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Given the current context of the experience of migration on schools in England and Europe, and the competing policies and approaches to social integration in schools, there is a need to understand the connection between language development and social integration as a basis for promoting appropriate policies and practices. This volume explores the complex relationship between language, education and the social integration of newcomer migrant children in England, through an in-depth analysis of case studies from schools in the East of England. The authors set this evidence against the background of policy debates in the wider international setting, including a critical discussion of assumptions underlying national narratives of mainstreaming and assimilation. In the light of an absence of national guidelines for appropriate practice in schools, the authors outline a model of inclusive pedagogy for EAL and a framework of home-school communication to promote effective EAL parental engagement in schools.
When refugees flee war and persecution, protection and assistance are usually provided by United Nations organisations and their NGO implementing partners. In camps and cities, the dominant humanitarian model remains premised upon a provider-beneficiary relationship. In parallel to this model, however, is a largely neglected story: refugees themselves frequently mobilise to create organisations or networks as alternative providers of social protection. Based on fieldwork in refugee camps and cities in Uganda and Kenya, this book examines how refugee-led organisations emerge, the forms they take, and their interactions with international institutions. Developing an original theoretical framework based on the concept of 'the global governed', the book shows how power and hierarchy mediate the seemingly benign notion of protection. Drawing upon ideas from anthropology and international relations, it offers an alternative vision for more participatory global governance, of relevance to other policy-fields including development, humanitarianism, health, peacekeeping, and child protection.
The Tudors are one of the best known royal families in English history. Over three generations, they constructed and maintained their status and authority during a period of social, political and religious unrest. This book examines the textual basis of Tudor royal power. Through analyses of correspondence alongside genres including proclamations and historical chronicles, the book explores the visual and verbal practices that came to symbolise monarchic authority in the Tudor era. Mel Evans combines concepts from sociolinguistics and pragmatics with corpus linguistic methods to explore the characteristics of authentic English language Tudor texts, alongside materials reporting and appropriating royal language. The book reveals a pervasive sixteenth-century royal voice - one which is central to the articulation and perpetuation of Tudor monarchic power.
Evan Fox-Decent defends the basic claim that ‘the state’s public law governing its interactions with non-citizens – the state’s cosmopolitan law – must have a certain outward orientation and representative character if it is to be law, properly so-called’. Drawing on earlier work with his frequent co-author Evan Criddle, Fox-Decent invokes the conceptual vocabulary of the ‘fiduciary criterion of legitimacy’ to denote the stipulation that state action ought always to be intelligible as ‘action made on behalf of or in the name of the individual subject to it’, if it is to be legitimate, regardless of whether this individual is a citizen or an outsider in some sense. He uses a discussion of Joseph Raz’s notion of authority, and of the ‘riveting and intractable’ problem of ‘the non-jurisdictional/jurisdictional distinction to distinguish de facto from legitimate authority’ and on this basis constructs his case for the ‘fiduciary criterion’. When it comes to the outer boundaries of the constitutional order, this criterion functions as a ‘cosmopolitan threshold – not a barrier – that welcomes the entry of peaceful outsiders into sovereign states while empowering states to limit migration when conditions warrant’.
The evidence of funerary archaeology, historical sources and poetry has been used to define a ‘heroic warrior ethos’ across Northern Europe during the first millennium AD. In northern Britain, burials of later prehistoric to early medieval date are limited, as are historical and literary sources. There is, however, a rich sculptural corpus, to which a newly discovered monolith with an image of a warrior can now be added. Comparative analysis reveals a materialisation of a martial ideology on carved stone monuments, probably associated with elite cemeteries, highlighting a regional expression of the warrior ethos in late Roman and post-Roman Europe.
The Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales measure cognitively based across domains of everyday abilities that are affected early in the course of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, the degree to which the ECog may be differentially influenced by ethnic/racial background is unknown. This study evaluates measurement invariance of the ECog across non-Hispanic White (NHW), Black, and Hispanic individuals.
Participants included 1177 NHW, 243 Black, and 216 Hispanic older adults from the UC Davis Alzheimer’s Disease Center Cohort who had an ECog. Differential item functioning (DIF) for each ECog domain was evaluated separately for Black and Hispanic participants compared to NHW participants. An iterative multiple group confirmatory factor analysis approach for ordinal scores was used to identify items whose measurement properties differed across groups and to adjust scores for DIF. Adjusted scores were then evaluated to test whether they were more strongly associated with cognitive function (concurrent and longitudinal change in cognition) and brain volumes (measured by brain imaging).
Varying levels, patterns, and impacts of DIF were found across domains and groups. However, the impact of DIF was relatively small, and DIF effects on scores generally were less than one-half standard error of measurement. There were no meaningful differences in associations with cognition and brain injury between DIF adjusted and unadjusted scores.
Varying patterns of DIF were observed across the Black and Hispanic participants across select ECog domains. Overall, DIF effects were relatively small and did not change the relationship between the ECog and other indicators of disease.
Seed dispersal is an important ecological process that structures plant communities and influences ecosystem functioning. Loss of animal dispersers therefore poses a serious threat to forest ecosystems, particularly in the tropics where zoochory predominates. A prominent example is the near-total extinction of seed dispersers on the tropical island of Guam following the accidental introduction of the invasive brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), negatively impacting seedling recruitment and forest regeneration. We investigated frugivory by a remnant population of Såli (Micronesian starling – Aplonis opaca) on Guam and two other island populations (Rota, Saipan) to evaluate their ecological role as a seed disperser in the Mariana archipelago. Using a combination of behavioural observations, nest contents and fecal samples, we documented frugivory of 37 plant species. Native plants comprised the majority (66%) of all species and 90% of all seeds identified in fecal and nest contents. Diet was highly similar across age classes and sampling years. In addition, plant species consumed by Såli comprised 88% of bird-dispersed adult trees and 54% of all adult trees in long-term forest monitoring plots, demonstrating the Såli’s broad diet and potential for restoring native forests. Overall, we provide the most comprehensive assessment to date of frugivory by the Såli and confirm its importance as a seed disperser on Guam and throughout the Marianas.
To identify patient and provider characteristics associated with high-volume antibiotic prescribing for children in Tennessee, a state with high antibiotic utilization.
Cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of pediatric (aged <20 years) outpatient antibiotic prescriptions in Tennessee using the 2016 IQVIA Xponent (formerly QuintilesIMS) database.
Patient and provider characteristics, including county of prescription fill, rural versus urban county classification, patient age group, provider type (nurse practitioner, physician assistant, physician, or dentist), physician specialty, and physician years of practice were analyzed.
Tennessee providers wrote 1,940,011 pediatric outpatient antibiotic prescriptions yielding an antibiotic prescribing rate of 1,165 per 1,000 population, 50% higher than the national pediatric antibiotic prescribing rate. Mean antibiotic prescribing rates varied greatly by county (range, 39–2,482 prescriptions per 1,000 population). Physicians wrote the greatest number of antibiotic prescriptions (1,043,030 prescriptions, 54%) of which 56% were written by general pediatricians. Pediatricians graduating from medical school prior to 2000 were significantly more likely than those graduating after 2000 to be high antibiotic prescribers. Overall, 360 providers (1.7% of the 21,798 total providers in this dataset) were responsible for nearly 25% of both overall and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescriptions; 20% of these providers practiced in a single county.
Fewer than 2% of providers account for 25% of pediatric antibiotic prescriptions. High antibiotic prescribing for children in Tennessee is associated with specific patient and provider characteristics that can be used to design stewardship interventions targeted to the highest prescribing providers in specific counties and specialties.
A guideline for the prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in 127 Veterans Health Administration acute-care facilities was implemented in July 2012. Beginning in 2015, a targeted assessment for prevention strategy was used to evaluate facilities for hospital-onset healthcare-facility–associated CDIs to focus prevention efforts where they might have the most impact in reaching a reduction goal of 30% nationwide.
We calculated standardized infection ratios (SIRs) and cumulative attributable differences (CADs) using a national data baseline. Facilities were ranked by CAD, and those with the 10 highest CAD values were targeted for periodic conference calls or a site visit from January 2016–September 2019.
The hospital-onset healthcare-facility–associated CDI rate in the 10 facilities with the highest CADs declined 56% during the process improvement period, compared to a 44% decline in the 117 nonintervention facilities (P = .03).
Process improvement interventions targeting facilities ranked by CAD values may be an efficient strategy for decreasing CDI rates in a large healthcare system.
We first published on the subject of pregnancy management via fetal reduction (FR) 30 years ago . Dramatic changes have occurred in medical technology, outcomes, and patient choices – large demographic and cultural shifts that have driven the pace and direction of progress and research [2, 3].
In his chapter entitled ‘A Right to Administrative Justice: “New” or Just Repackaging the Old?’, Hugh Corder provides a highly interesting introduction to the protection of the right to administrative justice in a number of African countries. His contribution traces the way in which this right has gained significance and has achieved the status of a constitutional (human) right in various African administrative and legal systems that have, since the 1990s, made the transition from dictatorship or authoritarianism to democracy. It also has the great merit of highlighting, on the one hand, the importance of the right to administrative justice for the achievement of the fair and equitable distribution of socio-economic goods and services in the African region and, on the other hand, the great potential of this right to bring about far-reaching changes in the way executive discretion is exercised, and thereby to ensure the fundamental fairness of the decision-making process. In this vein, Corder very interestingly argues for a ‘democratic necessity’ of administrative justice, before solemnly concluding his contribution with the idea that ‘[u]ltimately … what is needed is a change of culture, towards greater accountability, responsiveness and openness – and anchoring such requirements in a human right to administrative justice may provide just the necessary encouragement for such a change’.
This article examines the factors that influence whether members of Congress tweet about the #MeToo movement. Whereas social-identity theory suggests that congresswomen would be more likely to tweet about #MeToo, congressional research argues that increased polarization has resulted in congresswomen bucking gender stereotypes and embracing more partisan behavior than might otherwise be expected (Pearson and Dancey 2011). We examine how gender, partisanship, and ideology shape the Twitter activity of members of Congress surrounding the #MeToo movement using an original dataset of their tweets since October 2017 when the #MeToo movement gained prominence on Twitter. Our findings show that gender and ideology are the strongest predictors of whether Congress members tweet about the #MeToo movement. Liberals—particularly liberal women—are leading the charge in bringing prominence to the #MeToo movement on Twitter.
Propagating inhomogeneous electromagnetic waves called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be excited by free-space beams on corrugated conducting surfaces at resonance angles determined by corrugation period, permittivity, and optical frequency. SPPs are coupled to and co-propagate with surface charge displacements. Complete electrical isolation of individual conducting corrugations prevents the charge displacement necessary to sustain an SPP, such that excitation resonances of traveling SPPs are absent. However, SPPs can be excited via electric induction if a smooth conducting surface exists below and nearby the isolated conducting corrugations. The dependence of SPP excitation resonances on that separation is experimentally investigated here at long-wave infrared wavelengths. We find that excitation resonances for traveling SPPs broaden and disappear as the dielectric’s physical thickness is increased beyond ∼1% of the free-space wavelength. The resonance line width increases with refractive index and optical thickness of the dielectric.
In this chapter, we review the current state of personality disorder (PD) assessment practices. The review includes both traditional measures that are rooted in categorical conceptualizations of PD and dimensional measures that have emerged in response to mounting evidence that has called into question the validity of traditional PD classification approaches. The scope of this chapter includes prominent and promising models and measures of PD. Moreover, our review is focused on omnibus measures that present a relatively “complete” picture of personality pathology rather than measures that focus on the features of only one or a limited set of PDs. Finally, we address two important topics relevant to PD assessment. First, we discuss the cross-cultural PD assessment literature, which is characterized by a relative lack of strong cross-cultural research on the manifestation and measurement of PD. Second, we address the disconnect between research and applied practice of PD assessment.
This chapter presents the most common pediatric surgery, myringotomy and ear tube placement. The author reviews in the indications for eat tubes in the setting of a child with upper respiratory tract infection. The perioperative considerations for upper respiratory tract infection are considered with relation to case postponement.
This chapter presents one of the most common pediatric surgeries, adenotonsillectomy. The author reviews in the indications for adenotonsillectomy in the setting of a child with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The perioperative considerations for this extremely high risk population of children with OSA is considered with respect to the anesthetic considerations.
This chapter provides the reader with a detailed background and approach to children and families with pre-operative anxiety. The risk factors associated with parental and patient anxiety are reviewed before the reader is provided methods for pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic strategies for anxiolysis. Each of the anxiolytics commonly used in pediatrics are reviewed.
This chapter, provides an excellent review of a core pediatric surgical topic; craniosynostosis and cranial vault remodeling. The authors describe the pathophysiology of the four main cranial sutures and the characteristics associated with each of their premature closures. The syndromes associated with the synostoses are reviewed. The perioperative considerations for cranial vault reconstruction are presented.