients underwent interval laser microlaryngoscopy to debulk disease but minimise mucosal injury and scarring, using a ‘pepper pot’ technique. Both had adequate symptom control.
Lipoid proteinosis is a rare genetic condition, which typically presents in infancy with dysphonia and subsequent skin involvement. Two cases are presented to demonstrate that laryngotracheal symptoms can be controlled with interval laser debulking and the ‘pepper pot’ technique without causing stenosis.
Alkaptonuria is an inborn error of metabolism. It is a multisystem disease with characteristic ENT manifestations. This paper reports, for the first time, the ENT findings in a cohort of alkaptonuria patients.
Patients attending the National Centre for Alkaptonuria (Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust) underwent a full ENT assessment.
Eighteen of the 20 patients (90 per cent) had an ENT sign or symptom. These included discolouration of the pinna, cerumen, nasal septum and pharynx.
Discolouration of cerumen may occur before 30 years of age and may therefore be an important early clinical sign. Further audiological assessment of patients is needed to clarify if an association exists between alkaptonuria and hearing loss. Alkaptonuria is a condition that could present to the otolaryngologist. Successful early diagnosis and referral to a specialist centre is essential so that patients can be offered disease-modifying therapy.
The overlapping risk factors for lung and head and neck cancer present a definite risk of synchronous malignant pathology. This is the first study to specifically review incidental positron emission tomography computed tomography findings in the head and neck region in lung carcinoma patients.
A retrospective review was performed of all lung cancer patients who underwent positron emission tomography computed tomography imaging over a five-year period (January 2008 – December 2012), identified from the Liverpool thoracic multidisciplinary team database.
Six hundred and nine patients underwent positron emission tomography computed tomography imaging over this period. In 76 (12.5 per cent) scans, incidental regions of avid 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose uptake were reported in the head and neck region. In the 28 patients who were fully investigated, there were 4 incidental findings of malignancy.
In lung cancer patients undergoing investigative positron emission tomography computed tomography scanning, a significant number will also present with areas of clinically significant 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose uptake in the head and neck region. Of these, at least 5 per cent may have an undiagnosed malignancy.
Multimodal treatment options in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have allowed for greater control of locoregional disease, but this has not translated into a significant overall survival advantage for patients. This is partially because these treatment modalities have no influence over the rate of development of distant metastases.
This article summarises the current methods of detecting circulating and disseminated tumour cells. It also discusses how these cells can offer prognostic value in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and considers questions posed by the identification of these cells.
A literature search of relevant journal articles was performed using ScienceDirect and PubMed databases, and a general article search was conducted using the online search engine Google.
Results and conclusion:
The evidence presented in this article indicates that circulating tumour cells and disseminated tumour cells may be clinically useful as prognostic markers or in the assessment of response to treatment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Post-operative high dependency unit beds are often requested for patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea. This study evaluated the utilisation of high dependency unit beds for such cases at our institution, a paediatric tertiary referral centre.
A retrospective case note review of patients admitted to the high dependency unit following adenotonsillar surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea, over a two-year period, was performed.
Sixty-six cases were identified. Thirty-nine patients underwent pre-operative overnight pulse oximetry; of these, 30 patients had desaturations noted. Seventeen patients had significant post-operative desaturations. These were predicted in all 11 patients who had undergone pre-operative pulse oximetry. The remaining six had not undergone pre-operative pulse oximetry. Nineteen patients required high dependency unit care; eight had experienced post-operative desaturations.
High dependency unit care may be required following adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea. In this study, pre-operative overnight pulse oximetry had 100 per cent sensitivity in predicting post-operative desaturations, and may therefore aid the appropriate utilisation of high dependency unit beds for patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea.
We examined the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in assessing thyroid cartilage and thyroid gland invasion in patients undergoing total laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma, by comparing histopathology results with imaging findings.
A retrospective study reviewed histology and magnetic resonance scan results for all total laryngectomies performed between 1998–2008 at University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool.
Pre-operative magnetic resonance images were reviewed independently by two consultant head and neck radiologists masked to the histology; their opinions were then compared with histology findings.
Eighty-one magnetic resonance scans were reviewed. There were 22 laryngectomy patients with histologically verified thyroid cartilage invasion and one patient with thyroid gland invasion. There were 31 patients with apparent radiological thyroid cartilage invasion pre-operatively (with 17 false positives), giving sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 64, 71, 45 and 84 per cent, respectively. On assessing thyroid gland invasion, there were nine false positive scans and no false negative scans, giving sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100, 89, 10 and 100 per cent, respectively.
Magnetic resonance scanning over-predicts thyroid cartilage and gland invasion in patients undergoing total laryngectomy. Magnetic resonance scans have limited effectiveness in predicting thyroid cartilage invasion by squamous cell carcinoma in laryngectomy patients.
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