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This is the first modern edition of Book X of the Historia Animalium. It argues that the first five chapters are a summary, from the hand of Aristotle, of a medical treatise by a physician practicing in the fourth-century BCE. This gives short shrift to Hippocratic staples such as trapped menses and the wandering womb, and describes a woman's climax during sex in terms that can be easily mapped onto modern accounts. In summarizing the treatise and examining its claims in the last two chapters, Aristotle follows the method described in the Topics for a philosopher embarking on a new field of study. Here we see Aristotle's ruminations over the conundrum of a woman's contribution to conception at an early stage in the development of his theory of reproduction. Far from being an insignificant pseudepigraphon, this is a central text for understanding the development of ancient gynaecology and Aristotelian methodology.
Research on the demographic impacts of mining in sparsely populated areas has focused primarily on relatively large towns. Less attention has been paid to smaller villages, which may experience different impacts because of their highly concentrated economies and their small populations, making them more vulnerable to demographic “boom and bust” effects. This paper examines demographic change in four small villages in northern Sweden, which are located close to several mining projects but have evolved through different degrees of integration with or separation from mining. Using a longitudinal “resource cycle” perspective, the demographic trajectories of the villages are compared to understand how different types of settlement and engagement with mining have led to different demographic outcomes in the long term. While the four villages experienced similar trajectories in terms of overall population growth and decline, their experiences in relation to more nuanced indicators, including age and gender distributions and population mobilities, were different, and potential reasons for this are discussed. Due to data limitations, however, the long-term demographic consequences of mining for local Sami people remain unclear. The paper problematises this research gap in light of general concerns about mining impacts on traditional Sami livelihoods.
The current study examines the immediate and short-term impact of daily exposure to community violence on same-day and next-day levels of posttraumatic stress symptomatology and various affective states (i.e., dysphoria, hostility, and anxiety), in a sample of 268 African American adolescents living in urban, low-income, high-violence neighborhoods (Mage = 11.65; 59% female). In addition, the moderating role of affective state variability on this relationship was examined. This study utilized experience sampling method and a daily sampling approach, which contributes a more robust investigation of the short-term effects of violence exposure in youth. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that community violence exposure was positively associated with same-day and next-day symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Violence exposure also exhibited an immediate effect on dysphoria, anxiety, and hostility levels. Youth variability in dysphoria exacerbated the effect of violence exposure on concurrent or next-day posttraumatic stress, dysphoria, and hostility. Moreover, variability in anxiety and hostility exacerbated the experience of next-day hostility. The clinical implications relating to these findings, such as the importance of implementing screening for posttraumatic stress following exposure, the incorporation of preventative treatments among those at risk of exposure, and the targeting of emotion regulation in treatments with adolescents, are discussed.
Researchers often lack the necessary data to credibly estimate racial discrimination in policing. In particular, police administrative records lack information on civilians police observe but do not investigate. In this article, we show that if police racially discriminate when choosing whom to investigate, analyses using administrative records to estimate racial discrimination in police behavior are statistically biased, and many quantities of interest are unidentified—even among investigated individuals—absent strong and untestable assumptions. Using principal stratification in a causal mediation framework, we derive the exact form of the statistical bias that results from traditional estimation. We develop a bias-correction procedure and nonparametric sharp bounds for race effects, replicate published findings, and show the traditional estimator can severely underestimate levels of racially biased policing or mask discrimination entirely. We conclude by outlining a general and feasible design for future studies that is robust to this inferential snare.
Housed in the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin, the assiduously organized (and carefully curated) Coetzee Papers include manuscript drafts of Coetzee’s novels (formerly available at the Houghton Library, Harvard College), as well as notebooks, correspondence, teaching materials, and photographs. Only recently opened, this archive has prompted a new wave of critical studies, only some of which have been sufficiently alert to, or indeed sceptical of, the procedures and decisions involved in its establishment and organization. Reflecting on this, this chapter considers the provenance and particular character of these papers in light of Coetzee’s career-long quarrying of autobiographical materials, his project of self-archiving, his explorations of archival themes and use of archival energies in his fictions, and his particular interest in the nature of secrets and lies, of concealment, distortion, and revelation. It argues that it is vital that critics think carefully about their own purposes in reading the archives; about the writer’s purposes in producing them; and about the kinds of truth at stake in the works, the archives, and the literary criticism they occasion.
Metabolic resistances to atrazine (atz-R) and mesotrione (meso-R) occur in several waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] populations in the United States. Interestingly, although metabolic atz-R but mesotrione-sensitive A. tuberculatus populations have been reported, an Amaranthus population has not been confirmed as meso-R but atrazine-sensitive, implying an association between these traits. Experiments were designed to investigate whether the single gene conferring metabolic atz-R plays a role in meso-R. An F2 population was generated from a multiple herbicide–resistant A. tuberculatus population from McLean County, IL (MCR). A cross was made between a known meso-R male clone (MCR-6) and a herbicide-sensitive female clone from Wayne County, IL (WCS-2) to develop an F1 population. Survival of MCR-6 plants following atrazine POST treatment (14.4 kg ha−1) indicated the male parent was homozygous atz-R. F1 plants were intermated to obtain a segregating pseudo-F2 population. Dose–response and metabolic studies conducted with mesotrione using F1 plants indicated intermediate biomass reductions and metabolic rates compared with MCR-6 and WCS. F2 plants were initially treated with either mesotrione (260 g ha−1) or atrazine (2 kg ha−1) POST, and after 21 d of recovery, vegetative clones from surviving resistant plants were subsequently treated with the other herbicide. When mesotrione was applied first, the meso-R frequency was 8.2%, and when atrazine was applied first, the atz-R frequency was 75%. However, the meso-R frequency increased to 16.5% following preselection for atz-R, and 100% of surviving meso-R plants were atz-R. Our findings indicate that the gene conferring metabolic atz-R is also involved with the meso-R trait within the population tested.
This chapter examines campaigning, also described as influencing or advocacy, to bring about change: what it is, when it is needed and who conducts campaigns. Campaigning can be appropriate in a diverse range of situations: from local to global issues, from high-profile to emerging conservation problems, from long-term to opportunist responses. Drawing upon examples from the NGO conservation sector, we discuss how to plan and execute a campaign and explore the different types of campaign: to bring about behaviour and/or policy change, and to raise funds. Finally, we consider some of the potential pitfalls, including a lack of a strong evidence base, overstating claims of success, the introduction of bias, conflicting views of co-organising partners, the inappropriate use of emotion and the risk of unintended consequences. The chapter closes with a recommendation that NGOs consider collaborating with partners to ensure that best practice is followed and that lessons learned are shared.
Research suggests that buprenorphine may possess antidepressant activity. The Beck Depression Inventory was completed at baseline and 3 months by heroin dependent subjects receiving either buprenorphine or methadone maintenance as part of a larger, pre-existing, double blind trial conducted by NDARC (Australia). Depressive symptoms improved in all subjects, with no difference between methadone and buprenorphine groups, suggesting no differential benefit on depressive symptoms for buprenorphine compared to methadone.
Prognostic staging is one of the most important current psychiatrical challenges.
Bipolar prognostic factors must be identified to assist in staging.
To assess prognostic factors, to describe any correlation with the disease outcome and to recommend that psychiatrists assess bipolar patients, determining their stage of disease in order to identify possible high-risk groups of patients.
We collected data from the clinical notes of 70 bipolar outpatients seen at the initial psychiatric assessment clinic about socio-demographic and clinical factors.
The sample comprised 16 bipolar I (22.9%) and 54 bipolar II (77.1%) outpatients; 60.9% reported anxiety, 71.7 % mixed state features and 72.7% rapid cycling. A comparison between 12 prognostic factors found that only the correlations between current illicit drug use/previous illicit drug use, current alcohol use/previous alcohol use, and current illicit drug use/anxiety were statistically significant; the correlation between previous illicit drug use/previous alcohol use, previous alcohol use/family history and mixed state features/anxiety were almost significant.
17 patients were assigned to a care coordinator; we found no statistically significant differences between the patients with or without a care coordinator on the basis of the presence of 12 possible prognostic factors.
In our sample, some patients were found not to have information available so we suggest that a questionnaire to remind clinicians of potentially useful information would be helpful to aid in prognostication. Specific features of the disease (family history, age at onset, features of depressive episodes and mixed state, rapid cycling) may be highlighted.
The aim of the current study was to explore the changing interrelationships among clinical variables through the stages of schizophrenia in order to assemble a comprehensive and meaningful disease model.
Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries participated and included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with schizophrenia. Multiple linear regression analysis and visual inspection of plots were performed.
The results suggest that with progression stages, there are changing correlations among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors at each stage and each factor correlates with all the others in that particular stage, in which this factor is dominant. This internal structure further supports the validity of an already proposed four stages model, with positive symptoms dominating the first stage, excitement/hostility the second, depression the third, and neurocognitive decline the last stage.
The current study investigated the mental organization and functioning in patients with schizophrenia in relation to different stages of illness progression. It revealed two distinct “cores” of schizophrenia, the “Positive” and the “Negative,” while neurocognitive decline escalates during the later stages. Future research should focus on the therapeutic implications of such a model. Stopping the progress of the illness could demand to stop the succession of stages. This could be achieved not only by both halting the triggering effect of positive and negative symptoms, but also by stopping the sensitization effect on the neural pathways responsible for the development of hostility, excitement, anxiety, and depression as well as the deleterious effect on neural networks responsible for neurocognition.
Risk of contact with the criminal justice system (CJS) is greater among those with mental illness, including severe mental illness—an observation that many argue reflects a process of “criminalizing” mental illness. Forensic patients represent a subgroup at one end of a spectrum of such criminalization, typically with histories of serious violence and psychotic illness. Strategies for decriminalizing mental illness in this context should consider a range of approaches, including intervening to prevent CJS contact in those with severe mental illness, particularly in the early or emerging stages of psychosis. However, it may be that even gold standard mental healthcare applied universally is insufficient to address CJS contact risks. While there is now an extensive literature documenting the relatively low rates of repeat CJS contact for forensic patients released from secure care, appropriate comparison groups are lacking and the key ingredients of any benefits of treatment are unknown. The CJS may well have something to learn from forensic mental health systems and services given the abject failure to stem rates of prison-release reoffending internationally. Understanding how to best identify risk and effectively intervene to prevent CJS contact in those with mental illness, whether early in the course of psychosis or following release from secure care, remains a priority for those seeking to address the criminalization of mentally illness in our communities.
Studies investigating the relationship between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and psychiatric disorders have thus far focused mainly on analyzing gray matter, rather than white matter, in the postmortem brain. In this study, we investigated whether PUFA levels showed abnormalities in the corpus callosum, the largest area of white matter, in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder.
Fatty acids in the phospholipids of the postmortem corpus callosum were evaluated by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Specimens were evaluated for patients with schizophrenia (n = 15), bipolar disorder (n = 15), or major depressive disorder (n = 15) and compared with unaffected controls (n = 15).
In contrast to some previous studies, no significant differences were found in the levels of PUFAs or other fatty acids in the corpus callosum between patients and controls. A subanalysis by sex gave the same results. No significant differences were found in any PUFAs between suicide completers and non-suicide cases regardless of psychiatric disorder diagnosis.
Patients with psychiatric disorders did not exhibit n-3 PUFAs deficits in the postmortem corpus callosum relative to the unaffected controls, and the corpus callosum might not be involved in abnormalities of PUFA metabolism. This area of research is still at an early stage and requires further investigation.
The Health of the Nation Outcomes Scales (HoNOS) has been widely used as an outcome measure in UK mental health settings for the past decade. The data-set gathered provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of the totality of mental healthcare in ‘real-world’ conditions; much of our clinical evidence currently comes from highly parameterised clinical trials investigating single interventions in highly selected patients.
To examine all outcomes measured by HoNOS for a range of diagnostic groups, evaluate the influence of patient demographics on those outcomes, and observe changes in patient groups over time.
Here we show the data from 6813 adult patients treated in Cambridgeshire between 2012 and 2017. Patients were split into three diagnostic groups: psychosis, non-psychosis and organic. Changes in HoNOS scores from initial assessment to discharge were tested and regressions were used to evaluate the influence of age, gender and ethnicity on the changes, as well as to model changes in the severity of initial presenting symptoms with time.
HoNOS scores significantly improve after treatment for psychotic, non-psychotic and organic conditions in adults and older adults. Age, but not gender or ethnicity, influenced change in HoNOS scores. Patients entering secondary mental health services had increased initial HoNOS scores over time.
The UK repository of HoNOS scores provides a significant and relatively underutilised resource that can be exploited to gain insights into mental illness and treatment effectiveness. This is likely to have many applications, including influencing the commissioning of services.
The iconic Plaza Tree of Pueblo Bonito is widely believed to have been a majestic pine standing in the west courtyard of the monumental great house during the peak of the Chaco Phenomenon (AD 850–1140). The ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) log was discovered in 1924, and since then, it has been included in “birth” and “life” narratives of Pueblo Bonito, although these ideas have not been rigorously tested. We evaluate three potential growth origins of the tree (JPB-99): Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, or a distant mountain range. Based on converging lines of evidence—documentary records, strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr), and tree-ring provenance testing—we present a new origin for the Plaza Tree. It did not grow in Pueblo Bonito or even nearby in Chaco Canyon. Rather, JPB-99 originated from the Chuska Mountains, over 50 km west of Chaco Canyon. The tree was likely carried to Pueblo Bonito sometime between AD 1100 and 1130, although why it was left in the west courtyard, what it meant, and how it might have been used remain mysteries. The origin of the Plaza Tree of Pueblo Bonito underscores deep cultural and material ties between the Chaco Canyon great houses and the Chuska landscape.
Contextual review is a judicial method that rejects doctrinal or categorical methods to guide judicial supervision of administrative action. Judges are invited to assess the circumstances of a claim in the round without any doctrinal scaffolding to control the depth of scrutiny; in other words, intervention turns on an instinctive judicial impulse or overall evaluative judgement. This paper identifies and explains the various instances where this method is deployed in judicial review in Anglo-Commonwealth administrative law. The efficacy of this style of review is also evaluated, using rule of law standards to frame the analysis. Its increasing popularity is a worrying turn, in part because its reliance on unstructured normativism undermines the rule of law.
This chapter analyzes the impact of a financial literacy training of a Peruvian microfinance institution, which is delivered by credit officers in monthly sessions with the support of video and radio materials. The program, conducted by Arariwa, a non-government organization, was implemented as a field experiment working with 49 credit officers across 665 communal banks in 13 provinces of the departments of Cusco and Puno, Peru. The objective of the study is to rigorously evaluate the effect of an ICT-based financial literacy education program that follows best practices on financial literacy and financial behaviors. We study the impact of a financial literacy education program using a randomized evaluation, which was designed to determine short-term effects and may be extended to determine long-term effects. Furthermore, we determine the effectiveness of using a radio and video supplemented credit with education financial educational program. The literature and experiences worldwide suggest that this methodology is likely to be the most cost-effective and we would like to quantify the benefit of this approach.
The field experiment included working with 49 credit officers across 666 communal banks in 13 provinces of the departments of Cusco and Puno during 2010. The program evaluated consists of (1) nine monthly 45 minute training sessions which involve the use of a 5-to 7-minute video, (2) nine 25-minute radio programs that reinforce the material in the training sessions and (3) nine homework assignments that encourage households to commit to behavioral changes. Credit officers were expected to deliver the training session with the video during the routine communal bank meetings and clients were expected to listen to the radio and do the homework assignment between bank meetings.
The low-cost strategy for implementation of the video and radio components led to low compliance rates with the video and radio components. According to credit officer's estimates, the median treatment bank received only one video session and only 7 percent of its clients listened to the radio program. Given this, we divide our analysis into four parts that allow us to determine the impact of the program. First, we determine the impact of the program on those that the program intended to treat. Second, we determine the impact of the program on those that completed a relatively high number of training sessions but with average ICT compliance.
Native to southeast Asia, the spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura); Diptera: Drosophilidae) has become a major pest of small fruits in the Americas and Europe. Field studies were conducted over a two-year period (2015–2016) in cultivated highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum Linnaeus; Ericaceae) fields and adjacent non-crop habitats containing wild blueberries in New Jersey (United States of America). We tracked seasonal changes in D. suzukii adult abundance and fruit infestation throughout the ripening period (June–August). In both years, D. suzukii adult counts post-harvest were generally higher in traps located in non-crop habitats compared with those located in highbush blueberry fields. Wild and cultivated fruits synchronised in maturation, and the numbers of eggs laid and of emerged adults in both fruit types were comparable for most of the season, although sometimes these numbers were higher in wild fruits post-harvest. Overall, immature success (measured as the per cent egg-to-adult survival) was also mostly higher in wild than in cultivated fruits. Altogether, these studies document that non-crop habitats, and wild hosts therein, are used by D. suzukii during fruit ripening and may serve as potential sources of infestation to nearby highbush blueberry fields. Hence, methods that reduce D. suzukii populations in non-crop habitats may help manage this pest in neighbouring highbush blueberries.
Consistent with pathophysiological models of psychosis, temporal disturbances in schizophrenia spectrum populations may reflect abnormal cortical (e.g. prefrontal cortex) and subcortical (e.g. striatum) cerebellar connectivity. However, few studies have examined associations between cerebellar connectivity and timing dysfunction in psychosis populations, and none have been conducted in youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis. Thus, it is currently unknown if impairments in temporal processes are present in CHR youth or how they may be associated with cerebellar connectivity and worsening of symptoms.
A total of 108 (56 CHR/52 controls) youth were administered an auditory temporal bisection task along with a resting state imaging scan to examine cerebellar resting state connectivity. Positive and negative symptoms at baseline and 12 months later were also quantified.
Controlling for alcohol and cannabis use, CHR youth exhibited poorer temporal accuracy compared to controls, and temporal accuracy deficits were associated with abnormal connectivity between the bilateral anterior cerebellum and a right caudate/nucleus accumbens striatal cluster. Poor temporal accuracy accounted for 11% of the variance in worsening of negative symptoms over 12 months.
Behavioral findings suggest CHR youth perceive durations of auditory tones as shortened compared to objective time, which may indicate a slower internal clock. Poorer temporal accuracy in CHR youth was associated with abnormalities in brain regions involved in an important cerebellar network implicated in prominent pathophysiological models of psychosis. Lastly, temporal accuracy was associated with worsening of negative symptoms across 12 months, suggesting temporal dysfunction may be sensitive to illness progression.