To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Many materials systems comprise complex structures where multiple materials are integrated to achieve a desired performance. Often in these systems, it is a combination of both the materials and their structure that dictate performance. Here the authors layout an integrated computational–statistical–experimental methodology for hierarchical materials systems that takes a holistic design approach to both the material and structure. The authors used computational modeling of the physical system combined with statistical design of experiments to explore an activated carbon adsorption bed. The large parameter space makes experimental optimization impractical. Instead, a computational–statistical approach is coupled with physical experiments to validate the optimization results.
We introduce properties of metric spaces and, specifically, finitely
generated groups with word metrics, which we call coarse
coherence and coarse regular coherence. They are
geometric counterparts of the classical algebraic notion of coherence and
the regular coherence property of groups defined and studied by Waldhausen.
The new properties can be defined in the general context of coarse metric
geometry and are coarse invariants. In particular, they are quasi-isometry
invariants of spaces and groups. The new framework allows us to prove
structural results by developing permanence properties, including the
particularly important fibering permanence property, for coarse regular
Kimberly Holst, teaches legal writing and skills courses at the Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law at Arizona State University.,
Phyllis Goldfarb, Professor of Clinical Law and Associate Dean for Clinical Affairs at George Washington University Law School.
When the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the denial of a law license to Myra Bradwell, two historical currents were diverted. First, the decision was a setback for the nineteenth-century wave of feminism focusing on formal equality. As evidenced by the nascent woman suffrage movement, these feminists were working to eliminate sex-based barriers to women's exercise of civil and political rights. Second, the decision undermined the development of an expansive interpretation of the Reconstruction Amendments adopted after the Civil War. The Court apparently feared that the restructuring contemplated by these Amendments would dangerously shift the balance of power from the states to the federal government. Between 1870 and 1873, the Court retreated from endorsing the exercise of federal power and increasingly invalidated Acts of Congress while refusing to restrict discriminatory state actions.
Myra Bradwell was the founder and editor-in-chief of the Chicago Legal News and a feminist. Under her leadership, Chicago's weekly legal newspaper published all new statutes and judicial decisions. Bradwell's columns advocated women's rights and other social and legal advancements. When she decided to become an attorney, Bradwell apprenticed under her husband, James Bradwell. There were no female attorneys in the United States in 1860 and very few in 1869, the year that Bradwell took and passed the Illinois bar exam and applied for admission to the Illinois bar.
At first, the Illinois Supreme Court denied Bradwell's admission because she suffered from a “disability imposed by [her] married condition.” The reasoning relied upon the law of coverture – that is, a married woman's legal existence was incorporated through her husband, impairing her right to enter into legal agreements and her ability to practice law. After Bradwell challenged the denial, the Illinois Supreme Court rejected her application again in January 1870, asserting that it could not act contrary to the intention of the Legislature. The Illinois court apparently feared that admission of a woman might lead to women, married or single, holding public office. Their decision thus expanded Bradwell's “disability” for law practice from her status as a married woman to her status as a woman.
In her legal memorandum to the Illinois Supreme Court, Bradwell inserted two federal constitutional issues that would enable her later to petition the U.S. Supreme Court.
Upper respiratory tract infection is the most common non-preventable cause of surgery cancellation. Consequently, surgeons and anaesthesiologists involved in elective ENT surgical procedures frequently face a dilemma of whether to proceed or to postpone surgery in affected children.
A literature review was conducted and a practical assessment algorithm proposed.
The risk–benefit assessment should take into consideration the impact of postponing the surgery intended to bring relief to the child and the risks of proceeding with general anaesthesia in an inflamed airway. The suggested algorithm for assessment may be a useful tool to support the decision of whether to proceed or to postpone surgery.
This article takes a critical look through the lens of linguistics at the “always-speaking” principle in law — an influential principle that is recited in materials on legislative drafting as the justification for using the present tense, adopted in many common-law jurisdictions as a principle of interpretation, and accepted as a foundation for the linguistic analysis of the use of tense in statutes. The article concludes that the principle is an inadequate basis for interpreting or analysing statutes, for at least two reasons: the interpretive results that the principle is intended to support are explainable in terms of widely accepted principles in the analysis of tense, without any need to posit special principles that apply only to statutes; and the interpretations that would be required if the always-speaking principle were taken seriously would in many cases probably be regarded as unnatural by native speakers of English.
During the latter part of 1979, hundreds of thousands Kampuchean refugees fled from all parts of their war- and hunger-ridden country to the Thai-Cambodian border, thousands perishing from hunger, disease and stepping on mine fields on the way. The majority of those who survived settled in several large villages straddling the border in relative security from the advancing Vietnamese army, receiving food and medical supplies from many international welfare organizations.
Widespread public interest in the plight of these refugees arose in Israel after a television program late in October 1979, and a public campaign initiated by Mr. Abie Nathan, an Israeli citizen. The ensuing fund-raising efforts resulted in 1.2 million dollars, most of which originated from private donations. These contributions enabled the Israeli government to equip 5 medical teams and send them to Thailand, covering the last two months of 1979 and the first 4 months of 1980.
It has been traditionally held that the idea of a prime matter of metals was abandoned in the eighteenth century, especially after the failure of Hermann Boerhaave to find it in mercury. However, documents tell a different story: the search for the metalliferous principle, in the form of an odd substance known as Gur, Guhr, Ghur or Bur, was very much alive in the 1700s. This was a project that involved Boerhaave himself, as is shown by his correspondence with J.B. Bassand. The first mention of this strange material appears in Sarepta, a collection of sermons by the sixteenth-century Bohemian preacher Johannes Mathesius, sometimes mentioned in the specialized literature but rarely studied. This paper discusses the various conceptions of this material held as the prime matter of metals, from Mathesius to the eighteenth century, involving reputed authors such as John Webster, Jan B. van Helmont, Georg E. Stahl and Boerhaave.
In the immediate postoperative period, close attention must be paid to hemodynamic stability by focusing on preventing right ventricular failure and maintaining chronotropic competence. Preoperative support of the recipient circulation by mechanical assist devices appears to significantly increase the risk of post-transplantation primary graft failure. Primary cardiac allograft failure accounts for 40 percentage of mortality within 30 days of heart transplantation (HT). Following HT, the use of intraoperative and peri-operative corticosteroids remains the mainstay of early therapy. Monitoring of therapeutic drug levels is important but there is some controversy in how best to monitor the target levels of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). Early after transplantation, particularly in the first 3 months when the risk of rejection is highest, invasive biopsies are recommended at decreasing intervals. Close vigilance for re-emergence of circulating antibodies is needed, and newer approaches using complement inhibitors or intensive B-cell modulating drugs such as bortezomib are being studied.
One of the primary factors influencing the research and development of rigid-rod polymers in the Materials Laboratory has been the excellent environmental resistance of this class of aromatic heterocyclic benzobisazole polymers. Thermal stability of these materials has been determined utilizing thermal analytical, Isothermal Aging and combined Thermal Gravimetric-Mass Spectrometry (TG-MS) techniques. Correlations between the thermal stability and chemical structure, varying substituent groups and processing conditions for these polymers have been observed. An overview of the thermal stability of these rigid-rod polymer systems is presented.