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Globally, more and more species are at risk of extinction as the environment and climate change. Many of these species require long-term management to persist - they are conservation-reliant. The magnitude of this challenge requires a rethinking of how conservation priorities are determined and a broader societal commitment to conservation. Choices need to be made about which species will be conserved, for how long, and by whom. This volume uses case studies and essays by conservation practitioners from throughout the world to explore what conservation reliance is and what it means for endangered-species management. Chapters consider threats to species and how they are addressed, legal frameworks for protecting endangered species, societal contexts and conflicts over conservation goals, and how including conservation reliance can strengthen methods for prioritizing species for conservation. The book concludes by discussing how shepherding nature requires an evaluation of societal values and ethics.
The practice of medicine often requires procedures that cause pain and anxiety. With the advent of modern anaesthesia these procedures have become commonplace and tolerable. Procedures with the greatest degree of pain are frequently accomplished during a state of general anaesthesia. Many procedures, however, are performed under sedation and analgesia. In contrast to general anaesthesia, sedation and analgesia use short acting medications to alleviate pain and anxiety while leaving patients capable of maintaining their airway and basic physiological functions.
The Parc National du Banc d’Arguin in Mauritania hosts the largest concentrations of coastal waterbirds along the East Atlantic Flyway. In spite of this importance, a review of the changes in the numbers of waterbirds in the area is lacking since the first complete count in 1980. Here we analysed the seven complete waterbird counts made since then, and the additional yearly counts made in one subunit (Iwik region) since 2003. We present evidence for changes in the community composition of waterbirds over the past four decades. Total waterbird numbers showed a decrease between 1980 and 2017, with only Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus showing a significant increase in numbers. Five species showed significant declines: Long-tailed Cormorant Phalacrocorax africanus, Red Knot Calidris canutus, Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, and Western Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus. In the remaining species, the variation in numbers between counts was too large, and the number of complete counts too small, for trends to be detected. The yearly counts at Iwik region also showed sharp decreases in the numbers of Red Knot, Bar-tailed Godwit, and Marsh Harrier, but not of Long-tailed Cormorant and Eurasian Curlew. A multivariate analysis revealed a significant change in species composition over time, which was caused mainly by changes in the species depending on the intertidal mudflats for feeding (generally in decline) vs. the species depending on fish and crustaceans in the sublittoral and offshore zones (often showing increases).
Comparison has been at the heart of a wide variety of disciplinary and interdisciplinary projects in Europe and the United States, especially since the nineteenth century: anthropology, comparative anatomy, comparative linguistics, comparative literature, comparative politics, comparative religion, and so on Though comparative projects are not restricted to the West or to the modern period, they have functioned, there and elsewhere, in historically and culturally specific ways. In the nineteenth-century West, comparison was often at the heart of efforts to construct or to prop up hierarchies of race, gender, sexuality, and class; to legitimate missionary outreach and colonial government; or to contain the diversity of human histories, cultures, technologies, and forms of knowledge in neat taxonomies and continuous linear narratives.In the later twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, comparison has at times been made to do very different kinds of work: to destabilize hierarchies, to trouble familiar assumptions about identity and difference, to disrupt binary oppositions, or to establish critical distance.
The relationship between criminogenic risk and mental illness in justice involved persons with mental illness is complex and poorly understood by clinicians, researchers, administrators, and policy makers alike. Historically, when providing services to justice involved persons with mental illness, clinicians have emphasized mental health recovery (eg, psychiatric rehabilitation) at the exclusion of treatments targeted at criminogenic risk. More recently, however, researchers have demonstrated with great clarity that criminogenic risk not only contributes but is likely the leading factor in the criminal behavior committed by persons with mental illness. Yet, we still do not know the nature of this criminogenic-mental illness relationship, how this relationship impacts treatment needs, and of ultimate concern, what this relationship means in terms of individual and societal outcomes. In this paper we briefly define criminogenic risk and the research that demonstrates the role of criminogenic risk in criminal justice involvement of persons with mental illness. We also review prevalence rates of persons with mental illness justice involvement, and then discuss important factors to be considered when assessing risk to include both criminogenic and mental illness risk. We conclude this paper by reviewing treatment and management strategies for persons with mental illness that are criminal justice involved particularly reviewing and building off the recommendations put forth by Bartholomew & Morgan.
The objective of this study was to systematically assess the literature regarding postnatal healthcare utilization and barriers/facilitators of healthcare in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) children.
A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed research. Eligible studies were peer-reviewed articles reporting on broad aspects of primary and specialty healthcare utilization and access in NAS children. Three investigators independently reviewed all articles and extracted data. Study bias was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Assessment Scale and the National Institute of Health Study Quality Assessment Tool.
This review identified 14 articles that met criteria. NAS children have poorer outpatient appointment adherence and have a higher rate of being lost to follow-up. These children have overall poorer health indicated by a significantly higher risk of ER visits, hospital readmission, and early childhood mortality compared with non-NAS infants. Intensive multidisciplinary support provided through outpatient weaning programs facilitates healthcare utilization and could serve as a model that could be applied to other healthcare fields to improve the health among this population.
This review investigated the difficulties in accessing outpatient care as well as the utilization of such care for NAS infants. NAS infants tend to have decreased access to and utilization of outpatient healthcare following hospital birth discharge. Outpatient weaning programs have proven to be effective; however, these programs require intensive resources and care coordination that has yet to be implemented into other healthcare areas for NAS children.
Civil–military relationships are necessary in humanitarian emergencies but, if poorly managed, may be detrimental to the efforts of humanitarian organizations. Awareness of guidelines and understanding of risks relating to the relationship among deployed military personnel have not been evaluated.
Fifty-five military and 12 humanitarian healthcare workers in South Sudan completed questionnaires covering experience, training and role, agreement with statements about the deployment, and free text comments.
Both cohorts were equally aware of current guidance. Eight themes defined the relationship. There was disagreement about the benefit to the South Sudanese people of the military deployment, and whether military service was compatible with beneficial health impacts. Two key obstacles to the relationship and 3 areas the relationship could be developed were identified.
This study shows that United Kingdom military personnel are effectively trained and understand the constraints on the civil–military relationship. Seven themes in common between the groups describe the relationship. Current guidance could be adapted to allow a different relationship for healthcare workers.
Habitat avoidance is an anti-parasite behaviour exhibited by at-risk hosts that can minimize exposure to parasites. Because environments are often heterogeneous, host decision-making with regards to habitat use may be affected by the presence of parasites and habitat quality simultaneously. In this study we examine how the ovipositing behaviour of a cactiphilic fruit fly, Drosophila nigrospiracula, is affected by the presence of an ectoparasitic mite, Macrocheles subbadius, in conjunction with other environmental factors – specifically the presence or absence of conspecific eggs and host plant tissue. We hypothesized that the trade-off between site quality and parasite avoidance should favour ovipositing at mite-free sites even if it is of inferior quality. We found that although flies avoided mites in homogeneous environments (86% of eggs at mite-free sites), site quality overwhelmed mite avoidance. Both conspecific eggs (65% of eggs at infested sites with other Drosophila eggs) and host plant tissue (78% of eggs at infested sites with cactus) overpowered mite avoidance. Our results elucidate the context-dependent decision-making of hosts in response to the presence of parasites in variable environments, and suggest how the ecology of fear and associated trade-offs may influence the relative investment in anti-parasite behaviour in susceptible hosts.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
Objective: To investigate the effects of methylphenidate on long-term executive and neuropsychological functioning in children with attention problems following TBI, as well as the relationship between methylphenidate associated changes in lab-based neuropsychological measures of attentional control, processing speed, and executive functioning and parent- or self-report measures of everyday executive functioning. Method: 26 children aged 6–17 years, who were hospitalized for moderate-to-severe blunt head trauma 6 or more months previously, were recruited from a large children’s hospital medical center. Participants were randomized into a double-masked, placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and parent- and self-report ratings of everyday executive functioning at baseline, and at 4 weeks and 8 weeks following upward titration of medication to an optimal dose or while administered a placebo. Results: Methylphenidate was associated with significant improvements in processing speed, sustained attention, and both lab-based and everyday executive functioning. Significant treatment-by-period interactions were found on a task of sustained attention. Participants who were randomized to the methylphenidate condition for the first treatment period demonstrated random or erratic responding, with slower and more variable response times when given placebo during the second period. Conclusion: Results indicate that methylphenidate treatment is associated with positive outcomes in processing speed, sustained attention, and both lab-based and everyday measures of executive functioning compared to placebo group. Additionally, results suggest sustained attention worsens when discontinuing medication. (JINS, 2019, 25, 740–749)
The General Structure Analysis System (GSAS-II) package provides materials and crystallographic analysis for all types of diffraction data. It was initially made available with very limited capabilities, but over much of the last decade the features have been expanded, so that GSAS-II is now a comprehensive tool for nearly all types of structural and materials characterization studies. The need to provide materials to teach use of GSAS-II, while the software has been undergoing constant revision and expansion, has required new approaches for documentation. This has included providing tutorials, as each major new capability has been added, and context-sensitive help for each section of the program. Comments in the code are also expanded into a software reference guide. Most recently, video versions of more than half of the tutorials were created and others were provided with animated graphics. All GSAS-II documentation is web-based.
An important question regarding Aristotle’s moral anthropology is whether or not human beings can become perfectly good. Should we consider Aristotle’s paradigmatically virtuous agent (who appears under the different names of spoudaios, phronimos, agathos, epainetos, epieikēs, or kalos kagathos) as an ideal figure, i.e. as someone who permanently and infallibly executes morally correct actions? Is his character irreversibly transformed into a state of perfection? Might we describe his inner condition as that of perfect psychic harmony? Or is it true, as some interpreters claimed, notably Shane Drefcinski and Howard Curzer,1 that the virtuous man (Aristotle never mentions female candidates) can act badly? Does he perform, at least to some extent or from time to time, slightly suboptimal actions, or perhaps even more: evil deeds? If Aristotle’s moral anthropology allowed for some imperfection or even considered imperfection as an unavoidable part of the human condition, it would be close to the view of the philosophos held by Plato. If, on the other hand, Aristotle defended an ideal of absolute perfection, he would be somewhere contiguous to the Stoic concept of the sage (sophos).
The model of the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code ORB5 has been extended for the study of pair plasmas. This has been done by including the physics of the Debye shielding, by including the electron polarization density and by retaining the effects of the electron finite Larmor radius. This model is verified against previous numerical results for the cyclone base case tokamak scenario in deuterium plasmas, and for local pair plasma simulations. The linear dynamics of temperature-gradient driven instabilities and geodesic acoustic modes is investigated. Mass dependencies for different Debye lengths are studied.
Quantifying the physical mechanisms responsible for the transport of sediments, nutrients and pollutants in the abyssal sea is a long-standing problem, with internal waves regularly invoked as the relevant mechanism for particle advection near the sea bottom. This study focuses on internal-wave-induced particle transport in the vicinity of (almost) vertical walls. We report a series of laboratory experiments revealing that particles sinking slowly through a monochromatic internal wave beam experience significant horizontal advection. Extending the theoretical analysis by Beckebanze et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 841, 2018, pp. 614–635), we attribute the observed particle advection to a peculiar and previously unrecognized streaming mechanism in the stratified boundary layer originating at the lateral walls. This vertical boundary layer streaming mechanism is most efficient for significantly inclined wave beams, when vertical and horizontal velocity components are of comparable magnitude. We find good agreement between our theoretical prediction and experimental results.
We know a great deal about Brahms’s professional activities, thoughts about music and musicians, and general views on politics and culture, from his voluminous surviving correspondence. These letters and the reminiscences of his friends also trace his personal habits – what his daily routine was like, his enjoyment of food, drink, and tobacco, his delight in pranks and walking in the outdoors, his peculiar attire and occasional curmudgeonliness.
We present a continuous, sediment core-based record of paleohydroclimate spanning ~5800 cal yr BP to recent from Lower Pahranagat Lake (LPAH), a shallow, alkaline lake in southern Nevada. We apply stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) from fine-fraction authigenic carbonate, which are sensitive recorders of hydroclimatic variability in this highly evaporative region. Additional geochemical proxies (total organic carbon, C/N, and total inorganic carbon) provide supporting information on paleoecological change in and around the lake. Our data suggest progressively wetter conditions starting at the later part of the middle Holocene and extending into the late Holocene (~5500–3350 cal yr BP) followed by a millennial-scale dry period from ~3150 to 1700 cal yr BP. This latter interval encompasses the ‘Late Holocene dry period’ (LHDP) reported by other investigators, and our data help refine the area affected in this episode. Our data also show evidence for a series of century-scale fluctuations in regional hydroclimate, including wet and dry intervals between 2350 and 1600 cal yr BP, and drier conditions over the past few centuries. Paleohydroclimate trends in the LPAH record show correspondence with those from the central Great Basin to the north, suggesting that both areas were subject to similar climatic forcings.