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Causes of the comorbidity of substance misuse with anxiety-related and depressive disorders (anxiety/depression) remain poorly known. We estimated associations of substance misuse and anxiety/depression in the general population and tested them while accounting for genetic and shared environmental factors.
We studied individuals born in Sweden 1968–1997 (n = 2 996 398) with follow-up in nationwide register data for 1997–2013. To account for familial effects, stratified analyses were conducted within siblings and twin pairs. Substance misuse was defined as ICD-10 alcohol or drug use disorder or an alcohol/drug-related criminal conviction. Three dimensions of ICD-10 anxiety and depressive disorders and a substance misuse dimension were identified through exploratory factor analysis.
Substance misuse was associated with a 4.5-fold (95% CI 4.50–4.58) elevated risk of lifetime generalized anxiety/depression, 4.7-fold (95% CI 4.63–4.82) elevated risk of panic disorder and agora/social phobia, and 2.9-fold elevated risk of phobias/OCD (95% CI 2.82–3.02) as compared to those without substance misuse. The associations were attenuated in within-family analyses but we found elevated risks in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for substance misuse as well as significant non-shared environmental correlations. The association between anxiety/depression and substance misuse was mainly driven by generalized anxiety/depression, whereas other anxiety/depression dimensions had minor or no independent associations with substance misuse.
Substance misuse and anxiety/depression are associated at the population level, and these associations are partially explained by familial liabilities. Our findings indicate a common genetic etiology but are also compatible with a potential partially causal relationship between substance misuse and anxiety/depression.
Studies on the individual gender-specific risk and familial co-aggregation of suicidal behaviour in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are lacking.
We conducted a matched case-cohort study applying conditional logistic regression models on 54 168 individuals recorded in 1987–2013 with ASD in Swedish national registers: ASD without ID n = 43 570 (out of which n = 19035, 43.69% with ADHD); ASD + ID n = 10 598 (out of which n = 2894 individuals, 27.31% with ADHD), and 270 840 controls, as well as 347 155 relatives of individuals with ASD and 1 735 775 control relatives.
The risk for suicidal behaviours [reported as odds ratio OR (95% confidence interval CI)] was most increased in the ASD without ID group with comorbid ADHD [suicide attempt 7.25 (6.79–7.73); most severe attempts i.e. requiring inpatient stay 12.37 (11.33–13.52); suicide 13.09 (8.54–20.08)]. The risk was also increased in ASD + ID group [all suicide attempts 2.60 (2.31–2.92); inpatient only 3.45 (2.96–4.02); suicide 2.31 (1.16–4.57)]. Females with ASD without ID had generally higher risk for suicidal behaviours than males, while both genders had highest risk in the case of comorbid ADHD [females, suicide attempts 10.27 (9.27–11.37); inpatient only 13.42 (11.87–15.18); suicide 14.26 (6.03–33.72); males, suicide attempts 5.55 (5.10–6.05); inpatient only 11.33 (9.98–12.86); suicide 12.72 (7.77–20.82)]. Adjustment for psychiatric comorbidity attenuated the risk estimates. In comparison to controls, relatives of individuals with ASD also had an increased risk of suicidal behaviour.
Clinicians treating patients with ASD should be vigilant for suicidal behaviour and consider treatment of psychiatric comorbidity.
This paper investigates the California Vowel Shift, previously characterized as a chain shift, in communities across California's Central Valley. An incremental apparent time analysis of 72 Californians’ vowel spaces provides no clear evidence of a gradual chain shift; that is, changes have not unfolded in an order that reflects an implicational chain in chronological time. Instead, we see contemporaneous movements of vowels that work against the phonological tendency of maximal dispersion typically invoked in describing chain shifts. By analyzing change in the size and dispersion of the entire vowel space, we find that ongoing sound change is instead characterized by a holistic compression of the vowel space. This suggests that, in these California communities, the shift's unfolding was driven by articulatory and social, rather than purely phonological, factors. We propose that the analysis of the size and spread of holistic vowel space can help characterize the nature and motivations for vocalic changes.
Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed as a model for investigating the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing psychiatric conditions and previous studies are likely confounded by genetic influences.
A Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted to disentangle the influence of prenatal androgen exposure from familial confounding in the association between maternal PCOS and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Tourette's disorder and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD). PCOS-exposed offspring (n = 21 280) were compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring (n = 200 816) and PCOS-unexposed cousins (n = 17 295). Associations were estimated with stratified Cox regression models.
PCOS-exposed offspring had increased risk of being diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, and TD/CTD compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring. Associations were stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD but not TD/CTD [ADHD: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31–1.99), ASD: aHR = 2.02 (95% CI 1.45–2.82)] than boys [ADHD: aHR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.19–1.57), ASD: aHR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.21–1.76)]. For ADHD and ASD, aHRs for girls were stronger when compared with PCOS-unexposed cousins, but slightly attenuated for boys.
Estimates were similar when accounting for familial confounding (i.e. genetics and environmental factors shared by cousins) and stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD, potentially indicating a differential influence of prenatal androgen exposure v. genetic factors. These results strengthen evidence for a potential causal influence of prenatal androgen exposure on the development of male-predominant neuropsychiatric disorders in female offspring of women with PCOS.
This paper explores the relation between controlled and automatic perceptions of a sociolinguistic variable that yields no metalinguistic commentary—a marker (Labov, 1972). Two experiments examine links between the backed trap vowel and its social meanings. The first, a matched guise task, measures social evaluations of the feature in a relatively controlled, introspective task. In the second, two measures are used that access different points in online processing and different degrees of listener control: (a) lexical categorization of an ambiguous stimulus, measured by a mouse click, and (b) automatic, early responses to this ambiguous stimulus, measured by eye movements. While listeners perceptually link trap-backing with social information in all three measures, specific social effects differ across the measures. Findings illustrate that the task and time course of a response influence how listeners link a linguistic marker with social information, even when this sociolinguistic knowledge is below the level of conscious awareness.
Social meaning-based approaches to linguistic variation treat variation as a semiotic system, in which sociolinguistic signs—indexical links between linguistic forms and social meanings—serve as interactional resources that individuals use to project personae. This article explores the perceptual nature of the links between social personae and linguistic forms, examining how information about a speaker's persona can influence a listener's linguistic perceptions of a continuous phonetic feature. Using a phoneme categorization task, this study examines associations between gradient phonetic manifestations on a continuum from /æ/ to /ɑ/ and three social personae. Findings illustrate that the social persona made relevant for a listener influences the ways in which points on this phonetic continuum are categorized phonemically as either trap or lot. Overall, this shows that the social constructs of personae influence phonetically detailed perceptions of linguistic material. (Sociolinguistic perception, personae, indexicality, sociophonetics, sociolinguistic signs)*
This article explores the intertwining semiotics of language and embodiment in performances of Californian personae. We analyze two actors’ performances of Californian characters in parodic skits, comparing them to the same actors’ performances of non-Californian characters. In portraying their Californian characters, the actors use particularized jaw settings, which we link to embodied stereotypes from earlier portrayals of the Valley Girl and Surfer Dude personae. Acoustic analysis demonstrates that both actors also produce features of the California Vowel Shift in their Californian performances, aligning their linguistic productions with sound changes documented in California. We argue that these embodied stereotypes and phonetic realizations not only co-occur in parodic styles, but are in fact semiotically and corporeally intertwined, one occasioning the other. Moreover, the performances participate in the broader process of enregisterment, packaging these semiotic resources with other linguistic and extralinguistic features to recontextualize Californian personae in the present day. (Parody, performance, California, California Vowel Shift, embodiment, embodied stereotype, enregisterment)*
Knowledge about the association between alcohol and Barrett’s oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis is conflicting. In this case–control study we evaluated the role of specific alcoholic beverages (red and white wine, beer and liquors) in 339 Barrett’s oesophagus and 462 oesophagitis patients compared with 619 endoscopic controls with other disorders, recruited in twelve Italian endoscopic units. Data on alcohol and other individual characteristics were obtained from structured questionnaires. No clear, monotonic significant dose–response relationship was pointed out for red wine. However, a generalised U-shaped trend of Barrett’s oesophagus/oesophagitis risk due to red wine consumption particularly among current drinkers was found. Similar results were also found for white wine. Liquor/spirit consumption seemed to bring about a 1·14–2·30 risk excess, although statistically non-significant, for current Barrett’s oesophagus/oesophagitis drinkers. Statistically significant decreasing dose–response relationships were found in Barrett’s oesophagus for frequency and duration of beer consumption. Similar, but less clear downward tendencies were also found for oesophagitis patients. In conclusion, although often not statistically significant, our data suggested a reduced risk of Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophagitis with a low/moderate intake of wine and beer consumption. A non-significant increased risk of Barrett’s oesophagus/oesophagitis was observed with a higher intake of any type of heavy alcohol consumption, but no conclusion can be drawn owing to the high number of non-spirit drinkers and to the small number of drinkers at higher alcohol intake levels.
Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence.
Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979–2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987–2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history.
Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25–29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13–1.40) for AED.
In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.
Highly accreting quasars are possible cosmological probes, as their Eddington ratio is expected to saturate toward values of order unity. We present preliminary estimates of redshift- independent source luminosities and the Hubble diagram for quasars in the redshift range 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 2.6.
We analyzed the light curves (LCs) of several radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars belonging to the same parameter space volume in the 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) quasar sequence, using data from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS). We report preliminary results on detected variability pattern, and discuss possible cases of periodic variability.
Surface photometry of nearby galaxies is among the research areas that gained most from the recent advances in ‘wide-field imaging’. In fact, the demand for an accurate measure of the night-sky level all around the target galaxy — a key step in galaxy surface photometry; see Fig. 1 in Capaccioli & de Vaucouleurs (1983) — calls for at least some images covering a field wider than the size of the object under study. So far, the small field of most CCD cameras attached to the Cassegrain foci of medium-size telescopes has prevented both the mapping of the galaxian outskirts and, a fortiori, a direct measurement of the sky background μs on the galaxy image itself. Indirect methods to estimate μs — blank-sky exposures, matching of growth curves to photoelectric integrated magnitudes, assumptions on the shape of the galaxian light profiles — have proven ineffective and/or methodologically questionable (Capaccioli 1989). Until large-format CCD chips or mosaics are routinely used, the only way out of these problems is either the use of focal reducers, whose optical complexity may however be incompatible with photometric accuracy, or of large-field photographic plates.
A system with several lines for the preparation of graphite targets for radiocarbon analysis has been built at the new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility in Caserta, Italy. Special attention has been paid in the design to the reduction of background contamination during sample preparation. Here, we describe the main characteristics of these preparation lines. Results of tests performed to measure 14C background levels and isotope fractionation in several blank samples with the Caserta AMS system are presented and discussed.
The Avellino Pumices eruption was one of the most catastrophic volcanic events of Somma-Vesuvius, which hit prehistoric communities during the Early Bronze Age. In the last 30 yr, several authors reported assessments about its chronology, including radiocarbon datings, but with poor internal agreement and frequently with large experimental errors. A new and more accurate 14C dating of this eruption (1935–1880 BC, 1 σ) was obtained at the CIRCE laboratory in Caserta (Italy) by 3 AMS measurements on a bone sample of a goat buried by the eruption, collected in an Early Bronze Age village at Croce del Papa (Nola, Naples). These results were verified by other measurements on several samples chronologically related to the eruption. Our data show that human resettlement after the eruption occurred rather quickly but lasted only for a short time in areas affected by the volcanic products, like Masseria Rossa and San Paolo Belsito (Nola, Naples), according to 14C dating of archaeological samples collected below and above the eruption deposits. The state-of-the-art chronology of this eruption, emerging from the results obtained in this work as well as from data in the literature, is discussed.
The pretreatment of samples for radiocarbon measurements, transforming a variety of materials into graphite solid targets, represents a critical point in the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) procedure. We describe the new, state-of-the-art CIRCE AMS preparation laboratory, particularly the setup and optimization of an alternative method, the zinc reduction method, for graphite target production, compared to the more common hydrogen reduction method. Measured 14C values on standard and blank samples reduced via zinc reaction revealed mean background levels, accuracy, and sensitivity comparable to those obtained by our conventional hydrogen reaction lines. Zinc line reduction at the CIRCE laboratory represents an effective and powerful alternative to the conventional hydrogen reduction, ensuring higher sample throughput with lower costs at a comparable performance level.
Actinide isotopes are present in environmental samples at ultra-trace levels (236U concentration is quoted to be on the order of pg/kg or fg/kg). Their detection requires the resolution of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, but only accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has the sensitivity required. In order to perform the isotopic ratio measurements of actinides, such as 236U/238U, an upgrade of the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage accelerator (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy, has been performed. The system was originally equipped for radiocarbon AMS measurements. The main difficulty of AMS measurement of 236U is the intense neighboring beam of 238U. Although most of the 238U ions are suppressed by means of magnetic and electrostatic elements, a small fraction of this intense beam can interfere with the rare isotopes. This paper reports the preliminary results of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio measurement limit (<5.6 x 10–11), aimed also to better understand the origin of background ions. For this purpose, a large 16-strip silicon detector providing spatial resolution has been used. In addition, calculations to assess the performance of the system obtained by adding a high-resolution time of flight-energy (TOF-E) detector are discussed.
Total CO2 exposure levels in a naturally enriched site (Lajatico, Italy) were reconstructed using radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry combined with dendrochronological analysis on wood cores extracted from trees grown in the fossil CO2 source proximity. Over 3 decades (1964–1998), the data show a mean CO2 concentration in the atmosphere of 650 ppm, about twice the current concentration in atmosphere, with a maximum around 1980.
We investigate the properties of early-type galaxies as distance indicators by applying the Dn – σ, Fundamental Plane (FP), and log(m) – log re relations to a complete and fairly homogeneous sample of galaxies members of the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The relative mean distance of the two clusters can be derived with an accuracy up to ∼ 3% provided that the internal kinematics of the galaxies is taken into account and a correct statistical approach is used.
The residuals of the Dn – σ and FP relationships do not correlate with many structural and geometrical parameters of the galaxies: the mean effective surface brightness, the total luminosity, the average ellipticity and the Fourier coefficient a4 of the isophotes, and, the exponent m of the r1/m law which parametrizes the shape of the light profiles. On the other hand, the kinematics of the galaxies affect both relations producing residuals that correlate with the maximum rotation velocity Vmax and the (V/σ) ratio.
Once confirmed by future more accurate observations, this effect would introduce a sistematic bias in the distance determination of the clusters; a problem difficult to manage if the internal kinematics of the cluster members is unknown.
We derive the distance modulus of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by applying the new calibrated relationship between maximum magnitude and rate of decline (MMRD). The result, , is in close agreement with the most recent determinations based on RR Lyrae and Cepheids. We also discuss the properties of the MMRD of M31 and of the LMC.