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This volume examines the concerns of Asian American literature from 1996 to the present. This period was not only marked by civil unrest, terror and militarization, economic depression, and environmental abuse, but also unprecedented growth and visibility of Asian American literature. This volume is divided into four sections that plots the trajectories of, and tensions between, social challenges and literary advances. Part One tracks how Asian American literary productions of this period reckon with the effects of structures and networks of violence. Part Two tracks modes of intimacy – desires, loves, close friendships, romances, sexual relations, erotic contacts – that emerge in the face of neoimperialism, neoliberalism, and necropolitics. Part Three traces the proliferation of genres in Asian American writing of the past quarter century in new and in well-worn terrains. Part Four surveys literary projects that speculate on future states of Asian America in domestic and global contexts.
This well-established and acclaimed textbook introducing the rapidly growing field of nerve and muscle function has been completely revised and updated. Written with undergraduate students in mind, it begins with the fundamental principles demonstrated by the pioneering electrophysiological experiments on cell excitability. This leads to more challenging material recounting recent discoveries from applying modern biochemical, genetic, physiological and biophysical, experimental and mathematical analysis. The resulting interdisciplinary approach conveys a unified contemporary understanding of nerve and skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle function at the molecular, cellular and systems levels. Emphasis on important strategic experiments throughout clarifies the basis for our current scientific views, highlights the excitement and challenge of biomedical discovery, and suggests directions for future advances. These fundamental ideas are then translated into discussions of related disease conditions and their clinical management. Now including colour illustrations, it is an invaluable text for students of physiology, neuroscience, cell biology and biophysics.
To investigate whether an after-school nutrition education (ASNE) programme can improve the nutrition knowledge and healthy eating behaviour of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families.
One-group pretest and posttest design. Nutrition knowledge and dietary intake were collected using a questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were measured before and after the intervention. Nine components of healthy eating behaviour were assessed with reference to the Dietary Guideline of Taiwan. Pretest and posttest differences were analysed using generalised estimating equations.
Three after-school programmes in central and southern Taiwan. The ASNE programme comprised three monthly 1 hour sessions (20–30 minutes lecture and 30–40 minutes interaction).
A total of 153 adolescents aged 10–15 years from economically disadvantaged families (78 elementary students and 75 junior high school students).
Elementary and junior high school students’ nutrition knowledge scores (range 0–6) increased by 0·28 (+5·7%, P = 0·02) and 0·30 points (+6·18%, P = 0·02), respectively, but their fruit intake decreased by 0·36 serving/day (−22·9%, P = 0·02) and 0·29 serving/day (−18·9%, P = 0·03), respectively. Junior high school students’ mean snacking frequency and fried food intake dropped to 0·75 days per week (−21·3%, P = 0·008) and 0.10 serving per day (−28·8%, P = 0·01), respectively.
Short-term ASNE programmes can increase nutrition knowledge and reduce snacking frequency and fried food intake despite a decrease in fruit intake among adolescents from economically disadvantaged families.
Analysis in this chapter supports an overall trend of decline in the percentage of polluted days since 2012. Yet, stricter and more centralized policy enforcement measures do not have truly significant, across-the-board effects in reducing pollution in China, and the fall in PM2.5 concentration has not translated into significant and sustained health benefits. The chapter also examines the success and failure of the government in tracking the ongoing targets it set for achieving final policy goals, paying special attention to the following issue areas: reduction of toxic emissions, attacking water pollution, energy, and industrial restructuring, policy coordination, public participation, and the use of market mechanisms. The mixed outcome in addressing air pollution highlights the constraints and flaws of China’s environmental governance model. It also suggests that decades of reform and opening up have not fundamentally changed the impromptu, non-participatory, unaccountable, and mobilizational policy process, which often leads to undesirable and unintended policy outcomes.
This chapter looks at China’s environmental crisis and its impacts on public health. In examining the health impacts of air pollution, it highlights ambient PM.25 as the number one killer of all the risk factors for pollution-related mortality in China. Besides air pollution, water and soil pollution also has a significant and independent effect on people’s health. The health impact of pollution is further complicated by exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic and lead. The posited health effects of air, water, and soil pollution are epitomized in the phenomenon of cancer villages. Additional links between the environment and health, including trash and public health, pollution and mental health, pollution and sperm quality, and pollution and antibiotic resistance, are also examined.
When Xi Jinping took the helm in 2012, one of his major concerns was how to connect the wheel to the rudder: eliciting compliance from lower levels. Unlike previous party leaders, Xi rapidly recentralized his political power to a level that rivals Mao’s. The recreation of the Maoist bandwagon polity reshaped the institutional contours of policy implementation. Pollution control was a key element of this shift. The central leaders pushed for the enactment of three pollution-related action plans. With the elevation and embedding of environmental health issues, the power and prestige of central environmental protection agencies have been strengthened. Policy implementation has also been facilitated by the introduction of new policy instruments and mechanisms aimed at improving accountability and policy coordination. Still, many of the inherent policy implementation problems continue to be left untouched. They include upward accountability, lack of public participation, conflict between functional departments and territorial governments, and the central state’s inability to effectively monitor and evaluate bureaucratic performance.
The book concludes with a summary on how the environmental health crisis is undermining China’s international ascendance, as well as implications for China’s political development. It contends that the crisis and government response reveal a Chinese state whose political system is both resilient and fragile, and that the China model does not constitute a viable alternative to liberal democracy.
This chapter explains why environmental health issues carry profound implications for China’s future and how they threaten to severely weaken the nation’s economic growth, undermine its sociopolitical stability, and complicate China’s foreign relations. Environmental health issues not only exact a significant economic toll but also have profound sociopolitical implications. With the growing public attention on air quality, pollution has increasingly become a political issue that tests the Chinese government’s ruling capacity. The environmental health problems, in conjunction with other mounting domestic challenges, will constrain Chinese leaders’ ability to mobilize the resources and internal support necessary for China to play a global leadership role.
The introduction proposes environmental health challenges as an obstacle to China’s global leadership. Following a discussion of the unique features of environmental health problems in China, it explains why social response to the crisis is embedded in a political milieu dramatically different from the Mao era. It also touches upon issues of state response, including the challenges of policy implementation. Furthermore, it explains why the discussion fits squarely within the debate over Chinese state’s capacity to revamp itself and the prospect for China’s global leadership. It ends with a discussion of the analytical framework and organization of the book.
In accounting for the shift in China’s environmental health policy, there is no denying that domestic actors – politicians, bureaucrats, intellectuals, environmentalists and social forces – are instrumental in setting the new agenda. However, a close look at the policymaking process also highlights the influence of international actors and networks in creating new policy norms and practices, as evidenced by US Foreign Service’s role in including PM2.5 control as a core tenet in the government’s pollution control efforts. The shift to a new monitoring system, in turn, forced the government to take more action on pollution. Ultimately, the PM2.5 crisis of 2013 weaved the problem, policy, and political streams together, pushing all toward serious policy change. By April 2015, the government had put in place three action plans to tackle the country’s air, water and soil pollution problems, respectively. Nevertheless, the same process also reveals the inherent dilemmas, constraints, and limitations China faces in pursuing required policy change.
Monitoring the tension in cables is significant in some ice drill and deepwater applications. Take our RECoverable Autonomous Sonde (RECAS) for example. It is able to melt a hole to the bottom of ice sheet and is able to move upwards. A winch is installed inside RECAS to release and recover the cable, whose tension needs to be monitored in real time in order to control the behavior of the winch. The high pressure of deep water and limited installation space pose great challenges in sensor development. In this paper, two editions of newly designed deepwater tension sensors are proposed. The first edition is based on a fresh hydraulic load module that operates in high pressure environment and the second edition tension, which aims to improve the accuracy, applies a newly designed watertight load module. Detailed force transmission and characteristic analysis of the sensors are carried out. The sensors have got through a series of experiments, including calibration experiments, pressure experiments and field experiments. The resultant accuracy of the second edition sensor, which has a better performance, is over 2% under the measuring range of 1000 kg and the dimension of the final sensor is as compact as 150 mm × 137 mm × 86 mm.