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A Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), based on a Michelson interferometer and Cassegrain telescope, was carried by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater and Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum to determine the bulk mineralogy of surface materials. Spectra from the plains of Gusev demonstrate the ubiquity of olivine-rich basaltic rocks, with additional examples lofted into the adjacent Columbia Hills by meteoroid impacts. Hundreds of rocks observed with mini-TES in the Columbia Hills display spectral characteristics of variable alteration intensity, but likely with very little water involved. Rare exceptions include a tephra deposit cemented by Mg–Fe carbonates and nodular opaline silica rocks, likely indicative of a hot spring/geyser environment. Opportunity’s mini-TES confirmed orbital identification of crystalline hematite at Meridiani Planum and spectral characteristics indicative of a transition from a precursor goethite phase. The sedimentary bedrock that hosts the hematite has spectral features consistent with Al-rich opaline silica, Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-bearing sulfates, plagioclase feldspar, and nontronite. Rare rocks at both sites are recognizable as iron meteorites from their infrared reflective properties.
Thermal infrared data collected by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instruments have significantly impacted the understanding of martian surface mineralogy. Spatial/temporal variations in igneous lithologies; the discovery of quartz, carbonates, and chlorides; and the widespread identification of amorphous, silica-enriched materials reveal a planet that has experienced a diversity of primary and secondary geo-logic processes including igneous crustal evolution, regional sedimentation, aqueous alteration, and glacial/periglacial activity.
Through an Anglo-Norman case study, this article highlights the value of normative liturgical material for scholars interested in the role that saints’ cults played in the history and identity of religious communities. The records of Anglo-Saxon cults are largely the work of Anglo-Norman monks. Historians exploring why this was the case have therefore concentrated upon hagiographical texts about individual Anglo-Saxon saints composed in and for monastic communities in the post-Conquest period. This article shifts the focus away from the monastic to those secular clerical communities that did not commission specific accounts, and away from individual cults, to uncover the potential of historical martyrologies for showing how such secular communities remembered and understood their own past through the cult of saints. Exeter Cathedral Library, MS 3518, is a copy of the martyrology by the ninth-century Frankish monk, Usuard of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, written in and for Exeter cathedral's canons in the mid-twelfth century. Through investigation of the context in which it was produced and how its contents were adapted to this locality, this article uncovers the various different layers of the past behind its compilation. It further suggests that this manuscript is based on a pre-Conquest model, pointing to the textual debt Anglo-Norman churchmen owed to their Anglo-Saxon predecessors.
Growth in emergency department (ED) attendance and acute medical admissions has been managed to very low rates for 18 years in Canterbury, New Zealand, using a combination of community and hospital avoidance strategies. This paper describes the specific strategies that supported management of acutely unwell patients in the community as part of a programme to integrate health services.
Community-based acute care was established by a culture of close collaboration and trust between all sectors of the health system, with general practice closely involved in the design and management of the services, and support provided by hospital specialists, coordination and diagnostic units, and competent informatics. Introduction of the community-based services was aided by a clinical guidance website and an education programme for general practice teams and allied health professionals.
Attendance at EDs and acute medical admission rates have been held at low growth and, in some cases, shorter lengths of hospital stay. This trend was especially evident in elderly patients and those with ambulatory care sensitive or chronic disorders.
A system of community-based care and education has resulted in sustained gains for the Canterbury health system and freed-up hospital resources. This outcome has engendered a sense of empowerment for general practice teams and their patients.
While large-scale observations of intensified fracture and rifting can be observed through remote-sensing observations, understanding crevasse initiation may best be achieved with small-scale observations in which crevasses can be directly observed. Here we investigate the kinematic drivers of crevasse initiation in the McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ), Antarctica. We delineated 420 crevasses from ~95 km of 400 MHz frequency ground-penetrating radar data and compared these data with kinematic outputs derived from remotely-sensed ice surface velocities to develop a statistical method to estimate crevasse initiation threshold strain rate values. We found the MSZ to be dominated by simple shear and that surface shear strain rates proved best for predicting crevasse features, with regions of higher shear strain rate more likely to have a greater number of crevasses. In the surveyed portion of our study region, values of shear strain rate and vorticity rate derived from the MEaSUREs2 velocity dataset range between 0.005–0.020 and 0.006–0.022 a−1, respectively, with crevasses located at ≥0.011 and ≥0.013 a−1. While threshold values from this study cannot be directly applied to other glacial environments, the method described here should allow for the study of shear margin evolution and assessment of localized damage and weakening processes in other locations where in situ data are available.
Sperm DNA fragmentation is referred to as one of the main causes of male infertility. Failures in the protamination process, apoptosis and action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered the most important causes of DNA fragmentation. Action of ROS or changes in sperm protamination would increase the susceptibility of sperm DNA to fragmentation. Routine semen analysis is unable to estimate sperm chromatin damage. Sperm DNA integrity influences sperm functional capability, therefore tests that measure sperm DNA fragmentation are important to assess fertility disorders. Actually, there is a considerable number of methods for assessing sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin integrity, sperm chromatin stability assay (SCSA modified), sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD), comet assay, transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL); and protamine evaluation in sperm chromatin assay, such as toluidine blue, CMA3, protamine expression and evaluation of cysteine radicals. This review aims to describe the main causes of sperm DNA fragmentation and the tests commonly used to evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation.
In the autumn of 1306 a group of twenty-two knights deserted the king's army in Scotland in order to pursue their martial interests elsewhere by participating in tournaments in France. Their impulsive behaviour can perhaps be understood, as, for all intents and purposes, the campaign for 1306 had come to an end and the aged king lay infirm at Lanercost, which he had only reached at Michaelmas. The Prince of Wales had himself departed Scotland in early autumn, travelling south in a leisurely fashion by way of Langley, Dover and Canterbury, and eventually spending Christmas with his two young halfbrothers at Northampton Castle. Nevertheless, despite the absence of the royal commanders and the lack of military activity, the dereliction of their duty by these knights would not be overlooked. Indeed, as if in anticipation of this very development, in the previous spring, on 6 April at Wolvesey, Edward I – himself an avid tournament knight in his youth4 – had issued a prohibition on tournaments, urging men instead to ‘prepare themselves to set out with the king for the parts of Scotland in as much strength as they can for the repression of the rebellion there’. This injunction was followed in the autumn by an order of 24 September to all the sheriffs in England further forbidding ‘tournaments, tiltings, jousts, or other deeds of arms, … until the king's war in Scotland be finished and until the king shall cause other ordinance to be made as to this’. The impetus for this further injunction, we are told, was that the king himself ‘understands that certain of his subjects make and propose to make tournaments … to the delay and hindrance of the king's affairs of Scotland’. Such individuals were to be considered ‘as his enemies and traitors and as hinderers of the expedition of his affairs’. Nonetheless, within three weeks of this supplementary order, the desertions had taken place.
When word of these desertions reached the king his reaction was both immediate and predictably severe. On 18 October 1306 orders went out to sheriffs across England to seize the lands and goods as well as the persons of the deserters.
Journalists have traditionally played a crucial role in building public pressure on government officials to uphold their legal obligations under the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. But over the past twenty years there has been radical change in the media landscape: foreign bureaus have been shuttered, young freelance journalists have taken over some of the work traditionally done by experienced foreign correspondents, and, more recently, the advent of social media has enabled people in conflict-affected areas to tell their own stories to the world. This essay assesses the impact of these changes on atrocity prevention across the different stages of the policy process. It concludes that the new media landscape is comparatively poorly equipped to raise an early warning alarm in a way that will spur preventive action, but that it is well-positioned to sustain attention to ongoing atrocities. Unfortunately, such later stages of a crisis generally provide the most limited policy options for civilian protection.
Long-term heat stress (HS) induced by testicular insulation generates oxidative stress (OS) on the testicular environment; consequently activating antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The aim of this work was to immunolocalize antioxidant enzymes present in different cells within the seminiferous tubule when rams were submitted to HS. Rams were divided into control (n = 6) and treated group (n = 6), comprising rams subjected to testicular insulation for 240 h. After the testicular insulation period, rams were subjected to orchiectomy. Testicular fragments were submitted to immunohistochemistry for staining against SOD, GR and GPx enzymes. We observed immunolocalization of GPx in more cell types of the testis after HS and when compared with other enzymes. In conclusion, GPx is the main antioxidant enzyme identified in testicular cells in an attempt to maintain oxidative balance when HS occurs.
The reported associations between birth weight and childhood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been inconsistent. In this study, we investigated the relationship between birth weight and CVD risk factors at 11 years of age. This study used longitudinally linked data from three cross-sectional datasets (N = 22,136) in West Virginia; analysis was restricted to children born full-term (N = 19,583). The outcome variables included resting blood pressure [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP)] and lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)]. Multiple regression analyses were performed, adjusting for child’s body mass index (BMI), sociodemographics, and lifestyle characteristics. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant association between birth weight and SBP, DBP, HDL, and TG. When adjusted for the child’s BMI, the association between birth weight and HDL [b = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.18) mg/dl per 1000 g increase] and between birth weight and TG [b = –0.007 (–0.008, –0.005) mg/dl per 1000 g increase] remained statistically significant. In the fully adjusted model, low birth weight was associated with higher LDL, non-HDL, and TGs, and lower HDL levels. The child’s current BMI at 11 years of age partially (for HDL, non-HDL, and TG) and fully mediated (for SBP and DBP) the relationship between birth weight and select CVD risk factors. While effects were modest, these risk factors may persist and amplify with age, leading to potentially unfavorable consequences in later adulthood.
This article examines the persistence of the handshake in business circles despite its implication in the spread of communicable disease in contemporary pandemic culture. An examination of business etiquette discourse suggests that even during disease outbreaks or flu season, the business handshake remains an important visual and haptic legal gesture. While it may no longer produce a binding legal contract, it stages the parties as contractable subjects, as claiming the status of autonomous individuals committed to defining their intersubjective relationship through the norms of contract. The business handshake thus operates as a cultural site for the complex interaction of bodies and law, and the production of masculine, haptic-legal subjectivity.
Research identifies a need for expanded therapeutic options for people with mild-to-moderate depression and anxiety disorders treated within the UK National Health Service (NHS). We aimed to examine potential benefits of a Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) based breath intervention delivered in this context.
SKY is a structured programme derived from yoga in which participants are taught relaxation and stress-management techniques including body postures, breathing exercises and cognitive-behavioural procedures. Previous research has demonstrated benefits for patients with clinical and non-clinical depression and anxiety. However, SKY has not yet been evaluated as a therapeutic option for patients accessing NHS primary care mental health services.
We evaluated an existing programme available to NHS patients in South East England. The intervention is community-based and delivered via four weekly ‘stress buster sessions’ (1-h duration), one weekend intensive workshop (2.5 days) and four weekly (90 min) follow-up sessions. Analyses were conducted on existing data [measures of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and anxiety (generalised anxiety disorder-7)] collected as part of routine care, at the start of the programme and three follow-up assessments.
Baseline data were available for 991 participants, of which 557 (56.2%) attended at least three weekly workshops, 216 (21.8%) attended the weekend workshop and 169 (17.1%) completed the programme. Statistically significant (P<0.05) improvements in depression and anxiety were observed in all three outcome assessments. Clinically meaningful change was observed for 74.6% of participants completing the programme. Findings indicate that SKY has the potential to benefit patient outcomes and could be offered more widely as a therapeutic option. We recommend further research to explore patients’ experiences of the programme, determine the number of sessions necessary for improvement/ recovery, define the population most likely to respond and examine potential cost savings (e.g., reductions in antidepressant prescribing/referrals to secondary care).
IN JUNE 1965, to protest the escalation of the Vietnam War and the sending of American troops to the Dominican Republic, Robert Lowell declined an invitation to Lyndon B. Johnson's White House Festival of the Arts in a public statement that was covered on the front page of the New York Times. In August it was reported that LBJ met with college students on the White House lawn and “invoked the poet Robert Lowell”:
“Robert Lowell, the poet, doesn't like everything around here,” he said. “But I like one of his lines where he wrote: ‘For the world which seems to lie out before us like a land of dreams.’ Well, in this great age—and it is a great age—the world does seem to lie before us like a land of dreams.”
Misquote by Johnson
The line that President Johnson attributed to Mr. Lowell actually appears in the last stanza of Matthew Arnold's “Dover Beach.” Reached by telephone at his vacation home in Maine and asked about the line, Mr. Lowell said, “that's Milton, the end of Paradise Lost.” Then he corrected himself and agreed it came from Arnold's poem.
“I don't know why the president said I wrote that,” the poet said. “Maybe he was trying to be funny. One shouldn't make that kind of error. But, then, I did too.”
Mr. Lowell recalled that he had used the Arnold line as an epigraph to introduce a poem in one of his volumes, The Mills of the Kavanaughs. He guessed that that was where the president saw the line.
In his biography of Lowell, Ian Hamilton commented on this episode dismissively, calling it a “comic postscript” to Lowell's act of protest, speculating that “Johnson's speech writer, in a hurry to supply an upbeat quote, had not adventured past the title page.” Lowell himself wrote of the incident in a letter to Stanley Kunitz on August 16, 1965: “Wasn't the Dover beach grotesque? Some one from the Times called me at eleven thirty after a party and asked me if the lines were mine. All I could think of were the words ‘world’ and ‘before’ and I said, ‘Oh no, they are by John Milton.’”
Scholars interested in those medieval clergy charged with the delivery of pastoral care have highlighted the flourishing of reforming movements in the ninth and thirteenth centuries. Thus the period between the fall of the Carolingian empire and the beginnings of the so-called pastoral revolution is generally viewed as one of episcopal neglect. Focusing on case studies drawn from the Carolingian heartlands of north-east Frankia and Lotharingia, as well as what had been the more peripheral regions of northern Italy and southern England, this article offers a revised interpretation of the education of the local clergy in the post-Carolingian world. Exploring the ways in which higher churchmen sought to innovate on the texts they inherited from their Carolingian predecessors, it demonstrates how they paid considerable attention to the preparation and ordination of suitable candidates, to the instruction and monitoring of local clergy through attendance at diocesan synods and local episcopal visitations, and to the provision of suitable texts to support local churchmen in the delivery of pastoral care.
The ‘Portus Project’ investigates the social and economic contexts of the maritime port of Imperial Rome. This article presents the results of analysis of plant, animal and human remains from the site, and evaluates their significance for the reconstruction of the diets and geographic origins of its inhabitants between the second and sixth centuries AD. Integrating this evidence with other material from the recent excavations, including ceramic data, the authors identify clear diachronic shifts in imported foods and diet that relate to the commercial and political changes following the breakdown of Roman control of the Mediterranean.