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In this commentary, Michael Bird and Nijay Gupta situate Paul's letter to the Philippians within the context of his imprisonment as well as the Philippians' situation of suffering and persecution. Paul draws the Philippians' attention to the power and progress of the gospel in spite of difficult circumstances. He also warns them about the dangers of rival Christian groups who preach out of poor motives or have a truncated gospel. Bird and Gupta unpack the rich wisdom and theology of the Christ Hymn (2:6-11). Throughout the commentary, they apply a broad range of exegetical tools to interpret this letter including historical, sociological, rhetorical, and literary analysis, and they give attention to the reception of this important Pauline text throughout history. Bird and Gupta also includes short reflections on the meaning of Philippians for today.
I am so happy to have been associated with this festschrift in honour of Professor Upendra Baxi. It is, indeed, a privilege. Professor Baxi is sui generis. The best living law teacher within and beyond India. He is matchless. His contribution to legal literature and constitutional jurisprudence is rich and huge. Unparalleled. He is a living legend and a legal laureate, with a rich harvest of students spreading across different generations. Students of Professor Baxi, who are accomplished professors of law, senior advocates, and judges, bask in the reflected glory of their professor. In turn, Professor Baxi also lives equally in the reflected glory of his students. They have done him proud. This is very satisfying.
My association with Professor Baxi goes back to the year 1979 when he delivered the Mehr Chand Mahajan Memorial Lecture at the Panjab University. At that time, I was teaching law at the Panjab University. During those three to four days, we used to have good long morning walks at the Chandigarh Lake. Discussions used to be intellectually stimulating. Refreshing too. My understanding of the Indian Constitution and administrative law got a new focus and shape. During my short stint at the London School of Economics, I was asked if I had been to Lord Denning's court? I said no. I was told that I was missing free entertainment. Soon, I made it a point to be in Denning's court. True, the court environment was very comfortable. The barristers arguing matters could give their best. The grand old man was in action. It was a feast to watch him. The court was full of life. No tenseness. I realized that the court atmosphere makes all the difference in the performance and contribution of the Bar. On my return, I wrote a short piece, ‘Lord Denning—the Matchless’, which appeared in the journal part of SCC. This piece had been written in short sentences. After this, whenever I happened to meet Professor Baxi at a seminar, conference, or a discussion, he spontaneously would say, here comes Lord Denning. This was, no doubt, amusing. However, to be honest, I did like it. Ever since, I developed the habit of writing in short sentences.
Rabindranāth's encounter with a larger world, beyond his own country, began at a very early age and continued all through his life. Hence the interrelation between his political thought and his view of the world is an exciting but challenging issue, for at least two reasons. First, Tagore was not a political activist, nor did he attach primary importance to politics in his thought. Hence apart from his lectures collected as Nationalism, delivered as the First World War was approaching its end, there is hardly any other text where he reflects exclusively on politics. The importance of this text notwithstanding, it is perhaps time to consider his political standpoint from other angles, by looking at many other sources that are not primarily political. Among these are his essays, mostly in Bengali, and his lectures and addresses delivered abroad in the period between the two World Wars. During this time he travelled extensively to both the East and the West, following the award of the Nobel Prize in 1913 and his desperate search for funds for his dream project of Visva-Bharati in Santiniketan.
Second, there is a methodological dimension to this exercise, which in turn is twofold. At one level, Tagore was a product of Indian and specifically Upanishadic tradition together with Western modernity, a mix that characterized the Tagore family. At another level, he was writing as a colonized subject in British India, experiencing colonial rule at first hand and the responses it evoked at various levels in his own country. He therefore had two rather easy options open before him. The first was to accept British rule in a spirit of servility like any ‘brown sahib’ of his day; the second, to completely reject the West, turning instead to nationalism or uncritical nativism. Tagore took neither of these two paths. His position on colonialism, more specifically on colonial modernity, was mediated through a total worldview evolving since his youth.
Tagore's contemporaries viewed India on an existential level through their lived experience of colonialism, and hence often resorted to nationalism by rejecting the West; but for Tagore the global citizen, the East–West binary was methodologically irrelevant.
Overweight and obesity are considered major public health concerns all over the world. They have the potential to increase the risk of developing non-communicable diseases in reproductive age women, increasing their risk of pregnancy related complications and adverse birth outcome. This study was carried out to identify the trend of prevalence of overweight and obesity, along with their determinants, among reproductive age women (15–49 years) in Nepal. Data were taken from the nationally representative 2006, 2011 and 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHSs). Women were considered to be overweight or obese when their BMI was 23.0–27.5 kg/m2 or ≥27.5 kg/m2, respectively. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed, with significance taken at p<0.05. The prevalences of overweight and obesity both showed rising trends in women of reproductive age in Nepal from 2006 to 2016, particularly among those with no education, only primary education and poor women. The presence of overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with the sample women’s age, educational status, wealth index, place of residence, ecological zone, developmental region, number of household members, marital status and ethnicity. In 2016 one in every three women of reproductive age in Nepal was either overweight or obese. As overweight and obesity have detrimental effects on women’s health, the Government of Nepal, in collaboration with other government and non-government organizations, should take action to halt the rising trends in overweight and obesity in the country.
The binary metal oxides are increasingly used as supercapacitor electrode materials in energy storing devices. Particularly NiCo2O4 has shown promising electrocapacitive performance with high specific capacitance and energy density. The electrocapacitive performance of these oxides largely depends on their morphology and electrical properties governed by their energy band-gaps and defects. The morphological structure of NiCo2O4 can be altered via the synthesis route, while the energy band-gap could be altered by doping. Also, doping can enhance crystal stability and bring in grain refinement, which can further improve the much-needed surface area for high specific capacitance. Given the above, this study evaluates the electrochemical performance of Ca-doped Ni1-xCaxCo2O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) compounds. This stipulates promising applications for electrodes in future supercapacitors.
Studies in the literature on two-dimensional, fully developed, turbulent wall jets on flat surfaces, have invariably reckoned on either the nozzle initial conditions or the asymptotic conditions far downstream, as scaling parameters for the streamwise variations of length and velocity scales. These choices, however, do not square with the notion of self-similarity, which is essentially a ‘local’ concept. We first demonstrate that the streamwise variations of velocity and length scales in wall jets show remarkable scaling with local parameters, i.e. there appear to be no imposed length and velocity scales. Next, it is shown that the mean velocity profile data suggest the existence of two distinct layers – the wall (inner) layer and the full-free jet (outer) layer. Each of these layers scales on the appropriate length and velocity scales and this scaling is observed to be universal, i.e. independent of the local friction Reynolds number. Analysis shows that the overlap of these universal scalings leads to a Reynolds-number-dependent power-law velocity variation in the overlap layer. It is observed that the mean-velocity overlap layer corresponds well to the momentum-balance mesolayer and there appears to be no evidence for an inertial overlap; only the meso-overlap is observed. Introduction of an intermediate variable absorbs the Reynolds-number dependence of the length scale in the overlap layer and this leads to a universal power-law overlap profile for mean velocity in terms of the intermediate variable.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
The energy of protons accelerated by ultra-intense lasers in the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism can be greatly enhanced by the laser parameter optimization. We propose to investigate the optimization of laser parameters for proton acceleration using double laser pulses in TNSA mechanism. The sheath field generation at the rear side of the target is significantly affected by the introduction of second laser pulse in TNSA mechanism, and consequently, the energy of the accelerated protons is also modified. The second laser pulse was introduced with different delays to study its impact on proton acceleration. Our study shows that the interplay of laser intensity and pulse duration of both laser pulses affects the proton acceleration. It was found that the proton maximum energy is the function of both laser intensity and pulse duration. A number of simulations have been performed to obtain maximum proton energy data under different combinations of laser intensity and pulse duration for the two laser pulses. The simulation results account for the underline physics for the proton bunch energy and the sheath field as a function of pulse intensity and pulse delay.
Various systems of moment equations – consisting of up to
moments – in a general dimension
for a dilute granular gas composed of Maxwell molecules are derived from the inelastic Boltzmann equation by employing the Grad moment method. The Navier–Stokes-level constitutive relations for the stress and heat flux appearing in the system of mass, momentum and energy balance equations are determined from the derived moment equations. It has been shown that the moment equations only for the hydrodynamic field variables (density, velocity and granular temperature), stress and heat flux – along with the time-independent value of the fourth cumulant – are sufficient for determining the Navier–Stokes-level constitutive relations in the case of inelastic Maxwell molecules, and that the other higher-order moment equations do not play any role in this case. The homogeneous cooling state of a freely cooling granular gas is investigated with the system of the Grad
-moment equations and its various subsystems. By performing a linear stability analysis in the vicinity of the homogeneous cooling state, the critical system size for the onset of instability is estimated through the considered Grad moment systems. The results on critical system size from the presented moment theories are found to be in reasonably good agreement with those from simulations.
Consistent with pathophysiological models of psychosis, temporal disturbances in schizophrenia spectrum populations may reflect abnormal cortical (e.g. prefrontal cortex) and subcortical (e.g. striatum) cerebellar connectivity. However, few studies have examined associations between cerebellar connectivity and timing dysfunction in psychosis populations, and none have been conducted in youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis. Thus, it is currently unknown if impairments in temporal processes are present in CHR youth or how they may be associated with cerebellar connectivity and worsening of symptoms.
A total of 108 (56 CHR/52 controls) youth were administered an auditory temporal bisection task along with a resting state imaging scan to examine cerebellar resting state connectivity. Positive and negative symptoms at baseline and 12 months later were also quantified.
Controlling for alcohol and cannabis use, CHR youth exhibited poorer temporal accuracy compared to controls, and temporal accuracy deficits were associated with abnormal connectivity between the bilateral anterior cerebellum and a right caudate/nucleus accumbens striatal cluster. Poor temporal accuracy accounted for 11% of the variance in worsening of negative symptoms over 12 months.
Behavioral findings suggest CHR youth perceive durations of auditory tones as shortened compared to objective time, which may indicate a slower internal clock. Poorer temporal accuracy in CHR youth was associated with abnormalities in brain regions involved in an important cerebellar network implicated in prominent pathophysiological models of psychosis. Lastly, temporal accuracy was associated with worsening of negative symptoms across 12 months, suggesting temporal dysfunction may be sensitive to illness progression.
The aim of this paper is to introduce a new stochastic order based on the residual lifetimes of two nonnegative dependent random variables and the stochastic precedence order. We develop some characterizations and preservation properties of this stochastic order. In addition, we study some of its reliability properties and its relation with other existing stochastic orders. One of the possible applications in reliability theory has also been discussed.
We investigate the Weibel instability (WI) in a dusty plasma which is driven to oscillation by the addition of dust grains in the plasma. Our analysis predicts the existence of three modes in a dusty plasma. There is a high-frequency electromagnetic mode, whose frequency increases with an increase in the relative number density of dust grains and which approaches instability due to the presence of dust grains. The second mode is a damping mode which exists due to dust charge fluctuations in plasma. The third mode is the oscillating WI mode. The dispersion relation and the growth rate of various modes in the dusty plasma are derived using the first-order perturbation theory. The effect of dust grain parameters on frequency and growth rate is also studied and reported.
Zuriguel et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 95, 2005a, 258002) and Pacheco-Vázquez and Ruiz-Suárez (Nat. Commun., vol. 1, 2010, p. 123) demonstrated that there exists a long-ranged force between intruders placed at a certain distance from each other in granular flow. The origin of these long-ranged forces, induced collectively by the grains, has not been fully understood. In our work, we provide a unified explanation for the origin of both attraction and repulsion between two intruders in terms of the building up of force chains and their subsequent buckling. The surface and shear zone of the other intruder makes a significant contribution to the strength or buckling of the force chains. Bernoulli’s effect used in earlier studies predicts the nature of these forces, viz., attraction or repulsion, correctly but is not well supported as observed in our study. The time-averaged flow fields around the intruders also support our explanation for the origin as evidenced by the burst in kinetic energy and granular temperature. The model proposed in this work predicts the qualitative trend of the sideways force with the separation between the intruders by combining Bernoulli’s equation with a minimum contact criterion of force chains. There exists an equilibrium at which the intruders neither attract nor repel each other and a certain separation distance where maximum attraction occurs between the two intruders. The effects of the static pressure, the velocity of the moving intruders and the friction coefficient on the attraction or repulsion force between the intruders have also been explored in our system.
Aortopulmonary window with interrupted aortic arch is rarely reported beyond infancy. Pre-operative assessment and surgical repair are challenging. We report successful surgical repair of aortopulmonary window with interrupted aortic arch in a 6-year-old girl with near-normal pulmonary artery pressure immediately following surgery.
Nested association mapping (NAM) captures the best features of both linkage and association mapping and enables the high power and high resolution of quantitative trait locus mapping through joint linkage-association analysis. In the current study, NAM population was developed by hybridizing JS 335, a popular variety of central India with 20 diverse soybean genotypes. The parents used in the study have various traits of economic importance such as drought and water-logging tolerance, bacterial pustule and yellow mosaic virus resistance, wider adaptability, resistance to mechanical damage and higher yield potential. High variability in the F2 populations of 20 crosses for grain yield and days to maturity indicated scope for development of high-yielding varieties. Genetic variability studies, correlation, regression, principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic diversity analyses were carried out in 900 NAM-recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from 11 crosses. Correlation and regression analysis indicated a significant positive effect of biomass, pods/plant, harvest index, branches/plant, nodes/plant and plant height on grain yield. Genetic diversity analysis grouped 900 NAM-RILs into 10 clusters. PCA revealed first two principal components to explain 63.78% of total variation mostly contributed by grain yield, biomass and number of pods. The inbred lines developed in this study will serve as an elite soybean genetic resource in understanding the genetic architecture underlying different traits of economic significance.
Despite recent changes in the key criteria required for the diagnosis of epilepsy,1 there remains a population of patients who suffer from seizures that can recur, but do not fit the clinical definition of epilepsy. In 1993, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) developed standard definitions for use in the epidemiological study of epilepsy, including definitions of epilepsy and epileptic seizures.2 At that time, the ILAE created two categories of patients with epileptic seizures who did not necessarily meet the criteria of epilepsy: febrile seizures and benign neonatal seizures. Febrile seizures are acute symptomatic and electrographic seizures that occur in the context of a febrile illness. Benign neonatal seizures are acute symptomatic seizures occurring in the neonatal or infantile period, with a demonstrable electrographic correlate, but are thought to result in a benign outcome and normal development. Since that time, the definition of epilepsy has been revised, and both of these categories of patients have been the subject of further study.3 This chapter will review the most up-to-date information about febrile seizures and benign neonatal seizures.
The flexible motion of the inchworm makes the locomotion mechanism as the prominent one than other limbless animals. Recently, the application of engineering greatly assists the inchworm locomotion to be applicable in the robotic mechanism. Due to the outstanding robustness, sliding mode control (SMC) has been validated as a robust control strategy for diverse types of systems. Even though the SMC techniques have made numerous achievements in several fields, some systems cannot be comfortably accepted as the general SMC approaches. Accordingly, this paper develops the Grey Wolf-Second order sliding mode control (GW-SoSMC) to control the manipulator of the inchworm robot. The GW-SoSMC reduces the chattering phenomenon of SMC and improves the controlling ability of SoSMC by weightage function. Subsequently, it compares the performance of the proposed method with several conventional techniques like Grey Wolf-SMC (GW-SMC), FireFly-SoSMC (FF-SoSMC), Artificial Bee Colony-SoSMC (ABC-SoSMC), Group Searching-SoSMC (GS-SoSMC), and Genetic Algorithm-SoSMC (GA-SoSMC). It portrays the valuable comparative analysis by measuring the accomplished joint angles, error, and response of the controller. Thus the proposed method discovers the supervisory controller for the inchworm robot that is immensely better than conventional controllers mentioned earlier.
To assess the effect of tranexamic acid in head and neck surgical procedures.
A prospective, double-blind and randomised, parallel group, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-two patients undergoing various head and neck surgical procedures were randomised. Subjects received seven infusions of coded drugs (tranexamic acid or normal saline) starting at the time of skin closure. Haematological, biochemical, blood loss and other parameters were observed by the staff, who were blinded to patients’ group allocation (case or control).
Patients were analysed on the basis of type of surgery. Fifty patients who had undergone surgical procedures, including total thyroidectomy, total parotidectomy, and various neck dissections with or without primary tumour excision, were included in the first group. The second group comprised 41 patients who had undergone hemithyroidectomy, lobectomy or superficial parotidectomy. There was no statistical difference in blood parameters between both groups. There was a reduction in post-operative drain volume, but this was not significant.
Although this prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial found a reduction in post-operative drain volume in tranexamic acid groups, the difference was not statistically significant between the various head and neck surgical procedure groups.