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This Technical Research Communication evaluated the influence of various cheese manufacture methods on the composition and in vitro antihypertensive activity of sweet whey samples obtained from miniature models for fresh, Chanco and Gouda-style cheese processing using bulk-tank milks throughout a year. Raw milks from morning milking were standardized, pasteurized and used to obtain sweet whey using cheesemaking protocols for each variety on 200 g scale, as well the use of whey dilution at levels of 0, 15, 30 and 45% in Chanco and Gouda-style making. The composition of sweet whey obtained within each cheesemaking variety was similar among different timepoints of the year (P > 0.05), which was attributed to similar composition of milks and the use standardized cheesemaking protocols used for this study. As expected, the use of whey dilution led to sweet whey samples with reduced levels of total solids (P < 0.05), but they exhibited an improvement of the in vitro antihypertensive properties, which may be attributed to the formation of low-molecular weight bioactive peptides due to increased cheese making times. The results of this study suggest that modifying cheese manufacture protocols may have a direct impact on the bioactive properties of sweet whey. Future work will be required to identify and evaluate the feasibility to purify bioactive peptides obtained from sweet whey.
Human embryos generated in vitro have a high incidence of chromosomal abnormalities that negatively affect pregnancy rate. Embryos generated in vitro secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the culture medium that could be used potentially as indicators of embryo competence. This research aimed to evaluate the concentration and size of EVs and their gDNA content as an indicator of developmental competence in human embryos. Human embryos generated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were classified morphologically as of either TOP, FAIR or POOR quality. Culture medium and developmentally arrested embryos (which were not able to be used for embryo transfer) were collected. Microvesicles, exosomes (MV/Exo) and apoptotic bodies (ABs) were isolated from culture medium. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis were performed to evaluate EVs and their gDNA content. From NTA, the diameter (mean) of MVs/Exo from TOP quality embryos was higher (112.17 nm) compared with that of FAIR (108.02) and POOR quality embryos (102.78 nm) (P < 0.05). aCGH analysis indicated that MVs/Exo and ABs carried gDNA with the presence of 23 chromosome pairs. However, when arrested embryos were compared with their respective MVs/Exo and ABs, the latter had an increased rate of chromosomal abnormalities (24.9%) compared with embryos (8.7%) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the size of EVs from culture medium might be an alternative for evaluating competence of human embryos, however more studies are needed to validate the use of gDNA from EVs as an indicator of embryo competence.
Latin American folkloric-popular music had an impact on the music scenes of both Germanies, where singer-songwriters emerged and became interested in Chilean Nueva Canción, the Argentinian Movimiento del Nuevo Cancionero, and Cuban Nueva Trova in the 1970s. Particularly interesting in this context is the contact of some Latin American countries with the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Based on translation theory and articles on Nueva Canción in Europe, this article examines the Latin American presence at the Political Song Festival in East Berlin and analyses some publications that focus on this annual event. The article focuses on the singer-songwriter Gerhard Schöne, who during the 1980s, took Nicaragua as a political example, as is shown in songs, and who also composed German lyrics to melodies by Violeta Parra, Atahualpa Yupanqui, and Silvio Rodríguez, transferring the songs into a new context.
During the Early Neolithic in the Near East, particularly from the mid ninth millennium cal BC onwards, human iconography became more widespread. Explanations for this development, however, remain elusive. This article presents a unique assemblage of flint artefacts from the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (eighth millennium BC) site of Kharaysin in Jordan. Contextual, morphological, statistical and use-wear analyses of these artefacts suggest that they are not tools but rather human figurines. Their close association with burial contexts suggests that they were manufactured and discarded during mortuary rituals and remembrance ceremonies that included the extraction, manipulation and redeposition of human remains.
An experiment of divergent selection for intramuscular fat was carried out at Universitat Politècnica de València. The high response of selection in intramuscular fat content, after nine generations of selection, and a multidimensional scaling analysis showed a high degree of genomic differentiation between the two divergent populations. Therefore, local genomic differences could link genomic regions, encompassing selective sweeps, to the trait used as selection criterion. In this sense, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions related to intramuscular fat through three methods for detection of selection signatures and to generate a list of candidate genes. The methods implemented in this study were Wright’s fixation index, cross population composite likelihood ratio and cross population – extended haplotype homozygosity. Genomic data came from the 9th generation of the two populations divergently selected, 237 from Low line and 240 from High line. A high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density array, Affymetrix Axiom OrcunSNP Array (around 200k SNPs), was used for genotyping samples. Several genomic regions distributed along rabbit chromosomes (OCU) were identified as signatures of selection (SNPs having a value above cut-off of 1%) within each method. In contrast, 8 genomic regions, harbouring 80 SNPs (OCU1, OCU3, OCU6, OCU7, OCU16 and OCU17), were identified by at least 2 methods and none by the 3 methods. In general, our results suggest that intramuscular fat selection influenced multiple genomic regions which can be a consequence of either only selection effect or the combined effect of selection and genetic drift. In addition, 73 genes were retrieved from the 8 selection signatures. After functional and enrichment analyses, the main genes into the selection signatures linked to energy, fatty acids, carbohydrates and lipid metabolic processes were ACER2, PLIN2, DENND4C, RPS6, RRAGA (OCU1), ST8SIA6, VIM (OCU16), RORA, GANC and PLA2G4B (OCU17). This genomic scan is the first study using rabbits from a divergent selection experiment. Our results pointed out a large polygenic component of the intramuscular fat content. Besides, promising positional candidate genes would be analysed in further studies in order to bear out their contributions to this trait and their feasible implications for rabbit breeding programmes.
Gender is an important social determinant of health, but gender has played only a marginal role in the geriatric and gerontology research and practice. The aim of this study was to examine the relevance of gender to the psychological well-being of older adults.
A cross-sectional study was conducted.
The study was carried out in Spain.
A total of 1,201 people aged between 65 and 94.
The participants completed sociodemographic data and four questionnaires: The Bem sex role inventory, the Ryff’s psychological well-being scale, the York self-esteem inventory, and the Social support scale.
Men scored higher than women in self-acceptance, autonomy, purpose in life, and environmental mastery. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that, although the most important predictors of psychological well-being in both women and men were self-esteem and social support, both masculine/instrumental and feminine/expressive traits were associated with higher psychological well-being, although the effect size was higher for the masculine/instrumental trait. Furthermore, education was associated with psychological well-being in the case of females.
Gender plays an important role in the psychological well-being of older adults. The results of this research are relevant for healthcare providers and policy-makers interested in promoting successful aging and increasing the well-being of older people.
Maternal obesity (MO) during pregnancy and lactation leads to maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction. Recent research has suggested that probiotics might be a novel approach to counteract these unwanted MO effects. The aim of this research was to analyze the impact of Leuconostoc SD23, a probiotic isolated from aguamiel (traditional Mexican drink), on MO metabolism in rats at the end of lactation (21 days). From weaning through lactation, control female Wistar rats (C) ate chow (5% fat) or high-energy obesogenic diet (MO; 25% fat). Half the C and MO mothers received a daily dose (1 × 1010 CFU/ml) of probiotic orally, control with probiotic (CP) and MO with probiotic (MOP), 1 month before mating and through pregnancy and lactation. Histological analyses of the liver, white adipose tissue and small intestine, body composition, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin were determined in mothers at the end of lactation. Maternal weight during pregnancy was greater in MO than C mothers, but similar at the end of lactation. Probiotic intervention had no effect on maternal weight. However, at the end of lactation, percentage of body fat was higher in MO than C, CP, and MOP. Serum glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and triglycerides were higher in MO versus C, CP, and MOP. MO small intestine villus height was higher versus MOP, C, and CP. Leuconostoc SD23 did not present adverse effects in C. Conclusions: maternal administration of Leuconostoc SD23 has beneficial effects on maternal metabolism, which holds possibilities for preventing adverse offspring metabolic programming.
The goal of this work was to find out if the clinical professional could distinguish hallucination like experiences between clinical and general population through the analyze of their responses.
The Revised Hallucination Scale (RHS) was administered to three groups included hallucinating schizophrenic patients, non-psychotic clinical disordered patients and a group of individuals with no psychiatric diagnoses. Also the frequency they were asked to give an example of a situation in which it had happened and to what they attributed it. Two clinical professionals analyzed the answers of all participants (blind related to the original group) and classified them in the three following groups: general, clinical non-psychotic and psychotic population.
As the results show the experience of the non-clinical group was easily distinguished by the clinical professionals since those persons did not present neither disturbs nor disability. Concerning the non-psychotic clinical group was identified a major variability in the classification, fluctuating between typical characteristics of the clinical group (e.g. anxiety) and the general population. The classification of the hallucination patients indicated a strong relation with their original group.
It is suggested that from a clinical point of view it is possible to distinguish clearly between the experiences of people hearing voices and general population. Concerning the clinical population it is more difficult to differentiate this kind of experience between psychotic and non-psychotic populations. The relevance of the results is discussed.
The TaqIA polymorphism linked to the DRD2 gene has been associated with alcoholism. The aim of this work is to study attention and inhibitory control as per the continuous performance test and the stop task in a sample of 50 Spanish male alcoholic patients split into two groups according to the presence of the TaqIA1 allele in their genotype. Our results show that alcoholics carrying the TaqIA1 allele present lower sustained attention and less inhibitory control than those patients without such allele.
To test the reliability and validity of the DIGS in Spanish population.
Inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the Spanish version of DIGS was tested in 95 inpatients and outpatients. The resultant diagnoses were compared with diagnoses obtained by the LEAD (Longitudinal Expert All Data) procedure as “gold standard”. The kappa statistic was used to measure concordance between blind inter-raters and between the diagnoses obtained by LEAD procedure and through the DIGS.
Overall kappa coefficient for inter-rater reliability was 0.956. The kappa value for individual diagnosis varied from major depression = 0.877 to schizophrenia = 1. Test-retest reliability was 0.926. Kappa for all individual target diagnoses ranged from 0.776 (major depression) to 1. Kappa between LEAD procedure and DIGS ranged from 0.704 (major depression) to 0.825 (bipolar I disorder).
Most of the DSM-IV major psychiatric disorders can be assessed with acceptable to excellent reliability with the Spanish version of the DIGS interview. The Spanish version of DIGS showed an acceptable to excellent concurrent validity. Giving the good reliability and validity of Spanish version of DIGS it should be considered to identify psychiatric phenotypes for genetics studies.
The well-established relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis is likely to involve other factors such as genetic variants, which could help to understand why not everyone exposed to adverse events develops psychotic symptoms later in life (Van Winkel, et al. 2008; Simmons et al. 2009).
The present study investigated the influence of childhood abuse and neglect on positive and negative psychosis-like experiences in adulthood and the potential moderating effect of the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism.
Psychosis-like experiences and childhood adversity were assessed in 533 individuals from the general population.
Childhood abuse showed a strong independent effect on the positive dimension of psychosis-like experiences (B = .16; SE = .05; p = .002). Furthermore, this association was moderated by the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism (B = .17; SE = .09; p = .004).
Individuals exposed to childhood abuse are more likely to report positive psychosis-like experiences. Met carriers reported more positive psychosis-like experiences when exposed to childhood abuse than did individuals carrying the Val/Val genotype.
Therefore, the observed gene-environment interaction effect may be partially responsible for individual variation in response to childhood abuse.
The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of child abuse across the continuum of psychosis.
Patients and methods:
The sample consisted of 198 individuals divided in three groups: (1) 48 FEP patients, (2) 77 individuals scoring high in Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), classified as “High CAPE” group and (3) 73 individuals scoring low, classified as “Low CAPE” group. Childhood abuse was assessed using self-report instruments. Chi2 tests and logistic regression models controlling by sex, age and cannabis were used to perform three comparisons: (i) FEP vs. Low CAPE; (ii) FEP vs. High CAPE and (iii) High CAPE vs. Low CAPE.
The frequency of individuals exposed to childhood abuse for FEP, High CAPE and Low CAPE groups were 52.1%, 41.6% and 11%, respectively. FEP and High CAPE group presented significantly higher rates of childhood abuse compared to Low CAPE group, however, no significant differences were found between FEP and High CAPE groups regarding the frequency of childhood abuse.
There is an increasing frequency of childhood abuse from low subclinical psychosis to FEP patients. However, childhood abuse is equally common in FEP and at risk individuals.
Language and action systems are functionally coupled in the brain as demonstrated by converging evidence using MRI, EEG, TMS and lesion studies. in addition, this coupling has been demonstrated behaviorally using the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) in which motor activity and language interact. Here we investigate direct motor-language coupling in two novel and uniquely informative ways. First, we measured the ACE in patients with motor impairment (early Parkinson disease, EPD) and second in epileptic patients with direct electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings. in experiment 1, EPD participants with preserved motor responses and a relatively preserved cognitive profile nonetheless showed a much diminished ACE relative to matched, non-EPD volunteers. in addition, EPD participants showed a strong association between the size of the ACE and the KDT test of verbal processing. the ECoG (experiment 2) provides a fine- grained spatial and temporal information of about the ACE brain signatures. ECoG in motor and language areas demonstrated simultaneous bidirectional effects: Motor preparation affected language processing (left inferior frontal gyrus and middle/superior temporal gyrus) and language processing affected activity in motor areas (premotor and M1). Our result open new pathways in the fields of motor diseases, theoretical approaches to language understanding, and models of action-perception coupling.
In order to improve global functioning in psychotic patients is necessary to know the kind of variables influencing those.
To research that of a clinical and epidemiological variables group which of them are associated to a better outcome in global functioning in patients affected by psychosis.
A total of 73 psychotic patients were included in this study. All of them were evaluated through a battery of tests including GAF and SIX, PANSS, S-GPTS and a comprehensive questionnaire for clinical and epidemiological variables. A binary logistic regression analysis was applied to the data set of global functioning scores divided by the median in two halves: better and worse global functioning. The model included the following variables: positive, negative and general psychopatology PANSS subscales, PANSS subtype, first or second generation antipsychotic, stimulants drugs use, tobacco use, sex, age, onset age, number of psychotic episodes and S-GPTS score.
Treatment with second generation antipsychotics and lesser scoring in S-GPTS scale were associated with a better outcomes in global functioning. We found an association between lesser negative symptoms and lesser number of psychotic episodes with a better functioning which showed a marginal statistical significance.
We raise the question about preferential use of second generation of antipsychotics as opposed to older antipsychotics and the necessity of improving adherence to treatment for breaking the vicious cycle between psychotic episodes and a worse global functioning. Further studies with greater sample are needed to explain these and another questions.
To determine patient adherence to generic venlafaxine versus brand-name venlafaxin (Vandral®) and its impact on costs and outcomes in subjects with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in routine medical practice in Spain.
A retrospective, observational new-user cohort study was designed. Electronic medical records linked from medical database of BSA, a health provider in Badalona (Spain), and corresponding community pharmacies dispensing's were extracted for analysis. Participants were beneficiaries aged 18+ years with pharmacy dispensing drug coverage between 2008 and 2012, an ICD-9-CM code for GAD and who initiated treatment with generic-venlafaxine or Vandral®. Assessments included adherence (measured as the medication possession ratio [MPR] and time until discontinuation up to 1 year follow-up), healthcare costs funded by NHS and outcomes (measured as the reduction in severity of anxiety symptoms with the HAM-A scale). Differences were estimated using a general linear model with covariates.
A total of 841 patients (60.7 years, 64% women) were identified: brand-name; 370 (44%) and generic; 471 (56%). The average MPR was 78% in the generic arm and 82% in the brand-name (p=0.047). Median persistence was 8.1 and 8.8 months, respectively (p=0.002). A 16% reduction in the adjusted healthcare cost was observed favoring brand-name; €1,110 vs. €928€; -€182 (p=0.020). Brand-name was associated with higher reduction in symptoms severity: -15.3 (62%) vs. -12.6 (49%) points (p<0.001).
Compared with initiating generic-venlafaxine, patients initiating brand-name venlafaxine were more likely to adhere, had lower NHS funded healthcare costs and showed higher reduction of anxiety severity symptoms in routine clinical practice.
Since the early description of paranoia, nosology of delusional disorder has always been controversial. The idea of ??unitary psychosis is old but has now taken on new value from the dimensional continuum model of psychosis.
1. To study the psychopathological dimensions of the schizophrenia spectrum. 2. To explore the relationship between the dimensions obtained and the categorical diagnoses. 3 To compare the different diagnoses of the psychosis from a psychopathological and functional point of view.
Material and Methods
an observational study with 550 patients was conducted. 373 patients with schizophrenia, 137 patients with delusional disorder, 40 patients with schizoaffective disorder. PANSS was used to assess the psychopathology and GAF for global functioning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the PANSS items was performed in order to obtain a dimensional model. The relationship between diagnostic categories and dimensions was subsequently studied with ANOVA tests.
5 Factors,-manic, negative symptoms, depression, positive symptoms and cognition-, similar in composition to other models were obtained. The model yielded the 57.27% of the total variance. The dimensional model obtained was able to explain the differences and similarities between the different categories of the schizophrenia spectrum and the validity of the categories was questioned. The value of the model in order to help establish the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment decision-making was postulated.
The relationship between neuropsychological and overall performance in people with schizophrenia is known. Smoking and stimulant drugs use can improve neuropsychological outcomes, however the existence of drugs use may be a more severe illness marker.
The purpose of this study is to investigate which clinical and epidemiological variables, including stimulant drugs use and smoking, influence on neuropsychological performance in patients with psychosis.
Material and methods
92 patients with different psychosis were assessed with a battery that included SCIP, to assess neuropsychological performance, PANSS, to evaluate psychotalogy, GAF and SIX as global performance measures. We also explore clinic and sociodemographic data. A binary logistic regresion model was applied on scores on the task ‘words’ of the SCIP (memory and learning), dichotomized at the median. The model included: sex, age, onset age, family history, negative scale, positive scale, global psychopatology and PANSS subtypes, estimated premorbid IQ using Barona Index, stimulant drugs use, smoking and funcionality.
The absence of stimulating drugs use and smoking (trials 2 and 3 of SCIP), was associated with better memory and learning in patients with psychosis. Younger age (trials 1-4 and total of words), higher functionality (trials 1,2 and total of words) and premorbid IQ (trials 2 and 4) were also positively associated with better neuropsychological performance.
Stimulant drugs use and smoking could be markers of poorer previous neuropsychological function in psychotic patients. It is necessary to do longitudinal studies evaluating these variables as markers, risk or protective factors of cognitive performance
Delusional disorder is traditionally considered a less severe clinical entity than schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. From the dimensional approach to psychiatric diagnostic classification it might be necessary redefine the diagnostic classification of psychosis.
To assess differences found in psychopathology, neuropsychology and functioning among schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder.
59 patients were included in this study. 30 out of them presented a diagnostic of schizophrenia, 15 patients delusional disorder and 14 schizoaffective disorder. All of them were assessed through different scales including PANSS, GAF, SIX, SCIP and DKEFS Stroop. To compare the different groups ANOVA, Post hoc Bonferroni analysis and X2 test were carried out.
We found statistically significant differences regarding negative symptoms between patients with schizophrenia and delusional disorder, being those less intense and severe in the last ones. In that way, a inversely proportional trend regarding negative and positive PANNS subtypes between schizophrenia and delusional disorder was observed.
In spite of the fact that the delusional disorder is considered less severe disease than other psychosis we only found a less degree of severity for negative symptoms. Further studies with greater sample size must be conducted.