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Throughout the nineteenth century the relationship between the State and the Established Church of England engaged Parliament, the Church, the courts and – to an increasing degree – the people. During this period, the spectre of Disestablishment periodically loomed over these debates, in the cause – as Trollope put it – of 'the renewal of inquiry as to the connection which exists between the Crown and the Mitre'. As our own twenty-first century gathers pace, Disestablishment has still not materialised: though a very different kind of dynamic between Church and State has anyway come into being in England. Professor Evans here tells the stories of the controversies which have made such change possible – including the revival of Convocation, the Church's own parliament – as well as the many memorable characters involved. The author's lively narrative includes much valuable material about key areas of ecclesiastical law that is of relevance to the future Church of England.
What's the word that describes the process of making supportive noises when you're listening to someone? What is syntax and how does it differ from grammar? Do you know what a morpheme is? And did you know that it's not only an atom that has a nucleus? The Babel Lexicon of Language is an entertaining and accessible introduction to the key terminology involved in the study of language. It defines over 500 terms and uses contemporary language examples, explaining complex issues in an easy-to-understand way. Written by the expert editorial team behind Babel, the popular language magazine, and assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, The Babel Lexicon of Language is an invaluable resource for students, teachers and anyone with an interest in language.
Cooperation among militant organizations contributes to capability but also presents security risks. This is particularly the case when organizations face substantial repression from the state. As a consequence, for cooperation to emerge and persist when it is most valuable, militant groups must have means of committing to cooperation even when the incentives to defect are high. We posit that shared ideology plays this role by providing community monitoring, authority structures, trust, and transnational networks. We test this theory using new, expansive, time-series data on relationships between militant organizations from 1950 to 2016, which we introduce here. We find that when groups share an ideology, and especially a religion, they are more likely to sustain material cooperation in the face of state repression. These findings contextualize and expand upon research demonstrating that connections between violent nonstate actors strongly shape their tactical and strategic behavior.
To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of antimicrobial stewardship-focused implementation strategies on inpatient fluoroquinolones.
Stewardship champions at 15 hospitals were surveyed regarding the use and acceptability of strategies to improve fluoroquinolone prescribing. Antibiotic days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 days present (DP) for sites with and without prospective audit and feedback (PAF) and/or prior approval were compared.
Among all of the sites, 60% had PAF or prior approval implemented for fluoroquinolones. Compared to sites using neither strategy (64.2 ± 34.4 DOT/DP), fluoroquinolone prescribing rates were lower for sites that employed PAF and/or prior approval (35.5 ± 9.8; P = .03) and decreased from 2017 to 2018 (P < .001). This decrease occurred without an increase in advanced-generation cephalosporins. Total antibiotic rates were 13% lower for sites with PAF and/or prior approval, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .20). Sites reporting that PAF and/or prior approval were “completely” accepted had lower fluoroquinolone rates than sites where it was “moderately” accepted (34.2 ± 5.7 vs 48.7 ± 4.5; P < .01). Sites reported that clinical pathways and/or local guidelines (93%), prior approval (93%), and order forms (80%) “would” or “may” be effective in improving fluoroquinolone use. Although most sites (73%) indicated that requiring infectious disease consults would or may be effective in improving fluoroquinolones, 87% perceived implementation to be difficult.
PAF and prior approval implementation strategies focused on fluoroquinolones were associated with significantly lower fluoroquinolone prescribing rates and nonsignificant decreases in total antibiotic use, suggesting limited evidence for class substitution. The association of acceptability of strategies with lower rates highlights the importance of culture. These results may indicate increased acceptability of implementation strategies and/or sensitivity to FDA warnings.
We began this book with a comparison of the visibility and invisibility of persons and God, stressing the importance of being available to others and the transcendent; we have reflected too on the importance of examining different, ever-expanding points of view when it comes to aesthetics and values. In this chapter we offer a personal guide to enhancing aesthetic experiences of and through works of art.
While this chapter pertains to works of art in almost any context, the focus is on the engagement of works of art in museums. Although we addressed two museum experiences in Chapter 7, we offer some further reflections on museums here, before presenting our guide to the aesthetic experience of works of art.
In Chapters 1 through 3, we compared the aesthetic visibility and invisibility of God and persons and introduced a substantial, high view of human persons as able to encounter the transcendent experientially. In Chapter 4 we undertook an aesthetic investigation into a series of religious worlds and their secular alternatives; in Chapter 5 we reflected on the religious significance of beauty; and in Chapter 6 we reflected on how works of art can conceal or reveal secular and sacred values.
In Bertrand Russell’s The Wisdom of the West, the above photograph is paired with the caption “Mt. Sinai, home of Yahweh, the Invisible God of the Jews.” Indeed, this photograph depicts what is believed to be the 7,500-foot-high, volcanic, granite mountain located on the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, which the Hebrew Bible (Christian Old Testament) and the Qur’an identify as the site where Yahweh makes a covenant with Moses. The choice of this grey, out-of-focus, distant view is akin to Herman Melville’s description in The Encantadas of the Galapagos Islands: “It is to be doubted whether any spot on earth can, in desolateness, furnish a parallel to this group … . In these isles rain never falls … Another feature in these isles is their emphatic unimaginableness.”
Exaltation is at the heart of all religions. The aesthetics of religions disclose the values of the practitioners who shape the religion, and who, in turn, are further shaped in their practice and aesthetic experience. Religious life involves all the dimensions of aesthetics: beauty and ugliness, aesthetic emotions such as awe and love and hate, feelings of guilt and shame as well as joy and ecstasy, and a staggering range of artistic works. The field of aesthetics raises an array of religious concerns: Can we have aesthetically charged experiences of the divine? What is the relationship between beauty and divinity? In Is God Invisible? An Essay on Religion and Aesthetics, we investigate the aesthetics of religious life and values.
Art is generative by nature, revealing and concealing our intentions and identities. Form, by which we mean embodied content, has a unique relationship with each viewer, reader, or listener of call and response, and that is why the meaning of a work of art cannot be easily fixed or guaranteed. Art is a form of life.
The valence of a work of art is experienced over time. Even in works of art that fail to reach an impact many of us would consider profound, meaning can’t be grasped in a glance or a moment of listening. Meaning in art often accrues by degrees as the world of the art’s embodied content meets us in what we see, touch, hear, smell, and taste. And the world that art creates is formed through an act of poesis (from the Greek for to make), with intention, but not with a means to stabilize meaning(s) in its encounters with viewers over time, in some cases, millennia. As a form of life, works of art may have not just histories but also biographies (extended narrative lives), and sometimes works of art die when they disappear from public view or consciousness.
Religious traditions hold the sacred to be beautiful and desecration to be ugly. Is this a glib, pious claim, masking a sentimental attachment to outdated categories? Or, is beauty still a guiding force in understanding what is valuable? Should our sense that an event or a person’s act is ugly guide our judgment?
Hans Urs von Balthasar, a twentieth-century theologian, developed a theology of beauty. He submitted that without an allegiance to beauty, along with her “sisters” truth and goodness, our lives would be fallow and loveless.
The question that started our project, “Is God invisible?” took us into theological reflection on what might be meant by God being invisible and, just as importantly, what might be meant for our being invisible or visible to one another. We explored the religious worldviews of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism, and their secular alternatives in the three areas of aesthetics: aesthetic experience itself, the philosophy of beauty and ugliness, and the philosophy of art. In advancing aesthetic personalism, we have argued for the reality of embodied persons as enduring individuals with our distinctive aesthetic experiences and values. We have argued against defining persons and the transcendent so as to make it impossible for persons to have symmetrical experiences of God or the sacred. We propose that an omniscient or God’s-eye point of view (as we find in the Abrahamic idea of God, the omniscience of Brahman, and the Compassionate Buddha) provides an important challenge to oppressive, false narratives and supports a realist view of the good, the true, and the beautiful.
In the midst of a fierce storm with brilliant light and flashing fire, four bronze figures emerge with the faces of a man, lion, bull, and eagle. There is a profusion of extended wings, along with lightning, wheels, a scroll, and a prophet, who is commissioned to exhort Israel to repentance, warning about the forthcoming fall of Jerusalem.
The thunderous, cascading opening passages of the sixth-century BCE Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible led some twentieth-century commentators to speculate whether it was actually a description of an alien spaceship landing. What seems more reasonable to assume is that interpreting the sacred texts of great religious traditions requires acquaintance with the meaning and history of the people and cultures in which these texts took shape.
The Bhagavad Gita is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. The scripture narrates a dialogue between the warrior prince Arjuna and his charioteer Krishna, who is an avatar (a kind of incarnation or manifestation) of Vishnu, the cosmic force of goodness, the inner Lord who lives in the hearts of all beings. Their dialogue takes place prior to a monumental battle. Arjuna is downcast, despairing over the monstrosity of the imminent mass killings of family, friends, and former teachers, who are in the opposing army. The dialogue has many layers and teachings about choices, our duties, actions, intentions, the presence of good and evil, and reincarnation. It culminates in the revelation of the divine. Here is a section from the chapter Divine Splendor.
In the current intellectual climate, there is a monolithic assumption that the natural sciences are our best guide to reality. While there is little doubt about the titanic significance and the necessity of physics, chemistry, and biology informing our understanding of reality, there is some doubt about the sufficiency of the natural sciences in helping us identify and explain values (what is good or evil, beautiful or ugly) in society and politics, our personal choices, our religious or secular life, and even the very existence of conscious, subjective experience. A growing range of philosophers has argued that to fully address the reality of consciousness and values we need to expand our inquiry beyond the confines of the natural sciences. In this book we undertake such an expanded exploration, looking into the aesthetic dimension of religious worldviews and their secular alternatives, including those that limit inquiry to the natural sciences.