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For the problem of horizontal convection the Nusselt number based on entropy production is bounded from above by
as the horizontal convective Rayleigh number
for some constant
(Siggers et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 517, 2004, pp. 55–70). We re-examine the variational arguments leading to this ‘ultimate regime’ by using the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin method to solve the variational problem in the
limit and exhibiting solutions that achieve the ultimate
scaling. As expected, the optimizing flows have a boundary layer of thickness
pressed against the non-uniformly heated surface; but the variational solutions also have rapid oscillatory variation with wavelength
along the wall. As a result of the exact solution of the variational problem, the constant
is smaller than the previous estimate by a factor of
for no-slip and
for no-stress boundary conditions. This modest reduction in
indicates that the inequalities used by Siggers et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 517, 2004, pp. 55–70) are surprisingly accurate.
Concurrent chemotherapy with radiotherapy is the standard treatment for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. Cetuximab can be used in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, the randomised studies that led to approval for its use in this setting excluded nasopharyngeal cancer. In the context of limited data for the use of cetuximab in nasopharyngeal cancer in the medical literature, this review aimed to summarise the current evidence for its use in both primary and recurrent or metastatic disease.
A literature search was performed using the keywords ‘nasopharyngeal neoplasm’, ‘cetuximab’ and ‘Erbitux’.
Twenty studies were included. There were no randomised phase III trials, but there were nine phase II trials. The use of cetuximab in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been tested in various settings, including in combination with induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and in the palliative setting.
There is no evidence of benefit from the addition of cetuximab to standard management protocols, and there is some evidence of increased toxicity. There is more promise for its use in metastatic or locally recurrent settings. This review draws together the existing evidence and could provide a focus for future studies.
Relapsed/metastatic head and neck squamous cell cancer patients are offered a combination of platinum-based chemotherapy (PF, cisplatin-fluorouracil) plus cetuximab regimen (PF+C) according to results of the EXTREME trial (1). However, two economic evaluations showed that addition of cetuximab was not cost-effective.
This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a putative predictive molecular test (MT) to identify and treat only patients potentially responsive to cetuximab when added to PF.
A Markov model was developed to compare both health and economic outcomes of PF+C regimen administered to all patients (PF+C ALL) versus the regimen administered only to MT-positive patients (PF+C POS).
The model considered the following health states: partial/complete response with/out mild/severe adverse events (AEs), progression and death. Rates of progression and survival, response rates to systemic treatment and adverse events were retrieved from the EXTREME trial (1). According to Mesía et al. (2), we assumed that addition of cetuximab to PF would not negatively affect life quality compared to PF alone, and the baseline utility coefficients for disease control and progression were assumed as .67 and .52, respectively.
Only direct costs estimated from the Italian Health Service perspective were included (tariffs and Diagnosis Related Group - DRG - reimbursements).
The model was evaluated according to a cut-off of sensitivity at 85 percent and specificity at 70 percent. A 3 years horizon was chosen. Life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs were discounted at 3.5 percent annually.
Applying the World Health Organization (WHO) cost-effectiveness threshold of 3 times the gross domestic product for Italy (EUR66,402), PF+C POS resulted a cost-effective choice in comparison to PF+C ALL for a MT cost lower than EUR5,750.
Adding cetuximab to PF only to patients positive to a predictive test may be cost-effective. Efforts should be spent to build such a test upon existing evidences in order to save resources for the health systems and spare unnecessary toxicities to patients.
The annual incidence of listeriosis in Italy is lower (0·19–0·27 per 100 000 inhabitants per year) than in Europe (0·34–0·52 per 100 000 inhabitants per year). Since the observed incidence of listeriosis may be biased downward for underdiagnosis or under-reporting, this work aims to estimate the real incidence of listeriosis during a 9-year period in the Lombardy region, Italy. Data on listeriosis cases were collected from national mandatory notification system (MAINF) and Laboratory-based Surveillance System (LabSS). The two sources were cross-matched and capture–recapture method was applied to estimate the number of undetected cases and the real incidence of invasive listeriosis. Five hundred and eighty invasive listeriosis cases were detected by the two sources between 2006 and 2014: 50·2% were identified only via MAINF, 16·7% were recorded only via LabSS, overlaps occurred in 192 cases (33·1%). The mean annual incidence detected only by MAINF was 0·56 per 100 000 inhabitants, which rose to 0·67 per 100 000 considering also the cases detected by LabSS. The capture–recapture method allowed to estimate an incidence of 0·84 per 100 000. The high incidence of listeriosis may be due to improved sensitivity of the surveillance system, but also reflect a real increase, associated with an increased population at risk.
Omicron Andromedae is a multiple system of at least four stars: a B ↔Be star (component A), a spectroscopic binary (components B1–B2) and a close companion (component a). According to several studies (see Hill et al. 1988, 1989):
-the distance between A and the B1–B2 system decreased from 0.39″ in 1975 to 0.25″ in 1987 (McAlister and Hartkopf 1988)
-the few previous speckle measurements of component a have shown the possibility of a 3.7 years orbit around A, according to the 1975 to 1984 observations (mean distance 0.05″). The calculations with this 3.7 yr orbit lead to the prediction of a maximum distance of 0.77″ at 1992.738, i.e. at the end of september 1992, with a North-South orientation.
The stars HD 224638 and HD 224945 belong to the new class of F0 V spectral type stars which show an unusual kind of variability for that region of the HR diagram (Mantegazza et al. 1993).
The variability of these two stars has been discovered and studied by Mantegazza, Poretti & Zerbi (1994). They show small amplitude light variations with characteristic time scales of the order of one day. The light curves are not periodic and it is difficult to satisfactorily fit them even with several periodic terms.
In order to explain our 1991 B colour observations we tentatively suggested that in both stars two close periodic terms were present with a characteristic frequency of about 0.8 c/d, and that these terms had a double wave shape for HD 224638 and a triple wave one for HD 224945.
A summary of the first results of a search for Cepheids in IC 1613 is reported along with a short discussion of the adopted technique, a comparison of the characteristics of Cepheid light curves in the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds and IC 1613, and a possible application for a P–L relation derivation. First overtone Cepheids have been identified for the first time in a galaxy farther than the Magellanic Clouds.
δ Sct stars are among the most promising targets to perform ground-based asteroseismology. High resolution spectroscopy offers us a powerful technique to identify radial and nonradial pulsation modes, since we can easily detect oscillations and travelling features in the line profiles.
Historians of west-European Christianity in its late medieval and early modern phases have recently been much concerned with the relations of the church and the devil. Our subject here, the church and the world, may seem by comparison, and notably for the period immediately preceding the reformation, a well-worn topic; inspired by the achievements of historical demography, we may be tempted to abandon it for more promising researches into the relations of the church and the flesh. This is indeed what I shall be doing here, at least to the degree that ‘flesh and blood’ can be considered as falling under the last heading. Yet, since it may be argued that ‘flesh and blood’ formed, for the average western Christian of this time, a major constituent of his ‘world’ or social environment, I do not feel that I am stretching a point in offering, within the present context, some comments on the subject indicated in my title. I am concerned with the connections of the Church and the ‘world’, meaning by that the complex of human relations it lives in. I am particularly concerned with the structure of one such society, that of western Europe in the immediately pre- and post-reformation age. And I am finally interested in pursuing or criticising some socio-historical arguments about what happened to European Christianity in and after the sixteenth century.
The title, and subject, of this piece is ‘satisfaction’, though its main locus in time is the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. I chose the subject because it fitted in with our president’s preoccupations, and because it interested me; it turns out, to my surprise, to jog our elbow about some contemporary matters, as I guess he wished.
We had better start with the word, where there are two distinctions to be considered. The obvious one is between making up for, paying for, making amends, making reparation; and contentment, gratified desire, giving satisfaction, what you can’t get none of. I shall say that the first is the strong meaning, the second the weak one. The first is always other-directed, and entails an offence previously committed; the second is principally self-directed. ‘To content’ is a classical meaning of satisfacere, but it means to content someone else: to do something (facere), as against receiving something. A short history of the word in Latin and English records that the strong meaning emerged into late Latin as a description of church penance, and so passed into English in the fourteenth century. Its heyday was from then until the eighteenth. It referred to ecclesiastical penance (interrupted by the Reformation), the theology of the Redemption (encouraged by the Reformation), and in general public usage to the meeting of any kind of obligation, payment, atonement or compensation. From the eighteenth century it passed from public use, superseded by the weak meaning except in technical or professional fields. One professional usage, to which The Oxford English Dictionary gives a good deal of attention, is ‘to satisfy the examiners’: they think it is a case of ‘content’; may it be a case of ‘avert wrath’?
Why choose this subject? First, because I think there is a general historiographical problem about nationality in early-modern Europe, which has been rather abandoned and is perhaps worth another look. Second because, on the Catholic side of the subject, there is a problem of actuality concerning Ireland and a rather different one concerning Holland. Third, because there is a specific and limited issue in the history of English Catholicism. I shall really be concerned with a simple problem raised by Arnold Oskar Meyer in his England and the Catholic Church under Queen Elizabeth: how far the internal conflicts among English Catholics, generally known as the Archpriest controversy, are to be explained as an outbreak or resurgence of ‘nationalism’, a conflict of ‘national’ and ‘Catholic’ tendencies. There have been good reasons for objecting to Meyer’s view that this was the case: his conceptions of national character, of ’puritanism’, were by present standards shaky, and he weakened his personal position by becoming more closely involved with the Third Reich than he perhaps need have been. The recent historiography of the subject has been largely a history of attempts to find an alternative: in the international competition of France and Spain; in the constitutional hostility of gentry and clergy; in the geographical determinism of Braudelian routes; in the ecclesiastical choice between a traditional and a missionary church. Many of them have been made by myself; most recently Christopher Haigh has added another, connected with the continuity or discontinuity of Elizabethan Catholicism with its pre-Reformation predecessor.
My motives in choosing this subject are: to respond to the invitation of our chairman; to expound the conviction that the persistence of French Catholicism through the crises of the Reformation was largely the result of the voluntary association of French Catholics; and to try to discover whether there was anything in Catholic theological or pastoral teaching of the period which might have given these associations a theoretical perspective, or grounded them in some kind of associative conception of the Church. I add that, despite the very considerable importance of the subject, one might even claim its decisive importance for the outcome of the wars of religion in Europe as a whole, it has (with some shining exceptions) not received very much attention from historians, and that in England essential texts and studies are hard to come by.
Somewhere about 1970 Gordon Leff changed his mind about William of Ockham. Earlier, in the article The fourteenth century and the decline of scholasticism’ and the survey Medieval Thought, Ockham had appeared in the conventional role of demolisher of the scholastic synthesis of reason and revelation; apologist of pure will in God and man; lock-picker of the Pandora’s box of moral and theological bugs in which the teaching of his successors consisted. Sceptic and/or fideist, he might be credited with clearing the way for natural science, and indeed for Renaissance and Reformation; but in himself he was an apostle of negation, carrying a whiff of the diabolic. Leff made public his change of heart in the massive exposition of Ockham of 1975 and the essay, The Dissolution of the Medieval Outlook, which came out the following year. Ockham was still the author of a ‘metamorphosis of scholastic discourse’ because he had excluded all but empirical knowledge of individual things and had refused to accept that rational proof could be found for more than marginal items of revealed truth. But he had, it seems, believed that ‘nature’ and ‘right reason’ were terms which might be properly used of the physical and moral worlds; random incursions of God’s potentia absoluta (what God might do) into the system of salvation constructed by his potentia ordinata (what God had actually done) were no longer to be anticipated; and Ockham was not responsible for the aberrations of some followers.
69 Ori (B5 V) was discovered as a Be star in 1976 (Doazan et al., 1977). We observed this object at the Merate Observatory during the periods Nov. 77. - Jan. 78 - Jan. 78 and Oct. 78 - Feb. 79 obtaining 20 red spectrograms and 25 blue ones with a dispersion of 35 Å/mm. We performed also B and V photo-electric observations during 12 nights altogether. The results from the red spectra and the photometric measurements have been discussed by Bossi et al. (1981).
The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of diets with descending fish meal (FM) inclusion levels and the addition of salt to the diet containing the lowest FM level on growth performances, feed conversion ratio, and intestinal solute carrier family 6 member 19 (SLC6A19) and oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) transcript levels, in freshwater-adapted European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). We first isolated by molecular cloning and sequenced a full-length cDNA representing the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 in sea bass. The cDNA sequence was deposited in GenBank database (accession no. KC812315). The twelve transmembrane domains and the ‘de novo’ prediction of the three-dimensional structure of SLC6A19 protein (634 amino acids) are presented. We then analysed diet-induced changes in the mRNA copies of SLC6A19 and PEPT1 genes in different portions of sea bass intestine using real-time RT-PCR. Sea bass were fed for 6 weeks on different diets, with ascending levels of fat or descending levels of FM, which was replaced with vegetable meal. The salt-enriched diet was prepared by adding 3 % NaCl to the diet containing 10 % FM. SLC6A19 mRNA in the anterior and posterior intestine of sea bass were not modulated by dietary protein sources and salt supplementation. Conversely, including salt in a diet containing a low FM percentage up-regulated the mRNA copies of PEPT1 in the hindgut. Fish growth correlated positively with the content of FM in the diets. Interestingly, the addition of salt to the diet containing 10 % FM improved feed intake, as well as specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio.
It is now fifty-six years since I wrote my first piece for Recusant History, and I am happy to have survived to welcome its reincarnation. Since its foundation in 1951 as an addendum to Gillow’s Biographical Dictionary of English Catholics it has had an honourable career, getting into print a number of essential contributions to the history of Catholics in England, mainly between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. It has been a companion to the distinguished bibliographical work of Anthony Allison, David Rogers and Tom Birrell. It was a creation of laymen, which is to say that it was an attempt to transcend the efforts of a period when this history had been largely a monopoly of the clergy, and ran the risk of degenerating into feuds between rival sections of that body. This lay input was much strengthened by the effect of the 1944 Education Act, which produced numbers of students keen to make a mark in the field. In view of their education, they did not necessarily alter the terms in which questions were put, and when the modest journal was launched a degree of hegemony in the Catholic Record Society was being exercised by the Jesuit side, which ought to have but failed to put out the letters and papers of Robert Persons. It had an invitation to wider thoughts in the philo-Jesuit lectures on the Counter-Reformation of the Cambridge academic Outram Evennett, delivered also in 1951.1 As these were not published until 1968 the invitation was muffled, but something of it was in the atmosphere.