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Digeneans (Trematoda: Digenea) are endoparasites that present a complex life cycle, generally involving an intermediate invertebrate host and a vertebrate host. There is limited information about which species of molluscs may act as intermediate hosts in the upper Paraná River floodplain (UPRF), where Aylacostoma chloroticum can be considered a potential candidate. The study of digeneans in this region is important because some of these parasites are potentially zoonotic, and, therefore, are relevant to public health. However, the correct identification of these organisms during the larval stages is difficult because of the lack of morphologically diagnostic characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify and molecularly characterize the larval stages of digeneans found in A. chloroticum in the UPRF, using the mitochondrial marker of subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase and the 28S nuclear marker. The molluscs were examined in the laboratory and three morphotypes of cercariae were found. DNA was extracted from the specimens obtained and was then amplified and sequenced. The morphotypes exhibited high genetic similarities with Pseudosellacotyla, Paralecithodendrium and Philophthalmus, indicating that these organisms belong to these genera. This is the first record of larval stages of these genera in molluscs collected in the UPRF.
We compare the efficiency of mechanical or enzymatic methods, and their combination, for the isolation of ovarian preantral follicles (PFs) from collared peccaries. The ovaries from six females were subjected to the different methods investigated here. For the enzymatic method, ovary fragments were exposed to collagenase type IV in TCM-HEPES medium; the mechanical procedure was based on ovarian cortex dissociation by using a scalpel blade. The residual solution obtained after the mechanical isolation was subjected to the enzymatic procedure. The number of isolated PFs was quantified and classified as primordial, primary, or secondary; their viability was assessed using trypan blue dye assay. To confirm the results, PFs derived from the most efficient method were evaluated for integrity using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and subjected to a 24 h in vitro culture for subsequent evaluation of viability by using fluorescent probes. A higher number of PFs (P < 0.05) was obtained from the enzymatic method (961.7 ± 132.9) in comparison with the mechanical method (434.3 ± 88.9), but no difference was observed between the two methods and their combination (743.2 ± 92.8). The trypan blue assay showed that the enzymatic method (98.7 ± 0.6%) provided the highest percentage of viable follicles (P < 0.05). Furthermore, SEM confirmed the ultrastructural integrity of the surface architecture of peccary PFs isolated by the enzymatic procedure; epifluorescence microscopy was used to confirm their viability (86.0%). In conclusion, we suggest that the enzymatic method investigated here is useful for the isolation of viable ovarian PFs from collared peccaries.
BM 32482 + is a Late Babylonian tablet with descriptions of rites and ceremonies held in the Eturkalamma temple of Bēlet-Bābili (Ištar of Babylon). The text refers to prayers and recitations to appease the goddess. Cult personnel from her temple (išippu priest) are also mentioned, as is music, a nigûtu performed by a nadītu priestess, a ritual involving a sakkikuddītu, a cultic commentary, omens involving birds, and astrological observations. Despite the fragmentary condition of the tablet, it seems that the performance of the nigûtu was in one way or another related to the preservation of the temple rituals, which would otherwise have been forgotten.
India has gradually progressed into fertility transition over the last few decades. However, the timing and pace of this transition has varied notably in terms of both its geography and the demographic groups most affected by it. While much literature exists on the relationships between fertility level and its influence on demographic, economic, socio-cultural and policy-related factors, the potential spatial variations in the effects of these factors on the fertility level remain unaddressed. Using the most recent district-level census data (of 2011) for India, this nationwide study has identified plausible spatial dependencies and heterogeneities in the relationships between the district-wise Total Fertility Rates (TFRs) and their respective demographic, socioeconomic and cultural factors. After developing a geocoded database for 621 districts of India, spatial regression and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were used to decipher location-based relationships between the district-level TFR and its driving forces. The results revealed that the relationships between the district-level TFR and the considered selected predictors (percentage of Muslims, urbanization, caste group, female mean age at marriage, female education, females in the labour force, net migration, sex ratio at birth and exposure to mass media) were not spatially invariant in terms of their respective strength, magnitude and direction, and furthermore, these relationships were conspicuously place- and context-specific. This study suggests that such locality-based variations and their complexities cannot be explained simply by a single narrative of either socioeconomic advancement or government policy interventions. It therefore contributes to the ongoing debate on fertility research in India by highlighting the spatial dependence and heterogeneity of the impacts made by demographic, socioeconomic and cultural factors on local fertility levels. From a methodological perspective, the study also discerns that the GWR local model performs better, in terms of both model performance and prediction accuracy, compared with the conventional global model estimates.
The aim of the study was to explore the care-seeking pathway of rural women living with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and attending a tertiary health-care facility in Odisha, India.
RA is the third leading chronic health condition and causes severe pain and immense psychosocial stress. The prevalence of RA is three to four times higher in women than in men. Furthermore, in India, women delay care seeking due to the prevailing sociocultural norms. Women report more severe symptoms and greater disability; however, there is a lack of information on their care-seeking pathways.
We conducted 113 in-depth interviews among RA patients those who visited specialists at the outpatients’ Department of Rheumatology, SCB Medical College Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Cuttack, Odisha, India. The grounded theory approaches were used for data analysis.
The key findings included physical pain and psychosocial stress in relation to RA, cultural issues in relation to RA, mapping of the health-care providers for RA, the first point of cares and changes in care-seeking pathways, the perceived challenge for seeking health-care, and coping strategies of patients and social supports. This study explored that the RA patients seek care from multiple providers – untrained, trained and specialist without any gatekeeping. However, the primary health centers were the first point of care for maximum patients due to accessibility and affordability. Furthermore, follow-up care is significant to prevent complication among RA patients; the primary health centers are the gateway for keeping RA patients. Hence, the availability of RA trained providers at primary health center including interprofessional care, such as physiotherapy providers, and proper referral system is essential to convalesce care-seeking pathways.
Many school-based interventions for obesity prevention have been proposed with positive changes in behavior, but unsatisfactory results on weight change. The objective was to verify the effectiveness of a combined school and home-based obesity prevention program on excessive weight gain in adolescents. Teachers delivered the school-based primary prevention program to fifth and sixth graders (9 schools, 48 control classes, 49 intervention classes), which included encouraging healthy eating habits and physical activity. A subgroup of overweight or obese adolescents also received a home-based secondary prevention program delivered by community health professionals. Schools were randomized to intervention or control group. Intent-to-treat analysis used mixed models for repeated continuous measures and considered the cluster effect. The main outcomes were changes in body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%body fat) after one school-year of intervention and follow-up. Against our hypothesis, BMI increased more in the intervention group than in the control group (Δ=0.3kg/m2; p=0.05) with a greater decrease in %body fat among boys (Δ=-0.6%; p=0.03) in the control group. The intervention group increased physical activity by 12.5 minutes per week compared with the control group. Female adolescents in the intervention group ate healthier items more frequently than in the control group. The subgroup who received both the school and home interventions had an increase in %body fat than in the control group (Δ=0.89%; p=0.01). In this study, a behavioral change led to a small increased in physical activity and healthy eating habits but also to an overall increase in food intake.
Asthma-obesity is a multifactorial disease, with specific asthma phenotypes which aggravate due to overweight and an unbalanced diet. Futhermore, asthmatic obese are corticotherapy-resistant. This study was to evaluate the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on food consumption, body composition, lung function and adipokines in obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents and to investigate the influence of nutrients on lung function. Obese non-asthmatic (n=42) and obese asthmatic (n=21) adolescents of both sexes participated this study. Was evaluated food intake, adiponectin, leptin and C-reactive protein, body composition, asthma symptoms and lung function. The interdisciplinary intervention had the duration of one year and the team consisted of nutritionists, psychologists, physiotherapists, physicians and physical education professionals. After intervention there was a reduction (p≤0.01) in body mass index, body fat percentage, visceral and subcutaneous fat, an increase (p≤0.01) in lean mass and lung function variables in both groups, except the relation between forced expiratory volume in the first second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) in non-asthmatic. Also, there was lower (p≤0.01) lipid consumption and cholesterol in both groups. The highest energy consumption (β= -0.02) was associated to lower values of forced vital capacity (FVC). Carbohydrate consumption (β= -0.06) and cholesterol were negative predictors (β= -0.05) in FEV1/FVC. The consumption of calcium (β= 0.01), fibers (β= 1.34) and vitamin A (β= 0.01) were positive predictors of FEV1/FVC. Asthma-obesity interdisciplinary treatment promoted improved food consumption and lung function in adolescents and demonstrated that the consumption of nutrients influenced the increase in lung function.
The non-dimensional dissipation rate
are the viscous energy dissipation rate, integral length scale of turbulence and root-mean-square of the velocity fluctuations, respectively, is computed and analysed within the turbulent/non-turbulent interfacial (TNTI) layer using direct numerical simulations of a planar jet, mixing layer and shear free turbulence. The TNTI layer that separates the turbulent and non-turbulent regions exists at the edge of free shear turbulent flows and turbulent boundary layers, and comprises both the viscous superlayer and turbulent sublayer regions. The computation of
is made possible by the introduction of an original procedure, based on local volume averages within spheres of radius
, combined with conditional sampling as a function of the location with respect to the TNTI layer. The new procedure allows for a detailed investigation of the scale dependence of several turbulent quantities near the TNTI layer. An important achievement of this procedure consists in permitting the computation of the turbulent integral scale within the TNTI layer, which is shown to be approximately constant. Both the non-dimensional dissipation rate and turbulent Reynolds number
vary in space within the TNTI layer, where two relations are observed:
. Specifically, whereas the viscous superlayer and part of the turbulent sublayer display
, the remaining of the turbulent sublayer exhibits
, which is consistent with non-equilibrium turbulence (Vassilicos, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. vol. 47, 2015, pp. 95–114).