To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Physiological and behavioural systems are tolerant of excess energy intake and responsive to energy deficits. Weight loss (WL) changes body structure, physiological function and energy balance (EB) behaviours, which resist further WL and promote subsequent weight regain. Measuring and understanding the response of EB systems to energy deficits is important for developing evidence-based behaviour change interventions for longer-term weight management. Currently, behaviour change approaches for longer-term WL show modest effect sizes. Self-regulation of EB behaviours (e.g. goal setting, action plans, self-monitoring, relapse prevention plans) and aspects of motivation are important for WL maintenance. Stress management, emotion regulation and food hedonics may also be important for relapse prevention, but the evidence is less concrete. Although much is known about the effects of WL on physiological and psychological function, little is known about the way these dynamic changes affect human EB behaviours. Key areas of future importance include (i) improved methods for detailed tracking of energy expenditure, balance and by subtraction intake, using digital technologies, (ii) how WL impacts body structure, function and subsequent EB behaviours, (iii) how behaviour change approaches can overcome physiological resistance to WL and (iv) who is likely to maintain WL or relapse. Modelling physiological and psychological moderators and mediators of EB-related behaviours is central to understanding and improving longer-term weight and health outcomes in the general population.
The aim of the current study was to evaluate energy intake misreporting prevalence, its associated factors and its effects on nutrient intake, in the Portuguese population aged from 18 to 84 years.
Adults participants from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, IAN-AF, 2015–2016, who provided two complete 24 h dietary recall and complete covariate information.
Under, plausible and over-reporters were identified according to the Goldberg method. Total misreporting prevalence was 29·9 %, being 28·5 % of under-reporting and 1·4 % of over-reporting. The current study found higher odds of being classified as an under-reporter especially in participants with higher BMI and in those who self-reported health perception status as non-favourable. Energy intake estimation increases by 853.5 kJ/d (204 kcal/d) when misreporters are excluded, and the same tendency is observed for macro and micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the prevalence of inadequacy for protein intake decreases by about 5 % when considering plausible reporters.
The exclusion of misreporters has a small impact on the crude energy and nutrient estimates as well as on assessing the contribution of nutrients to total energy intake. However, a moderate impact was observed in the estimation of nutrient inadequacy prevalence.
Dignity therapy (DT) is well established in adult populations, and it is likely that it could benefit younger people. This study aimed to adapt the adult Portuguese DT question framework for adolescents (DT-QF-Adol) (ages 10–18).
Five stages were followed: (1) the Portuguese DT-QF for adults was adapted for adolescents with the original author's collaboration, (2) an expert committee provided feedback on the adapted version, (3) an initial consensus version of the DT-QF-Adol was created, (4) expert committee consult affirmed final consensus, and (5) validation stage with a sample of 17 adolescents followed in ambulatory psychology clinic.
DT's original author endorsed the final Portuguese DT-QF-Adol, reinforcing that it captures the fundamental dimensions of DT. There was 100% agreement on the final consensus version and defined age group (10–18 years old). Twenty adolescents were invited to participate, and 17 were included after informed consent was obtained; 53% were female. The average age was 12.7 years. The interviewed adolescents reported that the DT-QF-Adol was clear, and they did not identify any ambiguity or difficulty in answering any of the questions. They assumed that this information could positively affect the way parents and friends see and cared for them, permitting others to understand their concerns and preferences. Participants felt that the DT-QF-Adol could be a good starting point for a conversation with their loved ones. Although they did not consider vital for health professionals to access their answers, they strongly felt that the DT-QF-Adol might be essential to sick adolescents and they would recommend it to others.
Significance of results
We developed a DT-QF of nine questions for Portuguese adolescents (DT-QF-Adol), coined Protocolo de Perguntas da Terapia da Dignidade para Adolescentes — 10–18 anos. This tool can potentially be considered a good addition for pediatric palliative care.
To assess total sugar (TS), added sugar (AS) and free sugar (FS) intakes, dietary sources, adherence to recommendations and determinants of consumption, in a Portuguese national sample.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary assessment was obtained by two food diaries in children aged <10 years and two non-consecutive 24 h recalls for other age groups. TS, AS and FS intakes were estimated by using SPADE software. TS content in food was estimated at the ingredient level. AS content in food was assessed through a systematic methodology and FS was based on the WHO definition.
National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF 2015–2016), Portugal.
Representative sample from the Portuguese population, aged from 3 months to 84 years (n 5811).
Mean daily intake and contribution to total energy intake (E%) were 84·3 g/d (18·5 E%) for TS, 32·1 g/d (6·8 E%) for AS and 35·3 g/d (7·5 E%) for FS. Of the population, 76 % adhered to the FS recommendation (FS < 10 E%). The lowest adherence was in children (51·6 %) and adolescents (51·3 %). The main dietary source of TS was fruit across all ages, except in adolescents which was soft drinks. In children, the main dietary sources of FS were yoghurts and sweets, soft drinks in adolescents and table sugar in adults/elderly. FS intake was lower in children with more educated parents and in adults who practised physical activity regularly, and higher among smokers.
Interventions ought to be planned towards decreasing intakes of added and free sugars considering population-specific characteristics.
Contending rationales of peace and conflict coexist between countries and within regional spaces as conditions that motivate or constrain militarized behaviors. While the idea of balancing is still a relevant concept to understand contemporary security in South America, the region produces patterns of a nascent security community. This article argues that the regional repertoire of foreign and security policy practices draws on a hybrid security governance mechanism. The novelty brought by the cumulative interaction among South American countries is that the coexistence turns into a hybrid between both practices and discourses. To explain how hybrid formations are produced, this study analyzes the most empirically intense and academically controversial political and security interactions from interstate relations in the two security complexes in the region, the Southern Cone and the Northern Andes.
Long-term heat stress (HS) induced by testicular insulation generates oxidative stress (OS) on the testicular environment; consequently activating antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The aim of this work was to immunolocalize antioxidant enzymes present in different cells within the seminiferous tubule when rams were submitted to HS. Rams were divided into control (n = 6) and treated group (n = 6), comprising rams subjected to testicular insulation for 240 h. After the testicular insulation period, rams were subjected to orchiectomy. Testicular fragments were submitted to immunohistochemistry for staining against SOD, GR and GPx enzymes. We observed immunolocalization of GPx in more cell types of the testis after HS and when compared with other enzymes. In conclusion, GPx is the main antioxidant enzyme identified in testicular cells in an attempt to maintain oxidative balance when HS occurs.
The dietary inclusion of feed additives to improve the carcass characteristics of the final product is of great importance for the pork production chain. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the association of ractopamine (RAC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance traits of finishing pigs during the last 26 days prior to slaughter. In total, 810 commercial hybrid barrows were used. Animals were distributed among treatments according to a randomised block design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, with three RAC levels (0, 5 or 10 ppm) and three CLA levels (0, 0.3 or 0.6%). Pigs fed the diet with 5 ppm RAC had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.83 kg; P < 0.05) when compared with those fed 10 ppm RAC and the control diet (2.75 and 2.74 kg, respectively). Lower ADFI values (P < 0.01) were observed with the diets containing CLA compared with the control diet with no CLA (2.73 and 2.75 v. 2.85 kg/day, respectively). The average daily weight gain of pigs fed 5 and 10 ppm RAC was +148 and +173 g/dayhigher (P < 0.001), respectively, than those fed the control diet. Dietary RAC levels influenced (P < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR), which was reduced as RAC levels increased, with the pigs fed 10, 5 and 0 ppm RAC presenting FCR values of 2.57, 2.71 and 3.05, respectively. FCR also improved (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of 0.6% CLA relative to the control diet (2.70 v. 2.84, respectively). There was a significant interaction between CLA × RAC levels (P < 0.01) for final BW, loin eye area (LEA) (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness (BT) (P < 0.05). The treatments containing 10 ppm RAC + 0.6% or 0.3% CLA increased LEA and reduced BT. In conclusion, the level of 10 ppm inclusion of RAC increased the overall performance parameters of pigs and therefore improved production efficiency. The combined use of RAC and CLA promoted a lower feed conversion ratio as well as better quantitative carcass traits, as demonstrated by the higher LEA and lower BT. The dietary inclusion of CLA at 0.3% improved feed efficiency, however, without affecting LEA or BT yields.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that in dual-purpose goats, exposure to 1 h of extra-light given from 16 to 17 h after dawn (pulse of light) in winter stimulates milk yield. One group of goats was maintained under natural short photoperiod (natural day; ND (n = 7)). Another group of lactating females was submitted to an artificial long-day photoperiod consisting of 16 h light and 8 h darkness (long days; LD (n = 7)). A third group of females received one single hour of extra-light 16 h after the fixed dawn (pulse of light; PL (n = 6)). Goats from LD and PL yielded 30% more milk than goats from ND. Mean percentages of fat, protein and lactose contents in milk did not differ between the 3 groups at any stage of lactation, but these components in grams/day were higher in goats from PL than in the others two groups within the first 45 d of lactation. In conclusion, dual-purpose lactating goats that started their lactation during natural short days, the daily exposition to a 1-h pulse of light is sufficient to stimulate milk yield compared to females maintained under natural short photoperiod.
We developed a numerical method for the set of equations governing fully compressible convection in the limit of infinite Prandtl numbers. Reduced models have also been analysed, such as the anelastic approximation and the anelastic liquid approximation. The tests of our numerical schemes against self-consistent criteria have shown that our numerical simulations are consistent from the point of view of energy dissipation, heat transfer and entropy budget. The equation of state of an ideal gas has been considered in this work. Specific effects arising because of the compressibility of the fluid are studied, like the scaling of viscous dissipation and the scaling of the heat flux contribution due to the mechanical power exerted by viscous forces. We analysed the solutions obtained with each model (fully compressible model, anelastic and anelastic liquid approximations) in a wide range of dimensionless parameters and determined the errors induced by each approximation with respect to the fully compressible solutions. Based on a rationale on the development of the thermal boundary layers, we can explain reasonably well the differences between the fully compressible and anelastic models, in terms of both the heat transfer and viscous dissipation dependence on compressibility. This could be mostly an effect of density variations on thermal diffusivity. Based on the different forms of entropy balance between exact and anelastic models, we find that a necessary condition for convergence of the anelastic results to the exact solutions is that the product
must be small compared to unity, where
is the ratio of the superadiabatic temperature difference to the adiabatic difference, and
is the ratio of the superadiabatic heat flux to the heat flux conducted along the adiabat. The same condition seems also to be associated with a convergence of the computed heat fluxes. Concerning the anelastic liquid approximation, we confirm previous estimates by Anufriev et al. (Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., vol. 152, 2005, pp. 163–190) and find that its results become generally close to those of the fully compressible model when
is small compared to unity, where
is the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient,
is the temperature (here
for an ideal gas) and
is the dissipation number.
There is no suitable vaccine against human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and available drugs are toxic and/or present high cost. In this context, diagnostic tools should be improved for clinical management and epidemiological evaluation of disease. However, the variable sensitivity and/or specificity of the used antigens are limitations, showing the necessity to identify new molecules to be tested in a more sensitive and specific serology. In the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed in Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes employing sera samples from VL patients. Aiming to avoid undesired cross-reactivity in the serological assays, sera from Chagas disease patients and healthy subjects living in the endemic region of disease were also used in immunoblottings. The most reactive spots for VL samples were selected, and 29 and 21 proteins were identified in the promastigote and amastigote extracts, respectively. Two of them, endonuclease III and GTP-binding protein, were cloned, expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments against a large serological panel, and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values for the diagnosis of disease. In conclusion, the identified proteins could be considered in future studies as candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of human VL.
Background: Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis a hereditary, multi-systemic and life-threatening disease resulting in neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. In the APOLLO study, patisiran, an investigational RNAi therapeutic targeting hepatic TTR production resulted in significant improvement in neuropathy and QoL compared to placebo and was generally well tolerated. Methods: APOLLO, a Phase 3 study of patisiran vs. placebo (NCT01960348) prespecified a cardiac subpopulation (n=126 of 225 total) that included patients with baseline left ventricular (LV) wall thickness ≥ 13mm and no medical history of aortic valve disease or hypertension. Cardiac measures included structure and function by electrocardiography, changes in NT-proBNP and 10-MWT gait speed. Results: At 18 months, patisiran treatment resulted in a mean reduction in LV wall thickness of 1 mm (p=0.017) compared to baseline, which was associated with significant improvements relative to placebo in LV end diastolic volume (+8.31 mL, p=0.036), global longitudinal strain (-1.37%, p=0.015) and NT-proBNP (55% reduction, p=7.7 x 10-8) (Figure 1). Gait speed was also improved relative to placebo (+0.35 m/sec, p=7.4 x 10-9). Rate of death or hospitalization was lower with patisiran. mNIS+7 results in the cardiac subpopulation will also be presented. Conclusions: These data suggest patisiran has the potential to halt or reverse cardiac manifestations of hATTR amyloidosis.