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Why should we care about religious liberty? Leading commentators, United Kingdom courts, and the European Court of Human Rights have de-emphasised the special importance of religious liberty. They frequently contend it falls within a more general concern for personal autonomy. In this liberal egalitarian account, religious liberty claims are often rejected when faced with competing individual interests – the neutral secular state must protect us against the liberty-constraining acts of religions. Joel Harrison challenges this account. He argues that it is rooted in a theologically derived narrative of secularisation: rather than being neutral, it rests on a specific construction of 'secular' and 'religious' spheres. This challenge makes space for an alternative theological, political, and legal vision. Drawing from Christian thought, from St Augustine to John Milbank, Harrison develops a post-liberal focus on association. Religious liberty, he argues, facilitates creating communities seeking solidarity, fraternity, and charity – goals that are central to our common good.
Through a long history of co-evolution, multicellular organisms form a complex of host cells plus many associated microorganism species. Consisting of algae, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses, and collectively referred to as the microbiome, these microorganisms contribute to a range of important functions in their hosts, from nutrition, to behaviour and disease susceptibility. In this book, a diverse and international group of active researchers outline how multicellular organisms have become reliant on their microbiomes to function, and explore this vital interdependence across the breadth of soil, plant, animal and human hosts. They draw parallels and contrasts across hosts in different environments, and discuss how this invisible microbial ecosystem influences everything from the food we eat, to our health, to the correct functioning of ecosystems we depend on. This insightful read also pertinently encourages students and researchers in microbial ecology, ecology, and microbiology to consider how this interdependence may be key to mitigating environmental changes and developing microbial biotechnology to improve life on Earth.
Herodotus in the Long Nineteenth Century traces the impact of Herodotus' Histories during a momentous period in world history - an era of heightened social mobility, religious controversy, scientific discovery and colonial expansion. Contributions by an international team of specialists in Greek historiography, classical archaeology, receptions, and nineteenth-century intellectual history shed new light on how the Histories were read, remembered, and re-imagined in historical writing and in an exciting array of real-world contexts: from the classrooms of English public schools and universities to the music hall, museum, or gallery; from the news-stand to the nursery; and from the banks of the Nile to the mountains of the Hindu Kush. They reveal not only how engagement with Herodotus' work permeated nationalist discourses of the period, but also the extent to which these national and disciplinary contexts helped shape the way both Herodotus and the ancient past have been understood and interpreted.
Approximately 18% of adults with intellectual disabilities living in the community display behaviours that challenge. Intensive support teams (ISTs) have been recommended to provide high-quality responsive care aimed at avoiding unnecessary admissions and reducing lengthy in-patient stays.
To identify and describe the geographical distribution and characteristics of ISTs, and to develop a typology of IST service models in England.
We undertook a national cross-sectional survey of 73 ISTs. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed based on six prespecified grouping factors (mode of referrals, size of case-load, use of outcome measures, staff composition, hours of operation and setting of service). A simplified form of thematic analysis was used to explore free-text responses.
Cluster analysis identified two models of IST provision: (a) independent and (b) enhanced provision based around a community intellectual disability service. ISTs aspire to adopt person-centred care, mostly use the framework of positive behaviour support for behaviour that challenges, and report concerns about organisational and wider context issues.
This is the first study to examine the delivery of intensive support to people with intellectual disability and behaviour that challenges. A two-cluster model of ISTs was found to have statistical validity and clinical utility. The clinical heterogeneity indicates that further evaluation of these service models is needed to establish their clinical and cost-effectiveness.
Noncompete clauses (NCCs), or agreements by employees to not work for a competitor or start a competing business, have recently faced increased public scrutiny and criticism. This article provides a qualified defense of NCCs. I focus on the argument that NCCs should be banned because they unfairly restrict the options of employees. I argue that this argument fails because it neglects the economist Thomas Schelling’s insight that limiting exit options can be beneficial for a person. This employee-based defense of NCCs does not absolve all their uses, but it does give us a rough test for evaluating the permissibility of NCCs. With this test in hand, I turn to some of the more controversial uses of NCCs. For those who weigh heavily the interests of employees, the question is not whether NCCs, but when.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
The dissolution of the United Kingdom’s vitrified high-level-waste simulant, CaZn MW28, was investigated following the Product Consistency Test-B protocol for 112 d at 90 °C and in ultra-high-quality water. Residual rate dissolution (stage II) and rate resumption (stage III), after 28 d, was observed. Thermodynamic modelling suggested that solutions were saturated with respect to Mg- and Zn-bearing phases, and the presence of Mg- and Zn-smectite clays was tentatively observed. The formation of these phases was concurrent with a significant increase in the dissolution rate, similar to Stage III behavior seen in other nuclear waste simulant glass materials, indicating that the addition of Mg and Zn to high-level-waste glass (7.3 wt. % combined) significantly influences the dissolution rate.
Use of antipsychotic drugs in long-term aged care (LTC) is prevalent and commonly exceeds the recommended duration, but contributors to this problem are not well understood. The objective of this study is to provide a snapshot of the features of and contributors to prolonged use of antipsychotic medications (>12 weeks) among a sample of LTC residents.
We present retrospective and baseline data collected for the Australian Halting Antipsychotic Use in Long-Term Care (HALT) single-arm longitudinal deprescribing trial.
Twenty-four long-term care facilities in Sydney, Australia.
The HALT study included 146 older people living in 24 Sydney LTC homes who had been prescribed a regular antipsychotic medication for at least 3 months at baseline.
Detailed file audit was conducted to identify the date and indication recorded at initial prescription, consenting practices, longitudinal course of prescribing, and recommendations for review of antipsychotic medication. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and functional dependence at baseline were assessed via LTC staff interview. Cognition at baseline was assessed in a participant interview (where possible).
Antipsychotics were prescribed for 2.2 years on average despite recommendations by a doctor or pharmacist for review in 62% of cases. Consent for antipsychotic prescription was accessible for only one case and contraindications for use were common. Longer use of antipsychotics was independently associated with higher dose of the antipsychotic drug and greater apathy, but not with other BPSD.
Antipsychotic medications appeared to be prescribed in this sample as a maintenance treatment in the absence of active indicated symptoms and without informed consent. Standard interventions, including recommendations for review, had been insufficient to ensure evidence-based prescribing.
This chapter discusses and reviews research on the relationship between two closely aligned concepts: intelligence and reasoning. We begin by defining reasoning in a general sense. Next, we review prominent theories and models of intelligence and reasoning in both the psychometric and cognitive psychological traditions, highlighting how the two constructs are both intertwined yet nonetheless conceptually discriminable. We follow by discussing issues involved in validly measuring reasoning, touching on considerations, concerns, and evidence informed by the cognitive and psychometric perspectives. Then, we review the relationship between reasoning and allied constructs and domains, including expertise, practical outcomes (e.g., educational and workplace achievement), working memory, and critical thinking. We conclude by sketching multiple avenues for future research.
Technological advances have led to better patient outcomes and the expansion of clinical services in paediatric cardiology. This expansion creates an ever-growing workload for clinicians, which has led to workflow and staffing issues that need to be addressed. The objective of this study was the development of a novel tool to measure the clinical workload of a paediatric cardiology service in Cape Town, South Africa: The patient encounter index is a tool designed to quantify clinical workload. It is defined as a ratio of the measured duration of clinical work to the total time available for such work. This index was implemented as part of a prospective cross-sectional study design. Clinical workload data were collected over a 10-day period using time-and-motion sampling. Clinicians were contractually expected to spend 50% of their daily workload on patient care. The median patient encounter index for the Western Cape Paediatric Cardiac Service was 0.81 (range 0.19–1.09), reflecting that 81% of total contractual working time was spent on clinical activities. This study describes the development and implementation of a novel tool for clinical workload quantification and describes its application to a busy paediatric cardiology service in Cape Town, South Africa. This tool prospectively quantifies clinical workload which may directly influence patient outcomes. Implementation of this novel tool in the described setting clearly demonstrated the excessive workload of the clinical service and facilitated effective motivation for improved allocation of resources.
Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride platelets (h-BNs) have received considerable attention for aerospace insulation applications due to their exceptional chemical and thermal stability. Presently, making BN nanomaterials compatible with polymer and composite matrices is challenging. Due to their inert and highly stable structure, h-BN and BNNTs are difficult to covalently functionalize. In this work, we present a novel sonochemical technique that enables covalent attachment of fluoroalkoxy substituents to the surface of BN nanomaterials in a controlled and metered process. Covalent functionalization is confirmed via colloidal stability analysis, FT-IR, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
These are posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs of the wrist that show an extra-articular distal radius fracture. On the PA view, the radial height and inclination are maintained. On the lateral view, there is dorsal comminution with dorsal angulation of the distal radius. The radiographs also showed thumb carpometacarpal arthritis.
Head and neck soft tissue sarcoma is uncommon. It is both histologically and clinically heterogeneous, ranging from an indolent, locally destructive tumour, to a locally aggressive neoplasm with metastatic potential.
A retrospective review was conducted of all adult head and neck soft tissue sarcomas, including cases of malignant soft tissue sarcoma and all intermediate type tumours, diagnosed between 1997 and 2012.
Sixty-eight cases were identified in this series from the sarcoma multidisciplinary team. Seventeen different histological subtypes of sarcoma were identified. Neither age, gender nor tumour size were significant prognostic indicators for survival in this series.
Prognosis is dependent on histological subtype, underscoring the importance of histological classification. Some histological subtypes occur only once or twice in a decade, even within a large regional referral centre. An accumulation of evidence from relatively small case series is key in the long-term development of treatment strategies.
Stationary cross-flow vortex N-factors were calculated over the surface of a yawed circular cone using computationally predicted and experimentally observed wavenumber distributions. Surface heat-flux data were obtained on a
half-angle circular cone to investigate the behaviour of the stationary waves at different angles of attack and Reynolds numbers at Mach 6 under quiet-flow conditions in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at Purdue University. A wavelet analysis was conducted on the experimental surface heat-flux data to construct a spatial mapping of the local largest amplitude wavenumbers of the stationary cross-flow waves, which were between 40 and 80 per circumference. Significant axial and azimuthal variation was observed. The results from the wavelet analysis were used to inform the stability analysis. The computed integration marching directions demonstrated very good agreement with the experimentally observed paths. N-factors were first calculated by integrating the local amplification rate corresponding to the most amplified experimental wavenumbers. The calculations were repeated based on non-dimensional computationally varying wavenumber ratios, which were dimensionalized by the experimental data. The computed N-factors showed good agreement between the two techniques. N-factors were also computed using the computationally predicted most unstable wavenumbers. The results showed decreased agreement with the other two cases, suggesting that this assumption does not properly model the cross-flow transition process.
Evolution of a solitary wave travelling along a submerged sill is studied. The disturbance from the sill creates a phase lag along the wave crest between the ambient water depth and the shallower depth over the sill. This phase lag causes wave diffraction between the different parts of the wave, which induces radiating waves off the edge of the sill. The radiating waves act as an outlet for wave energy, resulting in significant and continual amplitude reduction of the solitary wave. Findings from laboratory experiments are confirmed numerically by simulating a much longer propagation distance with different sill breadths. When the sill breadth is narrow, the solitary wave slowly attenuates by wave radiation, maintaining a quasi-steady wave pattern. This is not the case for a broader sill. The resulting phase lag on the sill continually changes the wave pattern and the attenuation rate is substantially greater than the rate for the case of the narrow sill. The significant energy radiation together with the continual change in the wave formation eventually leads to the complete annihilation of the solitary wave in a wave tank. We also report a wave-breaking process along the sill observed in laboratory experiments. This breaking is induced when the wave amplitude on the sill is smaller than the maximum amplitude of a solitary wave in a uniform depth. Also found is the wake-like formation of gravity–capillary waves behind the breaking crest forming on the sill. Other features associated with the breaking are presented.
Drawing on the work of Mark Siderits, Jay Garfield, and others, I introduce a global approach to the philosophy of religion that is inspired by ‘fusion’, ‘engagement’, or ‘confluence’ philosophy. To globalize the philosophy of religion requires more than expanding its traditional disciplinary scope or broadening its range of questions; it requires philosophers who are conversant in more than one philosophical tradition. I argue that this approach offers a viable way to develop the discipline by providing a platform for deep and authentic engagement in philosophical inquiry that crosses traditional religious and philosophical boundaries.
Herodotus’ fateful tale of the seven Persian emissaries sent to seek Earth and Water from the Macedonian king Amyntes has been the subject of increasingly rich discussion in recent years. Generations of commentators have cumulatively revealed the ironies of Herodotus’ account: its repeated hints, for example, of the Persians’ eventual end; and, crowning all other ironies, the story's ending: that, after resisting the indignity of his female relatives being molested at a banquet, and disposing of all trace of the Persian ambassadors and their party, Alexander of Macedon then arranges his sister's marriage to the leader of the search party sent to investigate his disappeared compatriots (Hdt. 5.21.2). More recent readings have gone further in uncovering the mythological archetypes for the logos, or in tracing its exploration of a number of themes: revenge, guest-friendship, the equation of sexual and military conquest, or the ‘explosion of violence resulting from the contact of two different cultures’. Most fruitful perhaps have been those readings that have seen the logos no longer as a detached ‘short story’ but in its wider context in the Histories: David Fearn, for example, has stressed the need to understand the presentation of Alexander I in the light of what the reader knows of his subsequent history.