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SGA devices have been used successfully in patients of all ages in various clinical scenarios, including primary airway management under general anesthesia in the operating room, and resuscitation and emergent airway management in the emergency department (ED) and prehospital settings. SGA devices have been used as alternatives to face-mask ventilation and tracheal intubation by healthcare providers with proficient airway management skills, but also by those with less experience, to successfully oxygenate and ventilate the lungs. The clinical efficacy of SGA devices in children has been proven in a large number of clinical studies. Pediatric SGA devices have undergone an evolution in design since their introduction 30 years ago. These newer design features have improved the use of SGA devices to provide positive-pressure ventilation and facilitate fiberoptic-guided tracheal intubation. The evolution, versatility, and utility of the SGA device will be discussed in detail in this chapter.
Graphite nitride carbon nanosheets have received more and more attention toward the photocatalytic research and applications. Ultrathin g-CN nanosheets with porous structure were synthesized successfully by thermal calcination of melamine supramolecular complexes, which was obtained by pre-treating melamine in nitric acid solution at different concentrations (0.5–2 mol/L). Effects of HNO3 pre-treatment on the microstructure of supramolecular complexes were studied. The characteristics of g-CN nanosheets were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The degradation performance for RhB and water splitting hydrogen production performance were used to evaluate the photocatalytic performances of g-CN nanosheets. The morphology and microstructure of HNO3/melamine supramolecular complexes are different from those of melamine precursor due to the better arrangement of the melamine units. Ultrathin porous g-CN nanosheets which possess a thickness of less than 2 nm were successfully prepared by calcination of melamine pre-treated with 1.0 mol/L nitric acid. The g-CN(1.0) nanosheets possess the highest photocatalytic degradation performance and water splitting hydrogen production performance due to the effective separation of photogenerated carriers and high specific surface area providing a large number of active sites.
Research suggests that childhood adversity (CA) is associated with a wide range of repercussions, including an increased likelihood of interpersonal stress generation. This may be particularly true following interpersonal childhood adversity (ICA) and for youth with high hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related genetic risk. In the current study, we applied a multilocus genetic profile score (MGPS) approach to measuring HPA axis-related genetic variation and examined its interaction with ICA to predict interpersonal stress generation in a sample of adolescents aged 14–17 (N = 241, Caucasian subsample n = 192). MGPSs were computed using 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms from HPA axis-related genes (CRHR1, NRC31, NRC32, and FKBP5). ICA significantly predicted greater adolescent interpersonal dependent stress. Additionally, MGPS predicted a stronger association between ICA and interpersonal dependent (but not independent or noninterpersonal dependent) stress. No gene–environment interaction (G×E) effects were found for noninterpersonal CA and MGPS in predicting adolescent interpersonal dependent stress. Effects remained after controlling for current depressive symptoms and following stratification by race. Findings extend existing G×E research on stress generation to HPA axis-related genetic variation and demonstrate effects specific to the interpersonal domain.
We study dynamical systems that have bounded complexity with respect to three kinds metrics: the Bowen metric
, the max-mean metric
and the mean metric
, both in topological dynamics and ergodic theory. It is shown that a topological dynamical system
has bounded complexity with respect to
) if and only if it is equicontinuous (respectively equicontinuous in the mean). However, we construct minimal systems that have bounded complexity with respect to
but that are not equicontinuous in the mean. It turns out that an invariant measure
has bounded complexity with respect to
if and only if
-equicontinuous. Meanwhile, it is shown that
has bounded complexity with respect to
if and only if
has bounded complexity with respect to
, if and only if
-mean equicontinuous and if and only if it has discrete spectrum.
Weed invasion is a prevailing problem in modestly managed lawns. Less attention has been given to the exploration of the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under different invasion pressures from lawn weeds. We conducted a four-season investigation into a Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Thiele (native turfgrass)–threeflower beggarweed [Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.] (invasive weed) co-occurring lawn. The root mycorrhizal colonizations of the two plants, the soil AM fungal communities and the spore densities under five different coverage levels of D. triflorum were investigated. Desmodium triflorum showed significantly higher root hyphal and vesicular colonizations than those of Z. tenuifolia, while the root colonizations of both species varied significantly among seasons. The increased coverage of D. triflorum resulted in the following effects: (1) the spore density initially correlated with mycorrhizal colonizations of Z. tenuifolia but gradually correlated with those of D. triflorum. (2) Correlations among soil properties, spore densities, and mycorrhizal colonizations were more pronounced in the higher coverage levels. (3) Soil AMF community compositions and relative abundances of AMF operational taxonomic units changed markedly in response to the increased invasion pressure. The results provide strong evidence that D. triflorum possessed a more intense AMF infection than Z. tenuifolia, thus giving rise to the altered host contributions to sporulation, soil AMF communities, relations of soil properties, spore densities, and root colonizations of the two plants, all of which are pivotal for the successful invasion of D. triflorum in lawns.
To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chinese adults aged 45–59 years.
Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis was used to identify the major dietary patterns. Logistic regression models were applied to clarify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of CKD.
The present study population was a part of the population-based Nutrition and Health Study performed in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, eastern China.
A total of 2437 eligible participants (45–59 years) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study from June 2015 to December 2016.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: ‘traditional southern Chinese’, ‘Western’ and ‘grains–vegetables’ patterns, collectively accounting for 25·6 % of variance in the diet. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the Western pattern had greater odds for CKD (OR = 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·81; P < 0·05) than those in the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern, the highest quartile had lower odds for CKD (OR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·93; P < 0·05). In addition, there was no significant association between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and risk of CKD (P > 0·05).
Our results suggest that the Western pattern is associated with an increased risk, whereas the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a reduced risk for CKD. These findings can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of CKD in a middle-aged Chinese population.
For achieving flame-retardant AZX912 magnesium alloy with superior mechanical properties, cast ingots were solution-treated at different temperatures of 420–525 °C prior to extrusion at 280 °C. With increasing solution treatment temperature, brittle Al2Ca intermetallic compound changed from a network-like morphology to a spheroidized shape, with an increase in hardness and became unbroken during extrusion. As the solution treatment temperature increased, cracking of Al2Ca particles during tensile deformation tended to be restricted due to hardening and spheroidizing behaviors, and tensile elongation of extruded alloys significantly enhanced from 11.2 to 19.2%. High mechanical strength was maintained with an improvement in ductility when increasing the solution treatment temperature up to 510 °C. The extruded alloy solution-treated at 510 °C exhibited a superior balance between mechanical strength and ductility, with a high ultimate tensile strength of 367 MPa and a good elongation of 16.8%.
We performed systematic review on 40 paired hospital and nursing home charts from a clinical trial to evaluate the fidelity of transitions of care among those discharged on antibiotics. We found that 30% of transitions included an inappropriate change to the patient’s antibiotic plan of care.
High-yielding short-duration cultivars are required due to the development of mechanized large-scale double-season rice (i.e. early- and late-season rice) production in China. The objective of this study was to identify whether existing early-season rice cultivars can be used as resources to select high-yielding, short-duration (less than 115 days) cultivars of machine-transplanted late-season rice. Field experiments were conducted in Yongan, Hunan Province, China in the early and late rice-growing seasons in 2015 and 2016. Eight early-season rice cultivars (Liangyou 6, Lingliangyou 211, Lingliangyou 268, Xiangzaoxian 32, Xiangzaoxian 42, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with growth durations of less than 115 days were used in 2015, and four cultivars (Lingliangyou 268, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with good yield performance in the late season in 2015 were grown in 2016. All cultivars had a growth duration of less than 110 days when grown in the late season in both years. Zhongjiazao 17 produced the maximum grain yield of 9.61 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 108 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season in 2015. Averaged across both years, Lingliangyou 268 had the highest grain yield of 8.57 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 95 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season. The good yield performance of the early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season was mainly attributable to higher apparent radiation use efficiency. Growth duration and grain yield of early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season were not significantly related to those grown in the early season. Our study suggests that it is feasible to select high-yielding short-duration cultivars from existing early-season rice cultivars for machine-transplanted late-season rice production. Special tests by growing alternative early-season rice cultivars in the late season should be done to determine their growth duration and grain yield for such selection.
Altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) has been noted in large-scale functional networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, identifying consistent abnormalities of functional networks is difficult due to varied methods and results across studies. To integrate rsFC alterations and search for coherent patterns of intrinsic functional network impairments in ADHD, this research conducts a coordinate-based meta-analysis of voxel-wise seed-based rsFC studies comparing rsFC between ADHD patients and healthy controls. A total of 25 datasets from 21 studies including 700 ADHD patients and 580 controls were analyzed. We extracted the coordinates of seeds and between-group effects. Each seed was then categorized into a seed-network by its location within priori 7-network parcellations. Then, pooled meta-analyses were conducted for the default mode network (DMN), frontoparietal network (FPN) and affective network (AN) separately, but not for the ventral attention network (VAN), dorsal attention network (DAN), somatosensory network (SSN) and visual network due to a lack of primary studies. The results showed that ADHD was characterized by hyperconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the DMN and AN as well as hypoconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the VAN and SSN. These findings not only support the triple-network model of pathophysiology associated with ADHD but also extend this model by highlighting the involvement of the SSN and AN in the mechanisms of network interactions that may account for motor hyperactivity and impulsive symptoms.
The problem of the magnetic attitude tracking control is studied for a gravity gradient microsatellite in orbital transfer. The contributions of the work are mainly shown in two aspects: (1) the design of an expected attitude trajectory; (2) a method of the magnetic attitude tracking control. In orbital transfer, the gravity gradient microsatellite under a constant thrust shows complicated dynamic behaviours. In order to damp out the pendular motion, the gravity gradient microsatellite is subject to the the attitude tracking problem. An expected attitude trajectory is designed based on dynamic characteristics revealed in the paper, which not only ensures the flight safety of the system, but also reduces the energy consumption of the controller. Besides, the control torque produced by a magnetorquer is constrained to lie in a two-dimensional plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, so an auxiliary compensator is proposed to improve the control performance, which is different from existing magnetic control methods. In addition, a sliding mode control based on the compensator is presented, and the Lyapunov stability analysis is performed to show the global convergence of the tracking error. Finally, a numerical case of the gravity gradient microsatellite is studied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking control.
This paper investigates the effects of monetary policy on long-run economic growth via different cash-in-advance (CIA) constraints on R&D in a Schumpeterian growth model with vertical and horizontal innovations. The relationship between inflation and growth is contingent on the relative extents of CIA constraints and diminishing returns to two types of innovation. This model can generate a mixed (monotonic or non-monotonic) relationship between inflation and growth, given that the relative strength of monetary effects on growth between different CIA constraints and that of R&D-labor-reallocation effects between different diminishing returns vary with the nominal interest rate. In the empirically relevant case where horizontal R&D is subject to larger diminishing returns than vertical R&D, inflation and growth can exhibit an inverted-U relationship when the CIA constraint on horizontal R&D is sufficiently larger than that on vertical R&D. Finally, we calibrate the model to the US economy and find that the growth-maximizing rate of inflation is around 2.4%, which is consistent with the recent empirical estimates.
Bismuth (Bi)-based photocatalytic materials are widely used in the field of photocatalytic degradation of wastewater. In this study, β-Bi2O3/BiOBr heterojunction photocatalysts were prepared by an in situ chemical transformation method. BiOBr molecules are arrayed to cross each other to form a pore around β-Bi2O3. The prepared photocatalyst had a large specific surface area and excellent adsorption and photocatalytic properties. The β-Bi2O3/BiOBr with a molecular ratio of 11.1% had the highest catalytic activity. The result of a degradation experiment, performed with Rhodamine B (RhB) as the target pollutant, revealed that the degradation rate reached 99.85% after 25 min under visible light irradiation. The pore structure can adsorb contaminants and the heterojunction facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs to enhance the photocatalytic properties. The high adsorption performance and heterojunction achieved higher photocatalytic efficiency. This semiconductor photocatalyst with high adsorption performance provides a new approach to control water pollution.
Let ℳ be a semifinite von Neumann algebra with a faithful semifinite normal trace τ. Assume that E(0, ∞) is an M-embedded fully symmetric function space having order continuous norm and is not a superset of the set of all bounded vanishing functions on (0, ∞). In this paper, we prove that the corresponding operator space E(ℳ, τ) is also M-embedded. It extends earlier results by Werner [48, Proposition 4∙1] from the particular case of symmetric ideals of bounded operators on a separable Hilbert space to the case of symmetric spaces (consisting of possibly unbounded operators) on an arbitrary semifinite von Neumann algebra. Several applications are given, e.g., the derivation problem for noncommutative Lorentz spaces ℒp,1(ℳ, τ), 1 < p < ∞, has a positive answer.