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Hospital antibiotic use in Argentina has not been described. We present results of point prevalence surveys on antibiotic use conducted in 109 Argentinian hospitals in November 2018 and submitted to the National Program of Epidemiology and Control of Hospital-Acquired Infections, and we discuss potential areas for improvement.
No standardized surveillance criteria exist for surgical site infection after breast tissue expander (BTE) access. This report provides a framework for defining postaccess BTE infections and identifies contributing factors to infection during the expansion period. Implementing infection prevention guidelines for BTE access may reduce postaccess BTE infections.
We compared the fluorescent gel removal rate using fewer high-touch surfaces (HTSs) and rooms and determined the optimum number of HTSs and rooms needed to ensure accuracy using 2,942 HTSs in 228 rooms on 13 units. Randomly selecting 3 HTS in 2 rooms predicted the optimal removal rate.
Targeted screening for carbapenem-resistant organisms (CROs), including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs), remains limited; recent data suggest that existing policies miss many carriers.
Our objective was to measure the prevalence of CRO and CPO perirectal colonization at hospital unit admission and to use machine learning methods to predict probability of CRO and/or CPO carriage.
We performed an observational cohort study of all patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) or solid organ transplant (SOT) unit at The Johns Hopkins Hospital between July 1, 2016 and July 1, 2017. Admission perirectal swabs were screened for CROs and CPOs. More than 125 variables capturing preadmission clinical and demographic characteristics were collected from the electronic medical record (EMR) system. We developed models to predict colonization probabilities using decision tree learning.
Evaluating 2,878 admission swabs from 2,165 patients, we found that 7.5% and 1.3% of swabs were CRO and CPO positive, respectively. Organism and carbapenemase diversity among CPO isolates was high. Despite including many characteristics commonly associated with CRO/CPO carriage or infection, overall, decision tree models poorly predicted CRO and CPO colonization (C statistics, 0.57 and 0.58, respectively). In subgroup analyses, however, models did accurately identify patients with recent CRO-positive cultures who use proton-pump inhibitors as having a high likelihood of CRO colonization.
In this inpatient population, CRO carriage was infrequent but was higher than previously published estimates. Despite including many variables associated with CRO/CPO carriage, models poorly predicted colonization status, likely due to significant host and organism heterogeneity.
Nurses view patient safety as an essential component of their work and have reported a general interest in embracing an antibiotic steward role. However, antibiotic stewardship (AS) functions have not been formally integrated into nursing practice despite nurses’ daily involvement in clinical activities that impact antibiotic decisions (e.g., obtaining specimens for cultures, blood drawing for therapeutic drug monitoring). Recommendations to expand AS programs to include bedside nurses are generating support at a national level, yet a practical guidance on how nurses can be involved in AS activities is lacking. In this review, we provide a framework identifying selected practices where nurses can improve antibiotic prescribing practices through appropriate obtainment of Clostridioides difficile tests, appropriate urine culturing practices, optimal antibiotic administration, accurate and detailed documentation of penicillin allergy histories and through the prompting of antibiotic time outs. We identify reported barriers to engagement of nurses in AS and offer potential solutions that include patient safety principles and quality improvement strategies that can be used to mitigate participation barriers. This review will assist AS leaders interested in advancing the contributions of nurses into their AS programs by discussing education, communication, improvement models, and workflow integration enhancements that strengthen systems to support nurses as valued partners in AS efforts.
An unusual ancient Greek lament form, hitherto overlooked by students of the subject, displays the following syntax: parallel sentences with verb in initial position (Vi) expressing the loss, followed by the grammatical subject (S). Sometimes the same verb was used in each of the parallel lines. ViS parallelism is a subliterary syntax reflecting a very old style. A number of Greek authors adopted this syntax to represent or allusively echo the form. Examples, although relatively scarce, are spread through a diverse range of ancient literature spanning at least six centuries, from the second century BC to the fourth century AD, with earlier echoes as far back as Homer.
In this systematic evaluation of fluorescent gel markers (FGM) applied to high-touch surfaces with a metered applicator (MA) made for the purpose versus a generic cotton swab (CS), removal rates were 60.5% (476 of 787) for the MA and 64.3% (506 of 787) for the CS. MA-FGM removal interpretation was more consistent, 83% versus 50% not removed, possibly due to less varied application and more adhesive gel.
This study examined differences in learning outcomes among newborn intensive care unit (NICU) workers who underwent virtual reality simulation (VRS) emergency evacuation training versus those who received web-based clinical updates (CU). Learning outcomes included a) knowledge gained, b) confidence with evacuation, and c) performance in a live evacuation exercise.
A longitudinal, mixed-method, quasi-experimental design was implemented utilizing a sample of NICU workers randomly assigned to VRS training or CUs. Four VRS scenarios were created that augmented neonate evacuation training materials. Learning was measured using cognitive assessments, self-efficacy questionnaire (baseline, 0, 4, 8, 12 months), and performance in a live drill (baseline, 12 months). Data were collected following training and analyzed using mixed model analysis. Focus groups captured VRS participant experiences.
The VRS and CU groups did not statistically differ based upon the scores on the Cognitive Assessment or perceived self-efficacy. The virtual reality group performance in the live exercise was statistically (P<.0001) and clinically (effect size of 1.71) better than that of the CU group.
Training using VRS is effective in promoting positive performance outcomes and should be included as a method for disaster training. VRS can allow an organization to train, test, and identify gaps in current emergency operation plans. In the unique case of disasters, which are low-volume and high-risk events, the participant can have access to an environment without endangering themselves or clients. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:301–308)
Using samples collected for VRE surveillance, we evaluated unit admission prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) perirectal colonization and whether CRE carriers (unknown to staff) were on contact precautions for other indications. CRE colonization at unit admission was infrequent (3.9%). Most CRE carriers were not on contact precautions, representing a reservoir for healthcare-associated CRE transmission.
Intrauterine myocardial infarction is a rare and frequently fatal diagnosis. It has been presented in the literature only as case reports and short series. We present a case report of a coronary occlusive intrauterine myocardial infarction and survival and present a systematic review of the literature. This is the first summative description of current data on intrauterine and perinatal myocardial infarction. We performed the systematic review based on the guidelines established by the PRISMA statement. Our population of intrauterine and perinatal myocardial infarction included published cases who presented as a live birth within the first 28 postnatal days, and had a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. We conducted descriptive statistics and regression analysis on short-term mortality as the primary outcome. After applying exclusion criteria we described 84 individual cases of myocardial infarction from 63 full-text articles including our own case. Presentation within the first 12 hours was associated with mortality (OR 3.90, p=0.004). Treatment modalities were varied and inconsistently recorded. The aetiologies and comorbidities are varied in our systematic review. We would have a low threshold to perform viral testing, consider anticoagulation early and coronary imaging if feasible. The use of extracorporeal membranous oxygenation may serve as a bridge to cardiac recovery.
Improving access to tuberculosis (TB) care and ensuring early diagnosis are two major aims of the WHO End TB strategy and the Collaborative TB Strategy for England. This study describes risk factors associated with diagnostic delay among TB cases in England. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of TB cases notified to the Enhanced TB Surveillance System in England between 2012 and 2015. Diagnostic delay was defined as more than 4 months between symptom onset and treatment start date. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with diagnostic delay. Between 2012 and 2015, 22 422 TB cases were notified in England and included in the study. A third (7612) of TB cases had a diagnostic delay of more than 4 months. Being female, aged 45 years and older, residing outside of London and having extra-pulmonary TB disease were significantly associated with a diagnostic delay in the multivariable model (aOR = 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.3, 1.8, respectively). This study identifies demographic and clinical factors associated with diagnostic delay, which will inform targeted interventions to improve access to care and early diagnosis among these groups, with the ultimate aim of helping reduce transmission and improve treatment outcomes for TB cases in England.
The role of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal surveillance swabs (nasal swabs) in guiding decisions about prescribing vancomycin is unclear. We aimed to determine the likelihood that patients with negative MRSA nasal swabs develop subsequent MRSA infections; to assess avoidable vancomycin days for patients with negative nasal swabs; and to identify risk factors for having a negative nasal swab and developing a MRSA infection during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay.
This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 6 ICUs at a tertiary-care hospital from December 2013 through June 2015. The negative predictive value (NPV), defined as the ability of a negative nasal swab to predict no subsequent MRSA infection, was calculated. Days of vancomycin continued or restarted after 3 days from the collection time of the first negative nasal swab were determined. A matched case-control study identified risk factors for having a negative nasal swab and developing MRSA infection.
Of 11,441 patients with MRSA-negative nasal swabs, the rate of subsequent MRSA infection was 0.22%. A negative nasal swab had a NPV of 99.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.1%–99.6%). Vancomycin was continued or started after nasal swab results were available in 1,431 patients, translating to 7,364 vancomycin days. No risk factors associated with MRSA infection were identified.
In our hospital with a low prevalence of MRSA transmission, a negative MRSA nasal swab was helpful in identifying patients with low risk of MRSA infection in whom empiric vancomycin therapy could be stopped and in whom the subsequent initiation of vancomycin therapy during an ICU admission could be avoided.
The longstanding association between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus and schizophrenia (SZ) risk has recently been accounted for, partially, by structural variation at the complement component 4 (C4) gene. This structural variation generates varying levels of C4 RNA expression, and genetic information from the MHC region can now be used to predict C4 RNA expression in the brain. Increased predicted C4A RNA expression is associated with the risk of SZ, and C4 is reported to influence synaptic pruning in animal models.
Based on our previous studies associating MHC SZ risk variants with poorer memory performance, we tested whether increased predicted C4A RNA expression was associated with reduced memory function in a large (n = 1238) dataset of psychosis cases and healthy participants, and with altered task-dependent cortical activation in a subset of these samples.
We observed that increased predicted C4A RNA expression predicted poorer performance on measures of memory recall (p = 0.016, corrected). Furthermore, in healthy participants, we found that increased predicted C4A RNA expression was associated with a pattern of reduced cortical activity in middle temporal cortex during a measure of visual processing (p < 0.05, corrected).
These data suggest that the effects of C4 on cognition were observable at both a cortical and behavioural level, and may represent one mechanism by which illness risk is mediated. As such, deficits in learning and memory may represent a therapeutic target for new molecular developments aimed at altering C4’s developmental role.