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The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a broadleaf weed that is increasing in prevalence in the northern cropping regions of Australia. Being a member of Asteraceae family, this weed possesses many biological attributes needed to thrive in varying environments and under differing weed management pressures. Interference of this weed in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop was examined through field studies in 2016 and 2017. Different densities of S. oleraceus were evaluated for their potential to cause yield loss in wheat: 0.0 (weed-free), low (9 to 15 plants m−2), medium (29 to 38 plants m−2), and high (62 to 63 plants m−2). Based on the exponential decay model, 43 and 52 plants m−2 caused a yield reduction of 50% in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Yield components such as panicles per square meter and grains per panicle were affected by weed density. At the high weed infestation level, S. oleraceus produced a maximum of 182,940 and 192,657 seeds m−2 in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Sonchus oleraceus exhibited poor seed retention at harvest, as more than 95% of seeds were blown away by wind. Adverse effects on crop, high seed production, and wind-blown dispersal may lead to an increased prevalence of this weed in the absence of an integrated weed management strategy utilizing both herbicides and nonchemical options.
In Australia, junglerice and feather fingergrass are problematic weeds in sorghum. The high seed production potential of these weeds increases their seedbank in the soil and makes weed control practices more difficult and expensive, particularly when weeds have evolved resistance to herbicides. A study was conducted to evaluate the seed production and seed retention behavior of junglerice and feather fingergrass at sorghum crop maturity following four transplanting times: 0, 2, 4, and 6 wk after sorghum emergence. Averaged across years, junglerice and feather fingergrass produced 4,060 and 5,740 seeds plant-1, respectively,when they were transplanted with the emergence of a sorghum crop. Seed retention ranged from 42% to 56% for junglerice and 67% to 75% for feather fingergrass when these weeds were transplanted from 0 to 4 wk after crop emergence. A positive correlation (r = 0.75 for junglerice; r = 0.44 for feather fingergrass) was found between seed production and weed biomass in both weeds, indicating that larger plants produced more seeds than smaller plants. However, no correlation was found between weed biomass and seed retention for junglerice. A weak positive correlation (r = 0.44) was found between feather fingergrass biomass and percent seed retention, indicating that seed retention was greater in larger plants compared with smaller plants. Our results suggest that feather fingergrass is a good candidate for harvest weed seed control (HWSC) tactics if crop harvest is timely. There is limited opportunity to use HWSC tactics for targeting junglerice seeds in sorghum crops, because most seeds dispersed before crop maturity. Additional research is required to evaluate seed retention levels of these weeds in other summer crops such as corn and soybean to determine the potential for HWSC for management of these species.
Annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a major weed of mungbean crops in Australia. Resistance in this weed to several herbicide groups is a challenging issue for its management. Hence, cultural weed management strategies, such as increasing the crop competitive ability through increased stand density, should be considered to reduce reliance on herbicides. It was hypothesized that a competitive crop stand may reduce the growth and seed production of S. oleraceus. Two pot studies were conducted, and each study was repeated once. The first study evaluated the effect of different mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] densities (0, 82, 164, 246, and 328 plants m−2) on S. oleraceus growth and seed production, while the second study focused on glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible biotypes of this weed in competition with densities of 0, 82, and 164 mungbean plants m−2. Although increasing mungbean density from 0 to 82 and 164 plants m−2 reduced S. oleraceus seed production by 55% and 78%, respectively, a large number of seeds were produced, even at the mungbean density of 328 plants m−2 (1,185 seeds plant−1). Both glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible biotypes of S. oleraceus responded similarly to the increase in mungbean density. The results of the second study showed that height, leaves, number of inflorescence, and seed production per plant of both glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible biotypes were reduced but not suppressed adequately. The glyphosate-resistant biotype produced fewer leaves and less biomass and, consequently, its seed production was 24% less compared with the glyphosate-susceptible biotype in the no-competition treatment. Both biotypes of S. oleraceus produced about 4,000 seeds plant−1 in competition with 164 mungbean plants m−2. The results suggest that crop competition alone cannot provide satisfactory control of S. oleraceus; therefore, for effective and adequate weed management, other practices such as PRE herbicides should be integrated with increased crop density.
There has been little reported on the transoral reconstructive options following salvage transoral robotic surgery. This paper describes the facial artery musculomucosal flap as a method to introduce vascularised tissue to a previously irradiated resection bed.
A facial artery musculomucosal flap was used to reconstruct the lateral pharyngeal wall in 13 patients undergoing salvage transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Outcomes recorded include flap and donor site complications, length of stay, and swallowing and speech outcomes.
There were no immediate or late flap complications, or cases of delayed wound healing in this series. There were two facial artery musculomucosal related complications requiring surgical management: one bleed from the facial artery musculomucosal donor site and one minor surgical revision. Healing of the flap onto the resection bed was successful in all cases.
The facial artery musculomucosal flap provides a suitable transoral local flap option for selected patients undergoing salvage transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal malignancies.
Turnipweed [Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.] and Mexican pricklepoppy (Argemone mexicana L.) are increasingly prevalent in the northern cropping regions of Australia. The effect of different densities of these two weeds was examined for their potential to cause yield loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through field studies in 2016 and 2017. There was 72% to 78% yield reduction in wheat due to competition from R. rugosum. Based on the exponential decay model, 18.2 and 24.3 plants m−2 caused a yield reduction of 50% in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Rapistrum rugosum produced a maximum of 32,042 and 29,761 seeds m−2 in 2016 and 2017, respectively. There was 100% weed seed retention at crop harvest. Competition from A. mexicana resulted in a yield loss of 17% and 22% in 2016 and 2017, respectively; however, plants failed to set seeds due to intense competition from wheat. Among the yield components, panicles per square meter and grains per panicle were affected by weed competition. The studies indicate a superior competitiveness of R. rugosum in wheat and a suppressive effect of wheat on A. mexicana. The results indicate that a wheat crop can be included in crop rotation programs where crop fields are infested with A. mexicana. High seed retention in R. rugosum indicates the possibility to manage this weed through seed catching and harvest weed seed destruction.
Parthenium hysterophorus is a prolific invasive weed species, which infests many crops in over 40 countries around the world. A 2-year field study was carried out to quantify the potential impacts of this weed on direct-seeded rice. Parthenium weed was allowed to compete for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks after crop emergence, while full season weedy and weed-free plots were maintained as controls. Parthenium weed plants grew taller and attained more biomass as the competition duration prolonged. The yield and yield-related attributes of rice were negatively affected with increasing competition duration. The season-long competition caused the highest reductions in panicle number (28–34%), panicle length (26–27%), grains per panicle (22–23%) and grain yield (33 and 38%) of rice in both years. Weed competition for 2–8 weeks caused 5–34% and 6–33% losses in rice grain yield during both years, respectively. Importantly, Parthenium weed control after 8 weeks of competition did not improve rice yield significantly. The results suggested that Parthenium weed should be controlled in rice fields between 4 and 8 weeks after crop emergence under direct-seeded conditions to avoid over 10% yield losses.
Pre-weaning animals exit a flock through death induced by various reasons, causing significant economic losses to the goat producers. In this study, we investigated the survival from birth to weaning of Sirohi goat kids within framework of the survival analysis. Kid records were accessed from 1997 to 2017, with the information on 4417 pre-weaning animals of farmed Sirohi goat native to the Rajasthan State of India. A multivariable Cox regression was fitted to the data after checking the assumptions of regression. The explanatory variables were sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight, doe weight at kidding and year of birth. Model selection eliminated doe weight from the model, and sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight and year of birth were retained in the model. With model calibration also, these five covariates were retained in the model. The mortality on the first day after birth was 0.3%, constituting 3.5% of all pre-weaning mortality. The mortality until the end of weaning period was 7.8%. Regression analysis revealed that the higher birthweight at kidding was associated with reduced hazard of death among the kids. Male kids had higher hazards of death compared with female kids. The single-born kids had lower risks of death compared with twin-born kids after accounting for heterogeneity. The winter season had a very high adverse effect on the survival of the kids. With each passing year, risks of death decreased. The results of this study indicate that better survival of kids can be achieved by controlling both environmental and animal-related factors.
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the severe neurological complication causing acute non-traumatic encephalopathy in tropical countries. The mechanisms underlying the fatal cerebral complications are still not fully understood. Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of the mammalian brain, plays a key role in the development of neuronal cells, motor function, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory processes under normal physiological conditions. The subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptor are N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) which are involved in cellular mechanisms of learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and also mediate excitotoxic neuronal injury. In the present study, we found that glutamate level in synaptosomes, as well as expression of NMDAR, was elevated during the extreme condition of CM in C57BL6 mice. Arteether at 50 mg kg−1 × 1, 25 mg kg−1 × 2, days decreased the NMDAR expression and increased the overall survival of the experimental CM mice.
Junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in the northern grain region of Australia. Two pot experiments (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2) were conducted in a screen house to evaluate the growth and reproductive behavior of two biotypes (A, collected from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–fallow; B, collected from a fence near a water channel) of E. colona in response to water stress (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% water holding capacity [WHC]). Averaged across both biotypes, the plant height, biomass, and seed production of E. colona were reduced at 25% WHC compared with 100% WHC. However, E. colona still produced a considerable amount of seeds at 25% WHC (at least 365 seeds plant−1). Biotype A produced more seeds in the second experiment, while biotype B produced more seeds in the first experiment. In Experiment 2, at 100% WHC, biotype A produced more seeds (17,618 seeds plant−1) than biotype B (4,378 seeds plant−1), and similar observations were noticed for root biomass. Growth and seed production of E. colona at all moisture levels and environmental conditions ensure survival in an unpredictable environment and contribute to the weedy nature of this species. Results indicate that biotype A is more invasive than biotype B under favorable environmental conditions (100% WHC). This study suggests an enhanced competitive ability of some biotypes of E. colona in response to a range of environmental and soil moisture conditions in Australia. Under favorable environmental conditions, biotype A could be more problematic, as it has higher seed production than biotype B. Therefore, it is important to implement sustainable weed control methods for such biotypes in the early stages of crop growth to prevent loss of stored moisture.
Recognising the significant extent of poor-quality care and human rights issues in mental health, the World Health Organization launched the QualityRights initiative in 2013 as a practical tool for implementing human rights standards including the United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) at the ground level.
To describe the first large-scale implementation and evaluation of QualityRights as a scalable human rights-based approach in public mental health services in Gujarat, India.
This is a pragmatic trial involving implementation of QualityRights at six public mental health services chosen by the Government of Gujarat. For comparison, we identified three other public mental health services in Gujarat that did not receive the QualityRights intervention.
Over a 12-month period, the quality of services provided by those services receiving the QualityRights intervention improved significantly. Staff in these services showed substantially improved attitudes towards service users (effect sizes 0.50–0.17), and service users reported feeling significantly more empowered (effect size 0.07) and satisfied with the services offered (effect size 0.09). Caregivers at the intervention services also reported a moderately reduced burden of care (effect size 0.15).
To date, some countries are hesitant to reforming mental health services in line with the CRPD, which is partially attributable to a lack of knowledge and understanding about how this can be achieved. This evaluation shows that QualityRights can be effectively implemented even in resource-constrained settings and has a significant impact on the quality of mental health services.
The available chemotherapeutics for the cure of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are linked with many detrimental effects. Moreover, VL is associated with the suppression of protective Th1 immune response of the host and induction of disease exaggerating Th2 immune response. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement of therapeutics which can augment the immune status of the host to cure this disease. In the current investigation, the antileishmanial potential of lupeol was monitored in vitro and in vivo in inbred BALB/c mice against Leishmania donovani. Lupeol showed potent antipromastigote activity via arresting parasites at sub G0/G1 phase in vitro. Lupeol significantly decreased the splenic parasite burden by inducing strong delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in contrary to untreated infected animals. The therapeutic efficacy of lupeol was observed to be similar to the reference drug, AmB. Treatment of infected animals with lupeol depicted enhanced levels of T cells and Th1 cytokines in contrast to only infected controls. Further lupeol treatment upregulated the levels of nuclear factor κ B and nitric oxide synthase genes and elevated the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Unlike AmB, lupeol-treated infected animals did not show any toxicity. These findings are promising and indicate that lupeol can serve as a prototype drug for the cure of VL.
Measurements of concentration fluctuations in a passive scalar plume released within a turbulent boundary layer are utilised to ascertain the scaling of concentration spectra. It is observed that the concentration spectra in a narrow meandering plume has a self-similar behaviour in both transverse (
) and vertical (
, i.e. wall-normal) directions. Experimental data reveal self-similarity when the magnitude of concentration spectra is scaled by the local concentration variance whereas frequency is suitably scaled utilising the integral length scale of the streamwise velocity or the boundary layer thickness and the source velocity as length and velocity scales, respectively. Furthermore, our data show that at each frequency, the concentration energy is distributed across the
directions that is proportional to concentration variance at that location. These results are consistent with our non-dimensional analysis. Based on these observations, if the mean plume statistics are known, a model is proposed with which concentration spectrum at any position within the plume can be calculated using the spectrum at any another location as the input. The model is tested extensively for point-source plumes released at various heights and streamwise distances in a turbulent boundary layer, and is found to predict spectra at different
locations in close agreement with measurements.
Glyphosate-resistant junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] crops in Australia. Due to limited herbicide options in mungbean, there is an increased interest in developing integrated management strategies for the sustainable control of E. colona. Pot experiments were conducted in a screenhouse in 2017 and 2018 by growing E. colona plants (glyphosate-resistant [GR] and glyphosate-susceptible [GS] biotypes) alone (1 plant pot−1) and in competition with 4 and 8 mungbean plants pot−1. Both biotypes were developed from a single population using the clone method. The growth and seed production of both GR and GS biotypes were similar in response to mungbean competition. Averaged over biotypes, there was a reduction in the growth and seed production of E. colona as crop plants increased. Compared with the weed plants grown alone, crop interference reduced E. colona height by 17% to 19%, tiller numbers by 69% to 82%, total shoot biomass by 85% to 91%, and inflorescence numbers by 74% to 91%. When E. colona was grown with 8 mungbean plants pot−1, leaf weight ratio increased by 42% compared with plants grown alone. Compared with weed plants grown alone, mungbean interference (4 and 8 plants pot−1) reduced weed seed production by 85% to 95%. These reductions were similar for both biotypes (GR and GS), suggesting that there was no fitness penalty associated with resistance. The results of this study suggest that mungbean interference can reduce E. colona growth and seed production, but it should not be considered as a stand-alone strategy to manage E. colona and similar species in mungbean. These results also highlight the need for integrating crop competition with other management strategies to achieve complete and sustainable management of this weed.
Chloris spp. are warm-season grasses that outcompete crops for scarce resources throughout Australia. In Queensland, mild winters and increased adoption of conservation tillage practices have led to an increase of this warm-season grass family in winter crops. The objective of this study is to understand whether droplet size (nozzle type) effects herbicide efficacy of summer perennial grasses, as previous research found no effect of droplet size (nozzle type) on herbicide efficacy of winter annual grasses. A study to compare droplet-size (nozzle type) effects on control of windmillgrass and its domesticated relative, rhodesgrass, was conducted at the University of Queensland in Gatton, QLD, Australia. Results showed little difference in dry weight reductions for windmillgrass or rhodesgrass across droplet size (nozzle type). Paraquat applications with the TTI nozzle resulted in significantly lower dry weight reductions compared with other droplet-size sprays (nozzle types) for rhodesgrass. Glyphosate, imazamox plus imazapyr, and clodinafop resulted in commercially acceptable control for both species, regardless of the droplet size (nozzle type) selected, indicating droplet size (nozzle type) has relatively little impact on the efficacy of these herbicides. Proper nozzle selection can result in control of Chloris spp., a hard to control weed species, while reducing the occurrence of spray drift to nearby sensitive areas.
Soldier thistle [Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass.] is widely distributed throughout rainfed fields across western Iran, where it decreases crop yields and interferes with harvest operations. This study was conducted to determine the influence of different factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of P. acarna. Freshly harvested seeds were dormant and required an after-ripening period for breaking dormancy. Seed germination was greatly promoted by light. Germination occurred over a wide spectrum of constant and fluctuating temperature regimes, ranging from 5 to 35 C, with highest germination at constant (74%) and fluctuating (94%) temperatures of 20 and 20/10 C. Seed germination of P. acarna was tolerant to osmotic potential, while salt stress significantly inhibited its germination percentage. pH was not an inhibiting factor for germination of P. acarna seeds. Seedling emergence decreased exponentially with an increase in seed burial depth in the soil; at soil burial depths of 4 cm or greater, no seedlings were able to reach the soil surface. The results suggest that significant seed germination of P. acarna in rainfed fields is possible, and the weed has great potential to spread throughout rainfed systems in western Iran. Based on these results, effective control of P. acarna can be achieved by applying interrow cultivation in row crops and deep tillage at seedbed preparation.
Practitioners have few personality inventory options when assessing Spanish-speakers, despite professional guidelines that encourage them to administer measures that are validated with their populations of interest. To build on research in this area, we examined the internal consistency and convergent validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Personality Assessment Inventory European-Spanish (PAIE-S) version among bilingual Latin American Spanish-speakers (final n = 53). For the PAI, 72.72% of scales and 35.48% of subscales had alphas above .70. For the PAIE-S, 50.00% of scales and 25.81% of scales met this alpha. Participants tended to score lowest on the PAI Alcohol Problems scale (T = 47.19) and the PAIE-S Warmth scale (T = 45.49). On average, participants scored highest on the PAI’s Paranoia-Hypervigilance scale (T = 61.15) and the PAIE-S’s Paranoia scale (T = 57.64). We identified 10 scales and subscales on which participants were significantly more likely (p < .00094) to score higher on one measure than the other. Participants more often scored higher on the PAI than the PAIE-S. All parallel scales and subscales converged at p < .00094 with the exception of the Antisocial Features-Egocentricity scale. Taken together, findings suggest taking caution when administering these measures to Latin American bilingual Spanish-speakers.
Sesbania [Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers.] is a problematic emerging weed species in Australian cotton-farming systems. However, globally, no information is available regarding its seed germination biology, and better understanding will help in devising superior management strategies to prevent further infestations. Laboratory and glasshouse studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of various environmental factors such as light, temperature, salt, osmotic and pH stress, and burial depth on germination and emergence of two Australian biotypes of S. cannabina. Freshly harvested seeds of both biotypes possessed physical dormancy. A boiling-water scarification treatment (100±2 C) of 5-min duration was the optimum treatment to overcome this dormancy. Once dormancy was broken, the Dalby biotype exhibited a greater germination (93%) compared with the St George biotype (87%). The nondormant seeds of both biotypes showed a neutral photoblastic response to light and dark conditions, with germination marginally improved (6%) under illumination. Maximum germination of both biotypes occurred under an alternating temperature regime of 30/20 and 35/25 C and under constant temperatures of 32 or 35 C, with no germination at 8 or 11 C. Seed germination of both biotypes decreased linearly from 87% to 14% with an increase in moisture stress from 0.0 to −0.8 MPa, with no germination possible at −1.0 MPa. There was a gradual decline in germination for both biotypes when imbibed in a range of salt solutions of 25 to 250 mM, with a 50% reduction in germination occurring at 150 mM. Both biotypes germinated well under a wide range of pH values (4.0 to 10.0), with maximum germination (94%) at pH 9.0. The greatest emergence rate of the Dalby (87%) and St George (78%) biotypes was recorded at a burial depth of 1.0 cm, with no emergence at 16.0 cm. Deep tillage seems to be the best management strategy to stop S. cannabina’s emergence and further infestation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields. The findings of this study will be helpful to cotton agronomists in devising effective, sustainable, and efficient integrated weed management strategies for the control of S. cannabina in cotton cropping lands.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living nematode that resides in soil and typically feeds on bacteria. We postulate that haematophagic C. elegans could provide a model to evaluate vaccine responses to intestinal proteins from hematophagous nematode parasites, such as Necator americanus. Human erythrocytes, fluorescently labelled with tetramethylrhodamine succinimidyl ester, demonstrated a stable bright emission and facilitated visualization of feeding events with fluorescent microscopy. C. elegans were observed feeding on erythrocytes and were shown to rupture red blood cells upon capture to release and ingest their contents. In addition, C. elegans survived equally on a diet of erythrocytes. There was no statistically significant difference in survival when compared with a diet of Escherichia coli OP50. The enzymes responsible for the digestion and detoxification of haem and haemoglobin, which are key components of the hookworm vaccine, were found in the C. elegans intestine. These findings support our postulate that free-living nematodes could provide a model for the assessment of neutralizing antibodies to current and future hematophagous parasite vaccine candidates.