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We construct, over any CM field, compatible systems of
-adic Galois representations that appear in the cohomology of algebraic varieties and have (for all
) algebraic monodromy groups equal to the exceptional group of type
Background: To determine whether exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in CSF of patients with FTD can serve as diagnostic biomarkers, we assessed miRNA expression in the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) cohort and in sporadic FTD. Methods: GENFI participants were either carriers of a pathogenic mutation or at risk of carrying a mutation because a first-degree relative was a symptomatic mutation carrier. Exosomes were isolated from CSF of 23 -pre-symptomatic and 15 symptomatic mutation carriers, and 11 healthy non-mutation carriers. Expression of miRNAs was measured using qPCR arrays. MiRNAs differentially expressed in symptomatic compared to pre-symptomatic mutation carriers were evaluated in 17 patients with sporadic FTD, 13 patients with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and 10 healthy controls (HCs). Results: In the GENFI cohort, miR-204-5p and miR-632 were significantly decreased in symptomatic compared to pre-symptomatic mutation carriers. Decrease of miR-204-5p and miR-632 revealed receiver operator characteristics with an area of 0.89 [90% CI: 0.79-0.98] and 0.81 [90% CI: 0.68-0.93], and when combined an area of 0.93 [90% CI: 0.87-0.99]. In sporadic FTD, only miR-632 was significantly decreased compared to sporadic AD and HCs. Decrease of miR-632 revealed an area of 0.89 [90% CI: 0.80-0.98]. Conclusions: Exosomal miR-204-5p and miR-632 have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for genetic FTD and miR-632 also for sporadic FTD.
We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic–political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic–political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic–political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.
Executive functioning is widely targeted when human cognition is assessed, but there is little consensus on how it should be operationalized and measured. Recognizing the difficulties associated with establishing standard operational definitions of executive functioning, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke entered into a contract with the University of California-San Francisco to develop psychometrically robust executive measurement tools that would be accepted by the neurology clinical trials and clinical research communities. This effort, entitled Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER), resulted in a series of tasks targeting working memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, insight, planning, social cognition and behavior. We describe battery conceptualization and development, data collection, scale construction based on item response theory, and lay the foundation for studying the battery's utility and validity for specific assessment and research goals. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–9)
Gut function is often impacted by surgical interventions, and postoperative gastrointestinal complications are common. Fortunately, most are minor and self-limited, but a number may be severe, and rarely, life threatening. Many of the complications can either be prevented or treated with proper prophylaxis and early recognition. Given the escalating use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of obese patients, this population is faced with unique postoperative issues.
Postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding
Postoperatively, gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommon but potentially serious complication. Clinically significant bleeding occurs in 0.5–1% of patients in the acute postoperative setting [1,2]. The major causes of acute postoperative bleeding include stress ulceration, bleeding from an intestinal anastamosis, ischemic colitis, and bleeding from preexisting lesions such as gastroduodenal ulcers and diverticular disease. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage temporally remote from surgery occurs less commonly, but may be due to aortoenteric fistulae and recurrent or marginal ulcer disease.
Stress-related mucosal disease
Stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD), or stress-ulceration is
the most common cause of postoperative GI bleeding,
although its incidence has decreased with increased use of
prophylaxis since 1999 [3,4]. Stress ulcers are primarily
believed to be due to disturbances in the mucosal microcirculation,
with relative local hypoperfusion causing a loss of
mucosal integrity, an imbalance between aggressive and protective
factors and subsequently development of multiple gastric
erosions and ulcerations [5–7]. Suppressing gastric acid
secretion is currently the best way to protect against these
mucosal events; antisecretory agents have been employed successfully
for prophylaxis of SRMD in high-risk patients .
There is increasing recognition that set-shifting, a form of cognitive control, is mediated by different neural structures. However, these regions have not yet been carefully identified as many studies do not account for the influence of component processes (e.g., motor speed). We investigated gray matter correlates of set-shifting while controlling for component processes. Using the Design Fluency (DF), Trail Making Test (TMT), and Color Word Interference (CWI) subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), we investigated the correlation between set-shifting performance and gray matter volume in 160 subjects with neurodegenerative disease, mild cognitive impairment, and healthy older adults using voxel-based morphometry. All three set-shifting tasks correlated with multiple, widespread gray matter regions. After controlling for the component processes, set-shifting performance correlated with focal regions in prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. We also identified bilateral prefrontal cortex and the right posterior parietal lobe as common sites for set-shifting across the three tasks. There was a high degree of multicollinearity between the set-shifting conditions and the component processes of TMT and CWI, suggesting DF may better isolate set-shifting regions. Overall, these findings highlight the neuroanatomical correlates of set-shifting and the importance of controlling for component processes when investigating complex cognitive tasks. (JINS, 2010, 16, 640–650.)
There is reason for optimism about future treatment of the most common causes of dementia. Advances in understanding the molecular pathologies that underlie the most common causes of neurodegenerative dementia are rapidly being translated into new treatments. At the same time, basic investigations into the neurophysiology of synaptic transmission, neuronal growth, development and survival have identified new receptors, genes and intracellular second messenger cascades that may serve as targets for new treatments for dementia. Whereas most currently approved medications that are used to treat dementia are effective only in ameliorating the symptoms of disease, in the near future, medications that modify the course of the disease by protecting the brain from dementia-related pathology may be available. New diagnostic tests will also help to identify accurately who is likely to benefit from such treatment and monitor their treatment response. This chapter will review the currently available treatments for the most common forms of dementia, focusing on clinical syndromes that are readily identifiable by practicing clinicians, as well as new treatments that are currently under investigation or new avenues for treatment suggested by recent advances in understanding the molecular pathologies of these disorders.
Low-frequency fluctuations are observed in a plasma confined by a strong dipole magnet and containing an energetic high-pressure population of trapped electrons. The quasi-coherent fluctuations have frequencies characteristic of drift frequencies of the lower temperature background plasma and have large toroidal and radial extent. They are excited throughout a wide range of plasma conditions determined by the level of neutral gas pressure. However, for a sufficiently high rate of neutral gas fueling, the plasma density profile flattens and the fluctuations disappear.
To describe four different methods of identifying indicator foods that are high, medium or low in fat with reference to dietary patterns and to use these indicator foods to test three sets of definitions of ‘high’, ‘medium’ and ‘low’ in fat from ‘banding schemes’ developed by the Coronary Prevention Group (CPG), the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and Sainsbury’s.
Indicator foods were developed using food intake data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey and two parameters: (i) probability of the food being consumed by an individual with a high-fat diet (Method 1); and (ii) the contribution of the food to the fat intake of the average diet of consumers (Methods 3 and 4). Method 2 used both parameters. The three banding schemes were tested by assessing their levels of agreement with methods in categorising indicators.
Sensitivity in identifying high, medium and low fat indicators was highest with the CPG banding scheme (high and medium fat indicators) and Sainsbury’s scheme (low fat indicators) (Methods 2, 3 and 4). The levels of agreement (kappa coefficient) were 0·68 for the CPG scheme; 0·51 for the Sainsbury’s scheme; and 0·41 for the FSA scheme (Method 3).
It is possible to use indicator foods related to dietary patterns of a specific population to generate more rational definitions of ‘high’, ‘medium’ and ‘low’ in fat. This could be the starting point for the development of indicator foods for testing more complex nutrient profile models (i.e. those that consider more than one nutrient).
To examine the nature of the link between food advertising in UK magazines aimed at children and young people and Internet food marketing, to establish whether consideration should be given to tightening existing controls.
A review and descriptive analysis of food advertising found in a sample of the top five magazine titles aimed at a range of ages of children and young people between November 2004 and August 2005 and of the Internet food marketing sites to which readers were directed.
Food advertising appeared as ‘cover-mount’ free gifts and as part of the main bound issue. Children aged 6–10 years were the most frequent recipients of food-based free gifts, all of which were confectionery. No food advertising was found in magazines aimed at pre-school children and it formed a small percentage of total advertising in the magazines aimed at children of school age and above. Most food advertisements were for ‘less healthy’ foods, although advertisements for ‘healthier’ food products did appear infrequently. Almost half of food advertisements directed readers towards Internet food marketing sites. We found evidence that these sites are using at least some of the ‘marketing tricks’ which have been identified as a cause for concern.
Proposed restrictions on broadcast media may lead to more food advertising via other non-broadcast means. We suggest monitoring the effect of such changes in print and online advertising and that consideration be given to restricting marketing techniques used on websites aimed at children and young people.
To compare nutrient profile models with a standard ranking of 120 foods.
Over 700 nutrition professionals were asked to categorise 120 foods into one of six positions on the basis of their healthiness. These categorisations were used to produce a standard ranking of the 120 foods. The standard ranking was compared with the results of applying eight different nutrient profile models to the 120 foods: Models SSCg3d and WXYfm developed for the UK Food Standards Agency, the Nutritious Food Index, the Ratio of Recommended to Restricted nutrients, the Naturally Nutrient Rich score, the Australian Heart Foundation's Tick scheme, the American Heart Association's heart-check mark and the Netherlands tripartite classification model for foods. Rank correlation was assessed for continuous models, and dependence was assessed for categorical models.
The continuous models each showed good correlation with the standard ranking (Spearman's ρ = 0.6–0.8). The categorical models achieved high χ2 results, indicating a high level of dependence between the nutrition professionals' and the models' categorisations (P < 0.001). Models SSCg3d and WXYfm achieved higher scores than the other models, implying a greater agreement with the standard ranking of foods.
The results suggest that Models SSCg3d and WXYfm rank and categorise foods in accordance with the views of nutrition professionals.
L. Rowell Huesmann, Professor of Communication Studies and Psychology and Senior Research Professor, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan,
Eric F. Dubow, Adjunct Faculty Associate in the Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University,
Leonard D. Eron, Adjunct Professor of Psychology, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan,
Paul Boxer, Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of New Orleans
Early models of behavior development tended to de-emphasize the importance of the middle childhood years, labeling this time period a “latency” phase between the theoretically more active periods of early childhood and adolescence (Freud, 1923/1961). As more recent models attest, middle childhood actually is a period critical for the development of important psychosocial functions such as cognitive skill acquisition (e.g., Piaget, 1965), social relationship formation (e.g., McHale, Dariotis, & Kauh, 2003), and self-concept consolidation (e.g., Jacobs, Bleeker, & Constantino, 2003). Contemporary social cognitive theories consider middle childhood a critical time for the development of social scripts, normative beliefs, and world schemas that influence behavior throughout life (Huesmann, 1998; Huesmann & Guerra, 1997). Behaviors established in middle childhood have been shown to display substantial continuity into adulthood (e.g., aggression: Huesmann, Eron, Lefkowtiz, & Walder, 1984; academic achievement: Jimerson, Egeland, Sroufe, & Carlson, 2000). A key concern therefore is identifying which factors exert important influences on children during middle childhood and what adult outcomes are affected by those factors.
In this chapter, we present findings from the Columbia County Longitudinal Study (CCLS), a long-term prospective study that began in 1960 with the entire third grade population of Columbia County, New York. In the most recent wave of data collection, we resampled those individuals at approximately 48 years of age. Our primary concern in this chapter is the degree to which family-contextual and child-personal factors during middle childhood predict three important domains of adult behavioral outcomes: aggressive behavior, intellectual/educational achievement, and occupational success. We also examine the moderating effects of gender on the prediction of adult outcomes.
Adam L. Boxer, Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA,
John Q. Trojanowski, Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA,
Virginia M.-Y. Lee, Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA,
Bruce L. Miller, Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, formerly called Pick's disease, is a progressive dementia that is associated with focal atrophy of the frontal and/or temporal lobes. For over 100 years, the key clinical and pathological feature of this disease has been recognized to be focal, often asymmetric cortical involvement. Histopathologically, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is distinct from Alzheimer's disease but heterogeneous, even among similar clinical syndromes. Recently, with the advent of specialized immunohistochemical stains and insights gained from molecular genetics, it has been recognized that FTLD is closely related to, and sometimes overlaps with three other neurodegenerative diseases: corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and motor neuron disease (MND). The central role of the microtubule-associated protein, tau, in the pathogenesis of FTLD, has led to classification as a “tauopathy.”
First description and history of FTLD
The first case of what is now called frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) was described by Arnold Pick in 1892 (Pick, 1892). His subsequent description of six similar patients emphasized a language impairment, which he termed “amnestic aphasia,” and a focal pattern of brain atrophy involving the temporal and/or frontal lobes. A lack of senile plaques and tangles in the brains of similar patients was noted by Alzheimer in 1911. He and Altman provided the first histopathological description of argyrophilic inclusions (later termed Pick bodies) and swollen achromatic cells (later termed Pick cells) (Altman, 1923).
This chapter focuses on recent research in cross-cultural pragmatics (CCP) as distinct from interlanguage pragmatics (IP). The essential difference between the two lies in the perspective from which each views cross-cultural communication. CCP takes the point of view that individuals from different societies or communities interact according to their own pragmatic norms, often resulting in a clash of expectations and, ultimately, misperceptions about the other group. The misperceptions are typically two-way; that is, each group misperceives the other. In an age in which cross-cultural interaction is the norm not only across societies but also within them, different rules of speaking have the potential to cause stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination against entire groups of people. Research in the area of CCP can greatly aid in ameliorating these consequences. Recent studies that view CCP from this two-way perspective are the focus of this chapter. The overview of this body of research demonstrates the potential contribution of the field of applied linguistics to mutual understanding through the study of discourse issues in cross-cultural pragmatics.
Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare inflammatory fibrosing condition of unknown aetiology that involves the nose or larynx producing mucosal thickening and severe obstructive symptoms. We report the first case affecting a male. He presented with nasal obstruction requiring septoplasty. The clinical and histopathological features of the condition are discussed and a comparison is made with the seven previous reported cases.