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This book provides a comprehensive commentary on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Arbitration. Combining both theory and practice, it is written by leading academics and practitioners from Europe, Asia and the Americas to ensure the book has a balanced international coverage. The book not only provides an article-by-article critical analysis, but also incorporates information on the reality of legal practice in UNCITRAL jurisdictions, ensuring it is more than a recitation of case law and variations in legal text. This is not a handbook for practitioners needing a supportive citation, but rather a guide for practitioners, legislators and academics to the reasons the Model Law was structured as it was, and the reasons variations have been adopted.
Beginning with antiquity, Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora captures the essential political, cultural, social, and economic developments that shaped the black experience. In this second edition, Michael A. Gomez updates the text to include the most recent research on the African Diaspora. Continuing to pay particular attention to the lives of the working classes, the second edition expands its temporal boundaries to include developments into the twenty-first century, as well as integrating women and feminist perspectives more thoroughly. It also widens the geographical span to include Latin America, while incorporating more on African experiences in Europe, North Africa, and the Persian Gulf. Assessing the impact of religion, global trade, slavery and resistance, and the challenges of modernity, this edition further connects the experiences of Africans and their descendants over time and space, attending to both convergences and divergences, while explaining how the deep past informs subsequent developments.
German palaeontologist Johannes Weigelt (1890–1948) was the first proponent of taphonomy – the study of the decay, burial and fossilization of plants, animals and other organisms across geological time. Thousands of his fossil specimens, many recovered from coal fields in central Germany, are stored within the Geiseltalmuseum – a palaeontological collection at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, founded by Weigelt in 1934. A significant portion of Weigelt's papers and extensive photographic production related to his taphonomic research are also within the museum's holdings. Amidst these documents, museum curator Dr Meinholf Hellmund and I discovered over forty photo-collages attributable to Weigelt. This visual essay exposes the through-lines between Weigelt's unpublished collages and his academic activities on taphonomy, suggesting the museum archive as a site of ideological fault lines crossing concomitant artistic and scientific production.
Polarized resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) can leverage contrast between domains in mass, chemical bonds, and chain orientation to characterize polymer thin films. Although mass and chemical contrast can be predicted from the absorption spectra, the origins of orientational contrast are not fully understood. For example, in the case where one domain is crystalline, it is not obvious how the total crystallinity will affect the anisotropy. Using a simple calculation, we predict polarized RSoXS of model structures and compare with experiment. Through experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that scattering anisotropy is not monotonically related to local order but instead peaks when 50% of domains have aligned chains, i.e., when the sample is 50% crystalline.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic baits and attractants for fruit flies on the biology of its parasitoid Fopius arisanus. We tested two food-based attractants; hydrolysed corn protein (Biofruit® 3%) and sugarcane molasses (7%), their mixtures with spinosad and malathion-based insecticides, and a ready-to-use commercial bait (Success 0.02 CB®). Malathion-based lures were used as references for mortality (i.e., positive control), while negative control was honey. The formulations Biofruit® + malathion (T1), molasses + malathion (T2), and spinosad + molasses (T3) were toxic to F. arisanus, being classified as harmful (class 4). In addition, toxic baits composed of Biofruit + spinosad (T4) reduced parasitism by 97.99%, being rated as moderately harmful (class 3). Yet, Success 0.02 CB® (T7) was considered slightly toxic (class 2), causing a 64.55% reduction in parasitism. Regarding the biological parameters of F. arisanus, offspring number and parasitoid longevity were significantly reduced by using hydrolysed protein attractants when compared to the control (honey). However, sugarcane molasses improved parasitoid reproduction and longevity, as did the honey. Lastly, ingestion tests showed the major role of attractants in toxic-bait formulations against F. arisanus.
A one-parameter version of the generalised Poisson distribution provided by Consul and Jain (1973) is considered in this paper. The distribution is unimodal with a zero vertex and over-dispersed. A generalised linear model related to this distribution is also presented. Its parameters can be estimated by using a Fisher-Scoring algorithm which is equivalent to iteratively reweighted least squares. Due to its flexibility and capacity to describe highly skewed data with an excessive number of zeros, the model is suitable to be applied in insurance settings as an alternative to the negative binomial and zero-inflated model.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.