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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a standard treatment for mood disorders, and is sometimes utilized to treat psychotic disorders. We evaluated whether ECT changed the response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia.
To measure the change of mental status, medication dosage, and adverse effect of medication in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia after administering ECT.
To objectively demonstrate the change of pharmacological response in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia after receiving ECT.
A retrospective study of seventeen patients was done. All patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia and received ECT as secondary indications in a psychiatric hospital in Japan from 2004 to 2010. As part of the evaluation protocol, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale was administered at the baseline and twelve months after taking ECT. The dosages of antipsychotics were also evaluated as Chlorpromazine (CPZ) equivalents.
On twelve months, nine patients were able to maintain their improvement with pharmacological treatment only. On the contrary, eight patients failed to pharmacological treatment and were rehospitalized. Five of them required additional course of ECT. Two patients continued to take maintenance ECT. Mean CPZ equivalents were reduced from 1,505 mg to 1,130 mg.
ECT may revitalize the pharmacological response to antipsychotic medications even if the same medication failed to gain satisfactory improvement before. ECT may also reduce the dosage of antipsychotics required to avoid relapse although the change of dosage was small. We need large samples and further studies to determine the clinical significance of these findings.
Recently, we found that in ovo feeding of l-leucine (l-Leu) afforded thermotolerance, stimulated lipid metabolism and modified amino acid metabolism in male broiler chicks. However, the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on thermoregulation and growth performance until marketing age of broilers are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on body weight (BW) gain under control thermoneutral temperature or chronic heat stress. We measured changes of body temperature and food intake, organ weight, as well as amino acid metabolism and plasma metabolites under acute and chronic heat stress in broilers. A total of 168 fertilized Chunky broiler eggs were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups in experiments. The eggs were in ovo fed with l-Leu (34.5 µmol/500 µl per egg) or sterile water (500 µl/egg) during incubation. After hatching, male broilers were selected and assigned seven to nine replicates (one bird/replicate) in each group for heat challenge experiments. Broilers (29- or 30-day-old) were exposed to acute heat stress (30 ± 1°C) for 120 min or a chronic heat cyclic and continued heat stress (over 30 ± 1°C; ages, 15 to 44 days). In ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significant suppression of enhanced body temperature without affecting food intake, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose, lactic acid or thyroid hormones under acute heat stress. Daily body temperature was significantly increased by l-Leu in ovo feeding under chronic heat stress. Interestingly, in ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significantly higher daily BW gain compared with that of the control group under chronic heat stress. Moreover, some essential amino acids, including Leu and isoleucine, were significantly increased in the liver and decreased in the plasma by l-Leu in ovo feeding under acute heat stress. These results suggested that l-Leu in ovo feeding afforded thermotolerance to broilers under acute heat stress mainly through changing amino acid metabolism until marketing age.
The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, and led to the release of volatile radionuclides, which were deposited on the environment in the Fukushima prefecture and the neighbouring areas. After the short-lived I-131, radiocaesium such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 have controlled radiation dose rate. The authors derived the apparent diffusion coefficients (Da) of some radionuclides such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 based on time variation of the depth distributions of respective radionuclides in soil obtained in field investigations in earlier studies. Almost all Da-values were of order 10-14 (m2·s−1) and well consistent with distribution coefficients (Kd) obtained from batch experiments. Whilst, field investigations for the relaxation mass depths of Cs-137 in soil by a scraper plate method were conducted at totally 85 locations over a period of nearly 6 years from December 2011 in the Fukushima prefecture and the neighbouring prefectures, and time variation of the effective relaxation mass depths was recently reported. Consequently, the effective relaxation mass depths of Cs-137 showed a tendency to linearly increase with increasing time. This indicates that radiocaesium gradually moves to the deeper part of soil with time. In this study, Da based on Fick’s diffusion equation was derived based on time variation of the effective relaxation mass depths of Cs-137 in soil. In order to calculate the Da based on Fick’s law, correlation between relaxation depth and square root of elapsed time was derived from the correlation between effective relaxation mass depth and elapsed time (where, relaxation depth is defined as the depth of 1/e of radionuclide concentration at the ground surface and can calculate by relaxation mass depth/soil density). The calculated Da of Cs-137 was of order 10-12 (m2·s−1) , which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than Da-values that the authors previously reported as described above. Considering that almost all relaxation depths of Cs-137 were shallow within 2cm in depth from the ground surface and near the surface layer of soil is unsaturated, it is considered that Da estimated in this analysis includes the effect of dispersion by advection (by flow in the vertical direction of rainwater).
Data on the combination of foods consumed simultaneously at specific eating occasions are scarce, primarily due to a lack of assessment tools. We applied a recently developed meal coding system to multiple-day dietary intake data for assessing its ability to estimate food and nutrient intakes and characterise meal-based dietary patterns in the Japanese context. A total of 242 Japanese adults completed sixteen non-consecutive-day weighed dietary records, including 14 734 eating occasions (3788 breakfasts, 3823 lunches, 3856 dinners and 3267 snacks). Common food group combinations were identified by meal type to identify a range of generic meals. Dietary intake was calculated on the basis of not only the standard food composition database but also the substituted generic meal database. In total, eighty generic meals (twenty-three breakfasts, twenty-one lunches, twenty-four dinners and twelve snacks) were identified. The Spearman correlation coefficients between food group intakes calculated based on the standard food composition database and the substituted generic meal database ranged from 0·26 to 0·85 (median 0·69). The corresponding correlations for nutrient intakes ranged from 0·17 to 0·82 (median 0·61). A total of eleven meal patterns were established using principal components analysis, and these accounted for 39·1 % of total meal variance. Considerable variation in patterns was seen in meal type inclusion and choice of staple foods (bread, rice and noodles) and drinks, and also in meal constituents. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the usefulness of a meal coding system for assessing habitual diet, providing a scientific basis towards the development of simple meal-based dietary assessment tools.
The stability of stably stratified vortices is studied by local stability analysis. Three base flows that possess hyperbolic stagnation points are considered: the two-dimensional (2-D) Taylor–Green vortices, the Stuart vortices and the Lamb–Chaplygin dipole. It is shown that the elliptic instability is stabilized by stratification; it is completely stabilized for the 2-D Taylor–Green vortices, while it remains and merges into hyperbolic instability near the boundary or the heteroclinic streamlines connecting the hyperbolic stagnation points for the Stuart vortices and the Lamb–Chaplygin dipole. More importantly, a new instability caused by hyperbolic instability near the hyperbolic stagnation points and phase shift by the internal gravity waves is found; it is named the strato-hyperbolic instability; the underlying mechanism is parametric resonance as unstable band structures appear in contours of the growth rate. A simplified model explains the mechanism and the resonance curves. The growth rate of the strato-hyperbolic instability is comparable to that of the elliptic instability for the 2-D Taylor–Green vortices, while it is smaller for the Stuart vortices and the Lamb–Chaplygin dipole. For the Lamb–Chaplygin dipole, the tripolar instability is found to merge with the strato-hyperbolic instability as stratification becomes strong. The modal stability analysis is also performed for the 2-D Taylor–Green vortices. It is shown that global modes of the strato-hyperbolic instability exist; the structure of an unstable eigenmode is in good agreement with the results obtained by local stability analysis. The strato-hyperbolic mode becomes dominant depending on the parameter values.
Observationally locating the position of the H2O snowline in protoplanetary disks is crucial for understanding planetesimal and planet formation processes, and the origin of water on the Earth. In our studies, we conducted calculations of chemical reactions and water line profiles in protoplanetary disks, and identified that ortho/para-H216O, H218O lines with small Einstein A coefficients and relatively high upper state energies are dominated by emission from the hot midplane region inside the H2O snowline. Therefore, through analyzing their line profiles the position of the H2O snowline can be located. Moreover, because the number density of the H218O is much smaller than that of H216O, the H218O lines can trace deeper into the disk and thus they are potentially better probes of the exact position of the H2O snowline in disk midplane.
Methylamine (CH3NH2) is the simplest amine and thought to be a potential interstellar precursor to the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH). It is confirmed by the experimental work and in terms of exploration in the Solar system, CH3NH2 has been detected in two comets. However, in molecular clouds, a robust detection of CH3NH2 has been reported only for Sgr B2(N) so far, while a variety of complex organic molecules have been detected by radio observations in many star-forming regions. To search for CH3NH2, we used the ALMA Cycle 2 archival data toward Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion-KL) at Band 6 and found 5 candidate emission at the hot core region. By using the rotation diagram method, we evaluated its tentative column density and rotational temperature to be 4.9×10 cm−2 and 102 K, respectively.
We present observational results of the submillimeter H2O and SiO lines toward a candidate high-mass young stellar object Orion Source I using ALMA. The spatial structures of the high excitation lines at lower-state energies of >2500 K show compact structures consistent with the circumstellar disk and/or base of the northeast-southwest bipolar outflow with a 100 au scale. The highest excitation transition, the SiO (v=4) line at band 8, has the most compact structure. In contrast, lower-excitation transitions are more extended than 200 au tracing the outflow. Almost all the line show velocity gradients perpendicular to the outflow axis suggesting rotation motions of the circumstellar disk and outflow. While some of the detected lines show broad line profiles and spatially extended emission components indicative of thermal excitation, the strong H2O lines at 321 GHz, 474 GHz, and 658 GHz with brightness temperatures of >1000 K show clear signatures of maser action.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We will report the activities of the VERA single-dish observations. We are carrying out single-dish observations with two purposes. The first purpose is the monitoring of known H2O maser sources. At present, we are carrying out monitoring observations for 312 H2O maser sources at intervals of two months. The second purpose is the search for new water maser sources. We selected 901 target sources from the AKARI FIS Bright Source Catalogue. We found 61 new H2O maser sources.
We report on interferometric observations of a face-on accretion system around the high mass young stellar object, G353.273+0.641. The innermost accretion system of 100-au radius was resolved in a 45-GHz continuum image taken with the Jansky Very Large Array. Our SED analysis indicated that the continuum could be explained by optically-thick dust emission. 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers associated with the same system were also observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The masers showed a spiral-like, non-axisymmetric distribution with a systematic velocity gradient. The line-of-sight velocity field is explained by an infall motion along a parabolic streamline that falls onto the equatorial plane of the face-on system. The streamline is quasi-radial and reaches the equatorial plane at a radius of 16 au. The physical origin of such a streamline is still an open question and will be constrained by the higher-resolution thermal continuum and line observations with ALMA long baselines.
Our 2015-2016 ALMA 1.3 to 0.87 mm observations (resolution ~200 au) of the massive protocluster NGC6334I revealed that an extraordinary outburst had occurred in the dominant millimeter dust core MM1 (luminosity increase of 70×) when compared with earlier SMA data. The outburst was accompanied by the flaring of ten maser transitions of three species. We present new results from our recent JVLA observations of Class II 6.7 GHz methanol masers and 6 GHz excited OH masers in this region. Class II masers had not previously been detected toward MM1 in any interferometric observations recorded over the past 30 years that targeted the bright masers toward other members of the protocluster (MM2 and MM3=NGC6334F). Methanol masers now appear both toward and adjacent to MM1 with the strongest spots located in a dust cavity ~1 arcsec (1300 au) north of the MM1B hypercompact HII region. In addition, new excited OH masers appear on the non-thermal source CM2. These data reveal the dramatic effects of episodic accretion onto a deeply-embedded high mass protostar and demonstrate its ongoing impact on the surrounding protocluster.
Despite their importance in the formation and evolution of stellar clusters and galaxies, the formation of high-mass stars remains poorly understood. We recently started a systematic observational study of the 22 GHz water and 44 GHz class I methanol masers in high-mass star-forming regions as a four-year KaVA large program. Our sample consists of 87 high-mass young stellar objects (HM-YSOs) in various evolutionary phases, many of which are associated with two or more different maser species. The primary scientific goals are to measure the spatial distributions and 3-dimensional velocity fields of multiple maser species, and understand the dynamical evolution of HM-YSOs and their circumstellar structures, in conjunction with follow-up observations with JVN/EAVN (6.7 GHz class II methanol masers), VERA, and ALMA. In this paper we present details of our KaVA large program, including the first-year results and observing/data analysis plans for the second year and beyond.
We have started survey observations of the 22 GHz water maser sources associated with high-mass young stellar objects (HM-YSOs) as a part of the KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) large program (LP). The aim of our LP is to understand dynamical evolution of jets/outflows from HM-YSOs by analyzing 3D velocity structures of water maser features. In the first year (2016-2017), an imaging survey toward 25 HM-YSOs has been conducted and the 22 GHz water masers are detected toward 21 sources. Spatial distributions of maser features for individual sources are mapped. To complement physical properties in the vicinity of HM-YSOs, we have carried out ALMA cycle 3 observations of thermal molecular lines and continuum emissions toward 11 selected samples. Summary of the KaVA first year observations and the initial results from the ALMA toward one of our targets, G25.82-0.17, are reported.
Observationally measuring the location of the H2O snowline is crucial for understanding the planetesimal and planet formation processes, and the origin of water on Earth. The velocity profiles of emission lines from protoplanetary disks are usually affected by Doppler shift due to Keplerian rotation and thermal broadening. Therefore, the velocity profiles are sensitive to the radial distribution of the line-emitting regions. In our work (Notsu et al. 2016, 2017), we found candidate water lines to locate the position of the H2O snowline through future high-dispersion spectroscopic observations. First, we calculated the chemical composition of the disks around a T Tauri star and a Herbig Ae star using chemical kinetics. We confirmed that the abundance of H2O gas is high not only in the hot midplane region inside the H2O snowline but also in the hot surface layer and the photodesorption region of the outer disk. The position of the H2O snowline in the Herbig Ae disk exists at a larger radius from the central star than that in the T Tauri disk. Second, we calculated the H2O line profiles and identified that H2O emission lines with small Einstein A coefficients (∼10−6 − 10−3 s−1) and relatively high upper state energies (∼ 1000K) are dominated by emission from the hot midplane region inside the H2O snowline, and therefore their profiles potentially contain information which can be used to locate the position of the H2O snowline. The wavelengths of the H2O lines which are the best candidates to locate the position of the H2O snowline range from mid-infrared to sub-millimeter, and the total line fluxes tend to increase with decreasing wavelengths. We investigated the possibility of future observations using the ALMA and mid-infrared high-dispersion spectrographs (e.g., SPICA/SMI-HRS). Since the fluxes of those identified lines from a Herbig Ae disk are stronger than those of a T Tauri disk, the possibility of a successful detection is expected to increase for a Herbig Ae disk.
The mean age of inpatients with schizophrenia has gradually increased in Japan and the risk of fracture in older schizophrenia patients is elevated. One possible cause may be idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and symptoms of iNPH in older inpatients with schizophrenia.
We prospectively examined older inpatients with schizophrenia (N = 21, mean age = 70.5 ± 5.9) in a psychiatric ward. We evaluated iNPH symptoms using the idiopathic Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Grading Scale (iNPHGS), Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), Gait Status Scale (GSS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). We also evaluated symptoms of schizophrenia using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). We conducted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap tests for patients with possible-iNPH.
In total, three (14.3%) patients were diagnosed with possible iNPH: age, GS-Gait, GS-Cognition, TUG, 10-meter walking test, GSS, and DIEPSS were significantly increased in these compared to patients without iNPH; however, GS-Urine, MMSE, NPI, and BPRS did not differ significantly. Probable iNPH was diagnosed for two (9.5%) patients because of positive CSF tap tests.
The prevalence of possible and probable iNPH in older patients with schizophrenia was much higher than that reported for older people without mental illness. Of the symptoms evaluated with the tests employed, only gait disturbances, particularly walking speed, distinguished schizophrenia patients with iNPH. These findings suggest that we should pay more attention to the possibility of iNPH in older patients with schizophrenia.