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The acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear underlies the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, including PTSD. Women have higher lifetime prevalence and greater risk of PTSD than men. Such sex differences may be attributed to a combination of genetic and hormonal factors. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene encodes an enzyme that metabolizes catechol compounds, including dopamine. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism affects the enzymatic activity of dopamine and has been associated with altered fear memory performance. Besides, when estrogen secretion is elevated, women show a greater extinction of conditioned fear than men. Here, we investigated the relationship between the COMT genotype and sex in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In a 3-day cued fear conditioning experiment, acquisition and extinction performance of 75 healthy men (21.8 years) and 45 healthy women in follicular phase (21.2 years) were examined. Visual cues and electric shocks were used as the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, respectively. Subjects with Met/Met homozygotes showed less fear acquisition (p < .0001). Female Val carriers showed more extinction (p = .009) and less reconsolidation (p < .0001) than male Val carriers. Women with Val/Val homozygotes were less affected by a reinforcing stimulus than men with Val/Val homozygotes (p = .0001). These findings suggest a clear interaction between the COMT gene and sex in fear memory function, and that women have a greater tolerance for aversive experiences than men. Higher estrogen levels mediate increased dopaminagic activity, potentially optimizing the prefrontal function known to contribute to the fear-related symptomatology of PTSD.
We present observational results of the submillimeter H2O and SiO lines toward a candidate high-mass young stellar object Orion Source I using ALMA. The spatial structures of the high excitation lines at lower-state energies of >2500 K show compact structures consistent with the circumstellar disk and/or base of the northeast-southwest bipolar outflow with a 100 au scale. The highest excitation transition, the SiO (v=4) line at band 8, has the most compact structure. In contrast, lower-excitation transitions are more extended than 200 au tracing the outflow. Almost all the line show velocity gradients perpendicular to the outflow axis suggesting rotation motions of the circumstellar disk and outflow. While some of the detected lines show broad line profiles and spatially extended emission components indicative of thermal excitation, the strong H2O lines at 321 GHz, 474 GHz, and 658 GHz with brightness temperatures of >1000 K show clear signatures of maser action.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We will report the activities of the VERA single-dish observations. We are carrying out single-dish observations with two purposes. The first purpose is the monitoring of known H2O maser sources. At present, we are carrying out monitoring observations for 312 H2O maser sources at intervals of two months. The second purpose is the search for new water maser sources. We selected 901 target sources from the AKARI FIS Bright Source Catalogue. We found 61 new H2O maser sources.
We report on interferometric observations of a face-on accretion system around the high mass young stellar object, G353.273+0.641. The innermost accretion system of 100-au radius was resolved in a 45-GHz continuum image taken with the Jansky Very Large Array. Our SED analysis indicated that the continuum could be explained by optically-thick dust emission. 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers associated with the same system were also observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The masers showed a spiral-like, non-axisymmetric distribution with a systematic velocity gradient. The line-of-sight velocity field is explained by an infall motion along a parabolic streamline that falls onto the equatorial plane of the face-on system. The streamline is quasi-radial and reaches the equatorial plane at a radius of 16 au. The physical origin of such a streamline is still an open question and will be constrained by the higher-resolution thermal continuum and line observations with ALMA long baselines.
We have conducted astrometric observations toward a 22 GHz water maser source associated with the Sgr B2 complex in the Galactic center region with VERA (VLBI exploration of Radio Astrometry). We measured a trigonometric parallax and absolute proper motion of the Sgr B2 complex with respect to an extra-galactic source by observing the water maser source at 10 epochs from 2014 to 2017. The measured distance was 7.52+3.01−1.67 kpc for the Sgr B2M region.
We also succeeded to measure internal motions of maser spots in Sgr B2M, and N region. The number of spots which we could measure the internal motions is about 400. The distribution of the maser spots shows that the maser spots are associated with envelope of HII region seen in radio continuum image obtained with VLA and ALMA. We discuss relative motions between Sgr B2M, and N by using the internal motion.
This study aimed to predict eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis prognosis by investigating changes in the blood eosinophil count and other disease biomarkers after surgery.
Blood eosinophil numbers and serum interleukin-5 levels were measured in 22 eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients before and after functional endoscopic sinus surgery, and compared with equivalent measures in non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps patients. Differences between well-controlled eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and those who experienced recurrence were also assessed.
Blood eosinophil numbers and serum interleukin-5 level decreased after surgery in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients. In this patient group, blood eosinophil counts before surgery were significantly higher in patients who experienced recurrence (825.7 ± 26.1 vs 443.9 ± 76.6 cells/μl, p < 0.05), and decreased significantly after surgery (825.7 ± 26.1 vs 76.7 ± 25.8 cells/μl, p < 0.05).
Blood eosinophil numbers may reflect disease severity in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and their prognosis after surgery.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The Galactic centre region shows outstanding non-circular motion unlike the Galactic disk. As scenarios describing this non-circular motion, resonance orbits formed by the Galactic bar potential or expanding motion by past activity of the central BH are proposed. However, these both scenarios are based on line-of-sight velocities of molecular clouds in this region, and such one-dimension velocity information is insufficient to separate these scenarios.
To reveal dynamics of the Galactic centre region, we conducted astromertic observations of 22 GHz water maser sources toward the Galactic centre direction. We conducted astrometric observations toward water maser source associated with Sgr D HII region. As a result, we succeeded to measure the parallax and proper motion of the maser source. The measured distance was 2.36(+0.58/-0.39) kpc. This result clearly indicates that this source is not associated with the Galactic centre, but located on the Galactic disk.
How can social participation by older people support their wellbeing? We explore the elder-focused community support system developed in Minamisanriku town after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Many elderly people lost all their material possessions and were moved from their devastated home communities to temporary housing. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 17 participants including 14 community workers and three members in the Minamisanriku Council of Social Welfare (MCSW) in a programme framed by the MCSW's disaster-response model. Thematic analysis highlighted how older people's involvement in the visiting programme of their temporary community, and conducting twice-daily visits to other vulnerable elders, enabled them to provide valued social support to isolated and homebound peers. It also helped reconstruct their own social identities shattered by the dissolution of former communities, the shock of displacement and loss of possessions. This positive social participation was heavily influenced by strong bridges between their temporary community and MCSW support staff and infrastructure that promoted and supported their visits. Our study highlights how strong and empowering relationships amongst older people can be facilitated by an active government-funded support agency that is immediately responsive to the needs and deeply respectful of the world-views of vulnerable groups.
The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between γ-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the γ-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at >120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of γ-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure at radio. These results strongly suggest that the TeV γ-ray activity in 2012 originates in the jet base within 0.03 pc (projected) from the central supermassive black hole.
We present the results of radio monitoring observations of Sgr A* at 7 mm (i.e. 43 GHz) with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), which is a VLBI array in Japan. VERA provides angular resolution on millisecond scales, resolving structures within 100 Schwarzschild radii of Sgr A* , similar to the Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA). We performed multi-epoch observations of Sgr A* in 2005 - 2008, and started monitoring it again with VERA from 2013 January to trace the current G2 encounter event. Our preliminary results in 2013 show that Sgr A* on mas scales has been in an ordinary state as of August 2013, although some fraction of the G2 cloud already passed the pericenter of Sgr A* in April 2013. We will continue monitoring Sgr A* with VERA and the newly developed KaVA (KVN and VERA Array).
We present some of preliminary results obtained by our dense monitoring project of the M87 jet with VERA 22 and 43 GHz starting from October 2010. The aims of this monitor are to clarify the detailed physical properties of the M87 jet base near the black hole, including the connection to γ-ray productions, jet kinematics and nuclear opacity. We detected a remarkable increase of the radio flux from the jet base of M87 during an elevated very-high-energy γ-ray activity occurred in the early 2012, suggesting that the γ-ray is produced in the immediate vicinity of the central black hole.
To search for kinematic evidence of the existence of the Galactic bar, we observed 10 methanol maser sources at the near end of the bar with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). From these observations, we obtained absolute proper motions of eight sources based on the phase-referencing technique. We compared the motions with the predictions of three simple models in a 3D plane. This comparison showed that a non-flat circular rotation model and a dynamical model including a bar potential reproduce the observed data better than a flat rotation model. In addition, the bar model suggests that the inclination angle of the Galactic bar is around 35°, which is consistent with previous studies.
We present a measurement of the trigonometric parallax of IRAS 05168+3634 with VERA. The parallax is 0.532 ± 0.053 milli-arcsec, corresponding to a distance of 1.88+0.21−0.17 kpc. This is significantly closer than the previous distance estimate of 6 kpc based on a kinematic distance measurement. This drastic change in the source distance implies the need for revised values of not only the physical parameters of IRAS 05168+3634, but it also impies a different location in the Galaxy, placing it in the Perseus arm rather than the Outer arm. We also measured the proper motion of the source. A combination of the distance and proper motion with the systemic velocity yields a rotation velocity Θ = 227+9−11 km s−1 at the source position, assuming Θ0 = 240 km s−1. Our result, combined with previous VLBI results for six sources in the Perseus arm, indicates that the sources rotate systematically more slowly than the Galactic rotation velocity at the local standard of rest. In fact, we derive peculiar motions in the disk averaged over the seven sources in the Perseus arm of (Umean, Vmean) = (11 ± 3, −17 ± 3) km s−1, which indicates that these seven sources are moving systematically toward the Galactic Center and lag behind the overall Galactic rotation.
We present a distance measurement to the semi-regular variable star RX Bootis (RX Boo). Using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) telescope, we conducted astrometric observations of a water maser spot associated with RX Boo, as well as of the continuum reference source J1419+2706. Based on monitoring observations covering a full year, the annual parallax of RX Boo was measured at 7.31 ± 0.50 mas, corresponding to a distance of 136+10−9 pc. This distance uncertainty is smaller by a factor of two than those previously published, allowing us to determine the object's stellar properties more accurately. Using our distance, we can determine the absolute magnitude and discuss more precisely the locus of RX Boo on the period–luminosity (PL) relation. RX Boo exhibits two simultaneous pulsation periods and is located on the fundamental and first overtone Mira sequences of the PL relation. In addition, we calculated the radius and mass of the star.
We aim to reveal the mass distribution of the Galaxy based on a precise rotation curve constructed using VERA observations. We have been observing Galactic H2O masers with VERA. We here report one of the results of VERA for IRAS 05168+3634. The parallax is 0.532 ± 0.053 mas which corresponds to a distance of 1.88+0.21−0.17 kpc, and the proper motions are (μαcosδ, μδ) = (0.23 ± 1.07, −3.14 ± 0.28) mas yr−1. The distance is significantly smaller than the previous distance estimate of 6 kpc based on a kinematic distance. This drastic change places the source in the Perseus arm rather than in the Outer arm. Combination of the distance and the proper motions with the systemic velocity provides a rotation velocity of 227+9−11 km s−1 at the source assuming Θ0 = 240 km s−1. The result is marginally slower than the rotation velocity at LSR with ~ 1−σ significance, but consistent with previous VLBI results for six sources in the Perseus arm. We also show the averaged disk peculiar motion over the seven sources in the Perseus arm as (Umean, Vmean) = (11 ± 3, −17 ± 3) km s−1. It suggests that the seven sources in the Perseus arm are systematically moving toward the Galactic center, and lag behind the Galactic rotation with more than 3-σ significance.
This paper reports a NEMS (Nano Electro Mechanical Syetems) tunable color filter based on subwavelength grating with high color uniformity and low drive voltage. We newly proposed a GVG (Ground-Voltage-Ground) type tunable color filter deployed with a parallel-plate actuator with three pairs of electrode to decrease a crosstalk of an electrostatic attraction force between each actuator. The proposed structure was fabricated using an SOI wafer. The color tuning using was demonstrated by applying the drive voltage of 6.7 V. The reflected light intensity was decreased by 34 % at 680 nm wavelength. The color uniformity was also obtained in the filter area by reducing the variation of the displacement on one-dimensional arrayed actuators.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.