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On its original publication, this book provided the first elementary treatment of representation theory of finite groups of Lie type in book form. This second edition features new material to reflect the continuous evolution of the subject, including entirely new chapters on Hecke algebras, Green functions and Lusztig families. The authors cover the basic theory of representations of finite groups of Lie type, such as linear, unitary, orthogonal and symplectic groups. They emphasise the Curtis–Alvis duality map and Mackey's theorem and the results that can be deduced from it, before moving on to a discussion of Deligne–Lusztig induction and Lusztig's Jordan decomposition theorem for characters. The book contains the background information needed to make it a useful resource for beginning graduate students in algebra as well as seasoned researchers. It includes exercises and explicit examples.
This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the international law applicable to cyber operations, including a systematic examination of attribution, lawfulness and remedies. It demonstrates the importance of countermeasures as a form of remedies and also shows the limits of international law, highlighting its limits in resolving issues related to cyber operations. There are several situations in which international law leaves the victim State of cyber operations helpless. Two main streams of limits are identified. First, in the case of cyber operations conducted by non-state actors on the behalf of a State, new technologies offer various ways to coordinate cyber operations without a high level of organization. Second, the law of State responsibility offers a range of solutions to respond to cyber operations and seek reparation, but it does not provide an answer in every case and it cannot solve the problem related to technical capabilities of the victim.
Madagascar's long-term trajectory is unique: not only has GDP per capita been trending downward since 1960 (the puzzle), but every time the country has set out on path of growth, it has been stopped in its tracks by a socio-political crisis that has shattered the hopes it raised (the paradox). No satisfactory explanation of this failure has been provided so far. This book elaborates a model of intelligibility of Madagascar's downfall, based on an integrated political economy approach as well as mobilizing the most recent development theories. Combining a review of historical literature with original and sometimes unique statistical surveys, it proposes a general interpretative framework for the workings of Malagasy society. Richly documented and accessible, Puzzle and Paradox allows readers to understand Madagascar's sociopolitical history while more broadly offering an opportunity to grasp the different dimensions of development in the Global South.
This chapter lays out the principal features of Bergson’s new conception of truth. Although not always foregrounded by Bergson (and consequently overlooked by commentators), the issue of truth is central for him. Like William James, Bergson rejects the correspondence theory of truth because the world we seek to describe is endlessly changing. Accordingly, truth is not discovered in a quest for knowledge: it is invented. To counter the charge that such an invented truth is subjective and arbitrary, Bergson, again like James, insists on its practical verifiability. But, unlike James, he does not stop there: he seeks to establish theoretical criteria as well. This has three consequences: an emphasis on the notion of problems in philosophy; a recasting of the theory of general ideas; and the elaboration of Bergson’s well-known theory of intuition. Against this background, the chapter presents the central achievement of Bergson’s theory of truth, namely that it shows how what is true can be new and how what is new can be true.
Visible to short-wave infrared (VSWIR, 0.4–5.0 µm) reflectance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to identify and map mineral groups on the martian surface. The Mars Express/OMEGA and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/CRISM instruments have characterized more than 30 mineral groups, revolutionizing previous understanding of martian crustal composition and the role of water in altering it. Analyses of these spectral images revealed the primary structure of the crust to be dominated by basalt, over a deep layer of segregated pyroxene- and olivine-rich plutons, with sparse feldspar-rich, differentiated intrusions. Martian volatile-bearing environments have evolved through four phases: the pre-Noachian to early Noachian period when alteration by liquid water occurred near the surface and deep in the subsurface, in chemically neutral to alkaline environments that formed hydrous silicates and carbonates; the middle to late Noachian period when liquid water was widely present at the surface forming valley networks, lacustrine deposits, and clay-rich pedogenic horizons; the early Hesperian to early Amazonian period during which water became increasingly acidic and saline, forming deposits rich in sulfate salts, chlorides, and hydrated silica; and the Amazonian period when surface water has existed predominantly as ice, with only localized reaction with regolith and briny flow on the surface.
The study of paleoclimates enables us to improve and better constrain climate models in order to forecast future climate variations. Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS11), which began around 425,000 yr BP and lasted about 65,000 yr, is a warm isotope stage of paramount importance, because the astronomical configuration was similar to the one characterizing the Holocene. Therefore, this warm isotope stage is the most appropriate analog to present-day climate known to date. This study aims to provide new data on sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) inferred from the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of skeletal carbonates of marine invertebrates preserved in two marine deposits of the Canary Islands located at Piedra Alta, Lanzarote, and Arucas, Gran Canaria. According to published isotopic fractionation equations the marine deposit from Arucas recorded SSTs of 15.9 ± 2.2°C on average, while the tsunamite from Piedra Alta recorded SSTs of 21.2 ± 1.9°C on average. Absolute dating, mollusc assemblages, and calculated marine temperatures suggest that the Arucas marine deposit corresponds to the beginning of MIS11, while the Piedra Alta tsunamite was formed during MIS11c. These results show that low latitudes also experienced sizable SST changes during interglacial stages.
Cumulative technological culture refers to the increase in the efficiency and complexity of tools and techniques in human populations over generations. A fascinating question is to understand the cognitive origins of this phenomenon. Because cumulative technological culture is definitely a social phenomenon, most accounts have suggested a series of cognitive mechanisms oriented toward the social dimension (e.g., teaching, imitation, theory of mind, metacognition), thereby minimizing the technical dimension and the potential influence of non-social, cognitive skills. What if we have failed to see the elephant in the room? What if social cognitive mechanisms were only catalyzing factors and not the sufficient and necessary conditions for the emergence of cumulative technological culture? In this article, we offer an alternative, unified cognitive approach to this phenomenon by assuming that cumulative technological culture originates in non-social cognitive skills, namely technical-reasoning skills which enable humans to develop the technical potential necessary to constantly acquire and improve technical information. This leads us to discuss how theory of mind and metacognition, in concert with technical reasoning, can help boost cumulative technological culture. The cognitive approach developed here opens up promising new avenues for reinterpreting classical issues (e.g., innovation, emulation versus imitation, social versus asocial learning, cooperation, teaching, overimitation) in a field that has so far been largely dominated by other disciplines, such as evolutionary biology, mathematics, anthropology, archaeology, economics, and philosophy.
A higher incidence of psychotic disorders has been consistently reported among black and other minority ethnic groups, particularly in northern Europe. It is unclear whether these rates have changed over time.
We identified all individuals with a first episode psychosis who presented to adult mental health services between 1 May 2010 and 30 April 2012 and who were resident in London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. We estimated age-and-gender standardised incidence rates overall and by ethnic group, then compared our findings to those reported in the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP) study that we carried out in the same catchment area around 10 years earlier.
From 9109 clinical records we identified 558 patients with first episode psychosis. Compared with ÆSOP, the overall incidence rates of psychotic disorder in southeast London have increased from 49.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 43.6–55.3) to 63.1 (95% CI 57.3–69.0) per 100 000 person-years at risk. However, the overall incidence rate ratios (IRR) were reduced in some ethnic groups: for example, IRR (95% CI) for the black Caribbean group reduced from 6.7 (5.4–8.3) to 2.8 (2.1–3.6) and the ‘mixed’ group from 2.7 (1.8–4.2) to 1.4 (0.9–2.1). In the black African group, there was a negligible difference from 4.1 (3.2–5.3) to 3.5 (2.8–4.5).
We found that incidence rates of psychosis have increased over time, and the IRR varied by the ethnic group. Future studies are needed to investigate more changes over time and determinants of change.
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, though it is highly prevalent in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. While Schistosoma haematobium-bovis hybrids have been reported in West Africa, no data about Schistosoma hybrids in humans are available from Côte d'Ivoire. This study aimed to identify and quantify S. haematobium-bovis hybrids among schoolchildren in four localities of Côte d'Ivoire. Urine samples were collected and examined by filtration to detect Schistosoma eggs. Eggs were hatched and 503 miracidia were individually collected and stored on Whatman® FTA cards for molecular analysis. Individual miracidia were molecularly characterized by analysis of mitochondrial cox1 and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS 2) DNA regions. A mitochondrial cox1-based diagnostic polymerase chain reaction was performed on 459 miracidia, with 239 (52.1%) exhibiting the typical band for S. haematobium and 220 (47.9%) the S. bovis band. The cox1 and ITS 2 amplicons were Sanger sequenced from 40 randomly selected miracidia to confirm species and hybrids status. Among the 33 cox1 sequences analysed, we identified 15 S. haematobium sequences (45.5%) belonging to seven haplotypes and 18 S. bovis sequences (54.5%) belonging to 12 haplotypes. Of 40 ITS 2 sequences analysed, 31 (77.5%) were assigned to pure S. haematobium, four (10.0%) to pure S. bovis and five (12.5%) to S. haematobium-bovis hybrids. Our findings suggest that S. haematobium-bovis hybrids are common in Côte d'Ivoire. Hence, intense prospection of domestic and wild animals is warranted to determine whether zoonotic transmission occurs.
Parasites inflict many costs on their hosts. Understanding host–parasite relationship eco-evolutionary dynamics needs appreciation of how parasites affect individual fitness, survival and reproductive potential, and how they combine to influence population demography, dynamics and viability; also, how these processes drive microevolutionary processes that define natural and sexual selection. We synthesise work on the relationship between the red grouse and its main parasite, a gastrointestinal nematode. At individual level, we show how parasites impose a physiological cost, measured by immunosuppression and increased oxidative stress, and how their impact varies depending on contexts. We describe how parasite infection constrains expression of sexually selected traits and summarise how relationships between parasite, host and environment shape host population demography and dynamics. Genetic analyses in red grouse suggest nematode burden is moderately heritable, underpinned by a potentially large array of genes involved in the immune system, energy balance and broader homeostatic processes. There is no clear association between allele frequencies among populations and differences in nematode burdens. Possibly, beneficial alleles for parasite resistance cannot spread through the population due to the strong diversifying e?ects of gene ?ow and genetic drift.
Over the last three decades, traditional barriers to trade – import tariffs and quantitative restrictions (QRs) – have fallen dramatically. Globally, average applied import tariffs are less than 10 percent, and are well below 5 percent in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Quantitative import restrictions have become rare outside of agriculture and even there today mostly take the form of so-called tariff rate quotas where higher tariffs apply once a certain quantity of imports (the quota) has been exceeded. Many inputs used in production are duty-free if imported. The decline in tariffs and QRs was a driver of a boom in international trade flows in the 1990s and 2000s and supported major changes in the structure and composition of world production and trade as this came to be organized in global value chains (GVCs). Tariff reductions, complemented by technological and managerial advances, drive firms to specialize in specific tasks and activities. International supply chains and production networks are the mechanisms through which this process of specialization is organized, with production occurring – and value being added – in multiple countries that are part of a chain or network.